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A DICTIONARY OF 



INCLUDING THE FALLEN ANGELS 


By Gustav Davidson 



THE FREE PRESS 







Copyright © 1967 by Gustav Davidson 

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or transmitted in 
any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, 
recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without permission 
in writing from the Publisher. 

The Free Press 

A Division of Simon 8c Schuster Inc. 

1230 Avenue of the Americas 
New York, N.Y. 10020 

First Free Press Paperback Edition 1971 

Library of Congress Catalog Card Number: 66-19757 

Printed in the United States of America 

printing number 

15 17 19 20 18 16 



Contents 

Introduction ix 

Acknowledgments xxvii 

A Dictionary of Angels 1 

Appendix 

THE ANGELIC SCRIPT 335 

THE ORDERS OF THE CELESTIAL HIERARCHY 336 

THE SEVEN ARCHANGELS 338 

THE RULING PRINCES OF THE NINE CELESTIAL ORDERS 339 

THE ANGEL RULERS OF THE SEVEN HEAVENS 340 

THE THRONE ANGELS 340 

THE SIXTY-FOUR ANGEL-WARDENS OF THE SEVEN CELESTIAL HALLS 

OR HEAVENS (HECHALOTH) 340 

THE GOVERNING ANGELS OF THE TWELVE MONTHS OF THE YEAR 341 

SPIRITS, MESSENGERS, INTELLIGENCES OF THE SEVEN PLANETS 342 

THE ANGELIC GOVERNORS OF THE TWELVE SIGNS OF THE ZODIAC 342 

THE ARCHANGELS AND ANGELS OF THE SEVEN DAYS OF THE WEEK 343 

THE ANGELIC GOVERNORS OF THE SEVEN PLANETS 343 

THE GOVERNING ANGELS OF THE FOUR SEASONS 344 

THE ANGELS OF THE HOURS OF THE DAY AND NIGHT 344 

iii 




[iv] CONTENTS 

THE SEVENTY-TWO ANGELS BEARING THE MYSTICAL NAME OF GOD 

SHEMHAMPHORAE 345 

THE SEVENTY AMULET ANGELS INVOKED AT THE TIME OF CHILD¬ 
BIRTH 346 

THE NAMES OF METATRON 347 

THE GREAT ARCHONS 347 

THE CHIEF ANGEL PRINCES OF THE ALTITUDES 348 

THE TWENTY-EIGHT ANGELS RULING IN THE TWENTY-EIGHT 

MANSIONS OF THE MOON 348 

THE ARCHANGELS OF THE HOLY SEFIROTH 348 

THE UNHOLY SEFIROTH 349 

THE WATCHERS 349 

THE SARIM 350 

THE ANGELS OF PUNISHMENT (MALAKE HABBALAH) 351 

THE ARCHANGELS OF PUNISHMENT 351 

THE NAMES OF LILITH 351 

THE FALLEN ANGELS 352 

THE YEZIDIC ARCHANGELS 354 

THE SEALS OF THE SEVEN ANGELS 354 

THE MAGIC CIRCLE 355 

THE TEN RULING ANGELS AND THEIR ORDERS 356 

SIGILS, CHARTS, PACTS 357 

Conjuration of the Sixth Mystery with the Seal of the Power-Angels 357 

Conjuration of the Good Spirits 357 

A Death Incantation 358 

Conjuration of the Sword 358 

Invocation of the Mystery of the Third Seal 358 

Invocation for Exciting Love in the Heart of the Person Who is the Object of Our Desire 359 
Spell for the Manufacture and Use of a Magic Carpet 359 

A Spell to Guarantee Possession of the Loved One 360 

Conjuration for the Evocation of a Spirit Armed with Power from the Supreme Majesty 360 

The Serpent Conjuration 361 

Prayer 361 

Exorcism 361 


Bibliography 


362 




Illustrations 


Angel with the Key of the Abyss by Albrecht Diirer. Gravure on wood, in the Bibliothfeque Nationale. The 
Angel is Abaddon/Apollyon. 3 

Infant angel by Titian. 9 

Angels by Diirer, detail from Mass of St. Gregory. 9 

Expulsion of Lucifer from heaven. A Caedmon paraphrase. 11 

Repose in Egypt with Dancing Angels by Vandyck. 14 

The angels ascending and descending Jacob’s Ladder. A dream-incident related in Genesis 28. 19 

Annunciation by Tintoretto in Scuola San Rocco, Venice. 22 

Angels of the Ascension. A Miniature from The Bible of St. Paul. 25 

Angels of the Trinity, an icon made c. 1410-1420 by Andr6 Rublev. Here all 3 figures (Jesus, God, and the 
Holy Ghost) are winged and haloed. 35 

Angels chanting the “Gloria” by Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-1498). 38 

Baroque angels, the work of Franz Schwanthaler (c. 1720). Made for the Heilige Maria Kirche, Dresden. 40 
Angels at the Tomb of Christ by Edouard Manet. 53 

The Angel of the Lord, Balaam’s Ass, and Balaam (Numbers 22), by Rembrandt. 66 

The Black Angel. In Mohammedan lore he is either Nakir or Monker. Here he is shown with features of a 
rackhasa (a Hindu evil spirit). Left, two lesser evil spirits. 68 

William Blake’s “Behemoth,” an illustration for his Book of Job. 73 

Belial dancing before King Solomon, from Das Buck Belial by Jacobus de Teramo. 73 

A seraph by Cavallini. Detail from the Last Judgment (Rome, 1280). 78 

Angel head, 15th century. From the great rose window in north transept of St. Ouens, Rouen. 81 

The angel Cassiel, ruler of Saturday, astride a dragon. 82 

Cherubs. Italian (Neapolitan, late 18th century). 86 


v 



[vi] ILLUSTRATIONS 

French baroque musical cherubim. Altarpiece at Champagny in Savoy. 87 

Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Delacroix. The angel has been variously identified as Metatron, Peniel, 
Sammael. 92 

Dagon, the national god of the Philistines, commonly represented with the body of a fish. 94 

Vision of the ram and the he-goat ( Rf. Daniel 8) with Daniel kneeling before the angel Gabriel. [Note—The 
ram represents the kings of Media and Persia, while the he-goat represents the king of Greece.] 98 

Woodcut from the Cologne Bible. Left, Michael spearing the dragon (also known as the devil and Satan). 

Center, the beast with the 7 crowned heads. Right, a beast with horns like a lamb, and fire dropping 
from heaven. Illustration for Revelation 12, 7—10 and 13,1. 99 

The Elders in the Mystic Procession by Dor6. Illustration to Canto 29 of Dante's Purgatorio. 100 

St. John and the Twenty-four Elders in Heaven by Diirer. 103 

Fallen Angels. A 12th-century French-Spanish" conception, in the Bibliothique Nationale. 110 

The Angel Fortitude. Enameled terracotta roundel by Luca della Robbia in the church of San Miniato al 
Monte, Florence, 1461-1466. 114 

Gabriel pictured in the “Annunciation” by Melozzo Da Forli (1438-1494). 116 

Leonardo da Vinci’s conception of Gabriel, a detail from the Annunciation, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 118 
A Syriac amulet. Gabriel on a white horse spearing the body of the devil-woman (evil eye). British Museum 
Ms. Orient, No. 6673. 121 

Musical angels by Hans Mending (c. 1490). 123 

“Guardian Angels” by Georges Rouault. 126 

“The Angel Gabriel Appearing to Mohammed.” From the Ms. of Jami’al-Tawarikh, at the University of 
Edinburgh. 127 

Hand of an angel by Botticelli. Detail from the Magnificat, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 130 

The sparkling circle of the heavenly host by Dor<, Illustration to Canto 27 of Dante’s Paradiso. 139 

Israfel, the Arabic angel of resurrection and song, by Hugo Steiner-Prag. 146 

Infant angels by Raphael. 150 

Michelangelo’s "Kneeling Angel with Candlestick.” 153 

The Last Judgment. From a Persian miniature of the 8th century. 156 

“When the morning stars sang together,” by William Blake, illustrating Job 38:7. 158 

Angels bewailing the death of Jesus, a detail from a fresco by Giotto in the Arena Chapel, Padua. 160 

Uriel descending from heaven on a sunbeam to join Gabriel, Ithuriel, and Zephon in the Garden of Eden, 
where they come upon Adam and Eve in embrace (lower right) and Satan in the form of a toad “squat at 
the ear of Eve.” 162 

Amulet from The Book of the Angel Raziel. Outside the concentric circles are the names of the four rivers of 
paradise; within is the hexagram (shield of Solomon) with groups of three letters. Between the circles are 
the names of Adam, Eve, Lilith, Khasdicl, Senoi, Sansenoi, Samangeloph, and the words “He hath given 
his angels charge concerning thee, that they may keep thee in all thy ways.” 164 

“Angels Transporting St. Paul to Heaven” by Poussin. 167 

“Lucifer” by William Blake. 170 

Lamenting angel, from an ancient Greek pieti. 172 





ILLUSTRATIONS [vii] 

Signature of the demon Asmodee (Asmodeus) to a deed dated May 29,1629, and executed in the Church of 
the Holy Cross, in which Asmodee attests to quitting the body of a possessed nun. The deed mentions 
other demons: Gresil, Amand, Beheria, Leviatam (sic), etc. 174 

Michael. A terracotta lunette (c. 1475) by Andrea della Robbia. 178 

A woodcut from the Cologne Bible. Left, the Scarlet Woman seated on seven-headed dragon and worshipped 
by minor kings of the earth. Center (top), angel drops great millstone into the sea. Right, angel with key 
to bottomless pit about to consign to it the devil. Extreme right, closing scene of Revelation 14, showing 
harvest of the world and vintage of the grapes of wrath. 185 

Melchisedek, Abraham, and Moses, from the porch of the northern transept of Chartres Cathedral (late 

12th century). 188 

Metatron (El Shaddai). 192 

Michael announces to the Virgin her approaching death. A predella by Fra Filippo Lippi. 194 

Michael. A 6th-century Byzantine mosaic. 195 

A woodcut from the Cologne Bible showing the burial of Moses. On left, God, interring the Lawgiver. 
Assisting angels are Michael and Gabriel (or Zagzagel). 199 

Angel of Eden expelling Adam and Eve. Identified as Michael by Milton in Paradise Lost, but as Raphael by 
Dryden in State of Innocence. 202 

Nergal, one of the four principal protecting genii (guardian angels) in Chaldean cosmology. 206 

Nisroch, an Assyrian deity worshipped by Sennacherib (II Kings 19:37). 207 

The nine orders of the celestial hierarchy. A 14th-century conception. 208 

The Olympic spirits and angels of the seven planets along with their sigils and other signs. 210 

Toome’s conception of an angel of the order of cherubim. 214 

Christopher Bcesfon's conception of an angel of the order of powers. 218 

A peri (Persian angel) of the 16th century. Miniature. 223 

“The Pillared Angel” by Diirer illustrating Revelation 10:1-5, “And I saw another mighty angel come 
down from heaven, clothed with a cloud . .. and his feet as pillars of fire.” 225 

The saintly throng in the form of a rose by Dore. Illustration to Canto 31 of Dante’s Paradiso. 232 

Enthroned Madonna (Queen of the angels) flanked by four archangels (presumably Michael, Gabriel, 
Raphael, Uriel). Ancient mosaic in Sant-Apollinare-Novo at Ravenna. 234 

“Angel of Eden" (Raphael or Michael) by Diirer, expelling Adam and Eve from their earthly paradise. 236 
Raphael descending to earth. An illustration for Paradise Lost. 241 

Round of the Angels by Fra Angelico, detail from The Last Judgment. 244 

“Prince of the Power of the Air" (Satan) by Dore. 250 

Head of a sorrowing angel by Filippino Lippi (1457-1504). 253 

Satan and Belzebuth (fallen angels) in consultation on battle strategy. An illustration for Paradise Lost, 
after a sculpture by Darodes. 259 

Satan bound for a thousand years by the angel of the abyss (Apollyon/Abaddon), a 17th-century illustration 
of I Revelation 20. 261 



[viii] ILLUSTRATIONS 

An 18th-century conception of Adam and Eve after the Fall, with Sin and Death in the background. Having 
failed to prevent the entrance of Satan into the Garden of Eden, the guardian angels are shown returning 
to heaven. 266 

A benevolent genie (in Assyro-Babylonian mythology) holding in his hand the pail of lustral water and the 
pine cone with which he sprinkles the water to keep off evil spirits. This genie was the guardian of the gate 
of Sargon’s palace. A work of the 8th century b.c.e., now in the Louvre. 270 

Hebrew amulet inscribed with the hexagon of Solomon and Shaddai (a name for God). 276 

The Grand Pentacle of Solomon used in evoking and dismissing spirits. 278 

A talisman reputed to have the power of causing the stars to fall from heaven. 279 

The Abraham-and-Isaac sacrifice episode with the angel (identified as Tadhiel) holding back the knife. 282 

Teraphim. Small idols or superstitious figures used as talismans and sometimes worshipped. 287 

Angel holding a star. A woodcut done in Nuremberg, 1505. 290 

Tobi (from The Book of Tobit) and three archangels—presumably Raphael (center), Michael, and Gabriel. 

The painter, Giovanni Botticini (1446-1497), was evidently unfamiliar with the details of the apocryphal 
tale, for nowhere in it is there mention of any angel other than Raphael. 292 

Uriel, “gliding through the Ev’n/On a Sun beam,” illustrating Paradise Lost IV. 2% 

The archangel Uriel shown with the falling Satan, illustrating Paradise Lost III. 300 

Vessels of wrath (demons or fallen angels): Theutus, Asmodeus, and Incubus. 302 

Infant angels by Velazquez. Detail from the Coronation of the Virgin. 304 

Annunciation group in glazed terracotta by Andrea Della Robbia, showing (top) God the Father symbolized 
also by a dove; (left) the Virgin Mary, and (right) the angel of annunciation, Gabriel. Now in the Oratorio 
della Anima del Purgatorio, a chapel near the church of San Nicolo, Florence. 306 

“The Four Angels of the Winds,” by Diirer. The four angels have been identified as Raphael (West Wind), 

Uriel (South), Michael (East), Gabriel (North). 310 

The Weigher of Souls, St. Michael. A 15th-century fresco in St. Agnes, Rome. 312 

Xaphan (Zephon) and Ithuriel confront Satan, transformed into his proper shape, after discovering him 
“squat like a toad at the ear of Eve.” By J. Martin, illustrating Paradise Lost IV. 314 

The angel Yahoel (Metatron) leading the patriarch Abraham to heaven on the wings of eagles. From The 
Apocalypse of Abraham, a Slavonic Church Ms. published in St. Petersburg in 1891, reproduced from a 
14th-century text. 316 

In Yetsirah (world of formation), the tree of life, showing the nine celestial orders and the chief angels 
governing each. 319 

From the “Triumph of Death,” ascribed to Francesco Traini, in the Campo Santo, Pisa. Angels and devils 
are shown withdrawing the souls of the dead or dying (left) while in the air seraphim and devils are bearing 
away the souls of the blessed and/or damned, or fighting for possession of one or the other. Right, a group 
of happy persons whom Death, with a scythe, is about to cut down. 321 

“Zophiel, of Cherubim the swiftest wind,/Came flying, and in mid-air aloud thus cried.” By Singleton, 
illustrating Paradise Lost VI. 322 

Dora’s illustration for Paradise Lost IV, showing the angels Ithuriel and Zephon on their way to earth to hunt 
the whereabouts of Satan. 329 

Musical cherubim. 331 




Introduction 


Some years ago when I started “collecting” angels as a literary diversion, it was certainly with no 
thought of serving as their archivist, biographer, and finally as their lexicographer. Such an idea 
did not occur to me—indeed, could not have occurred to me—until I had corralled a sufficient 
number of the heavenly denizens to make a dictionary of them feasible. 

At first I thought that angels, named angels, were to be found only in the Bible. I soon learned 
that, on the contrary, the Bible was the last place to look for them. True, angels are mentioned 
frequently enough in both the Old and New Testaments, but they are not named, save in two or 
three instances. Virtually all the named angels in this compilation are culled from sources outside 
Scripture. 1 

Of the books in the New Testament, while the Synoptic Gospels and the Pauline Epistles 
have been longtime favorites of mine, the book of Revelation always held a particular fascination 
for me, mainly because, I believe, of its apocalyptic imagery and involvement with angels. I read 
the book often. But one day, as I was leafing through its pages, my eye was arrested by verse 2, 
chapter 8: 

And I saw the seven angels who stand before God; 

And to them were given seven trumpets. 

I laid the book aside and asked myself: who are these seven holy ones that stand before God? 
Has any biblical scholar identified them? Are they of the order of seraphim, cherubim, princi¬ 
palities, powers? And are they always the same seven who enjoy the privilege and eminence of 
closest proximity to the throne of Glory? And why seven? Were the seven planets the proto¬ 
type? Or did the notion derive from the well-known chapter in Ezekiel 9: 2-11 which gives a 
terrifying picture of six “men” and a seventh “clothed in linen” whom God summoned to 
Jerusalem to “slay without pity”? Challenging, even intimidating, questions and ones that, I 
felt, ought not to be left unanswered. Meantime, the pursuit led me down many a heavenly 
brook. Over the years it served to unlock realms of gold I never suspected existed in Heaven or 
on earth. 

Of the seven Revelation angels I had no difficulty in establishing the identity of three: 
Michael and Gabriel (in Scripture) and Raphael (in The Book of Tohit). The last-named angel, 
by a happy chance, identifies himself: “I am Raphael,” he discloses to his young charge Toby, 
“one of the seven angels who stand and enter before the glory of the Lord.” No declaration 
could be more authoritative or conclusive. And so, with three of the seven angels identified, the 
problem was to bring to light the remaining four. 

1. The Koran names seven angels: Gabriel, Michael, Iblis or Eblis, chief jinn in Arabian mythology, counterpart 
of theJudaean-Christian Satan; Malcc or Malik, principal angel of Hell; the two fallen angels, Harut and Mamt; and 
Malaku ’1-maut, angel of death, identified as Azrael. Contrary to popular belief and accreditation, the Koran docs 
not name Israfel, lord of the resurrection trumpet. 


IX 



[x] INTRODUCTION 

I remembered reading somewhere of an angel called Uriel and that he was a “regent of the 
sun.” He seemed a likely candidate. I was confirmed in this feeling when I came upon Uriel in 
Paradise Lost (111, 648 seq.) and found the archfiend himself providing warrant: “him Satan thus 
accosts./Uriel, for thou of those seav’n spirits that stand/In sight of God’s high Throne, 
gloriously bright,” etc. Poe’s Israfel, “Whose heart-strings are a lute,” was (or is) an Islamic 
angel, 2 and I wondered if that fact might rule him out. Then there was Longfellow’s Sandalphon. 
In the poem by that name, Longfellow described Sandalphon as the “Angel of Glory, Angel of 
Prayer.” A great angel, certainly: but, again, was he of an eminence sufficiently exalted to entitle 
him to “enter before the glory of the Lord” ? That was the question. Vondel’s Lucifer, Hey wood’s 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, Milton’s Paradise Lost, Dryden’s State of Innocence, Klopstock’s 
The Messiah —all these works yielded a considerable quantity of the celestial spirits, some in the 
top echelons, like Abdiel, Ithuriel, Uzziel, Zephon; but I had no way of telling whether any 
of them qualified. Surely, I comforted myself, there must be some source where the answer 
could be found. Actually there were a number of such sources. I had only to reach out my 
hand for books in my own library. Instead, in my then state of pneumatic innocence, I looked 
far afield. 

Since I was unacquainted at the time with anyone versed in angel lore, I decided to enter 
into correspondence with scholars and theologians who might help me. I picked half a dozen 
names at random from the faculty lists of local universities, seminaries, and yeshivas. I put the 
question squarely to them. The responses were a long time coming and hardly satisfying. 
“Not in my competence” was the way one biblical exegete put it. Another referred me to the 
minister of a Swedenborgian church in West Germany. From others I heard nothing. But one 
rather noted maskil came through handsomely with two sets of seven, each leading off with the 
familiar trio (Michael, Gabriel, Raphael), thus: 

First List Second List 


Michael 

Gabriel 

Raphael 


Michael 

Gabriel 

Raphael 


Uriel 

Raguel 

Saraqael 

Remiel (or Camael) 


Anael (Haniel) 

Zadkiel 

Orifiel 

Uzziel (or Sidriel) 


I now had not only the seven angels I had been looking for but a choice of seven; and, in 


2. Not a Koranic angel, as Poe mistakenly makes him out to be. Israfel is not mentioned in the Koran, and 
Poe’s quotation from it must derive, presumably, from a hadith (traditional saying attributed to the Prophet) 
or from “Preliminary Discourse,” George Sale’s long introductory essay to his translation of the Koran. Scholars 
have pointed out that references to Israfel and tributes to him as the Angel of Music in Arabic lore were known to 
Poe as occurring in the works of the French poet, de Biranger (whom Poe quotes), and the Irish poet, Thomas 
Moore. 



INTRODUCTION [xi] 

addition, the names of angels I had not heard of before. 3 In the course of further correspondence 
I was apprised of a branch of extracanonical writings new to me: pseudepigrapha, particularly 
the three Enoch books, a veritable treasure-trove! Enoch I or the Book of Enoch (also called the 
Elhiopic Enoch, from the fact that the earliest version or recension of the book was found in 
Abyssinia) was the most readily available. It literally rioted in angel names—many of them, as 
I quickly discovered, duplications or corruptions of other names. 

What were Enoch’s sources? Did the patriarch (or whoever the author was to whom the 
Enoch books have been attributed) draw on his own lively imagination? (Certainly the 12-winged 
kalkydri and phoenixes were his invention.) Did he conjure his angels from the “four hinges of 
the spirit world?” Or did they come to him, as they have and still do to initiates, after a special, 
mystical concentration—a gift of grace, a charisma? I left that an open question, for the time being. 

The Enoch books led me on to related hierological sources and texts: apocalyptic, cabalistic, 
Talmudic, gnostic, patristic, Merkabah (Jewish mystic), and ultimately to the grimoires, those 
black magic manuals, repositories of curious, forbidden, and by now well-nigh forgotten lore. 
In them, invocations, adjurations, and exorcisms were spelt out in full, often grossest detail, and 
addressed to spirits bearing the most outlandish names.'The Church was not slow in pronouncing 
its curse on these rituals, although the authorship of one of the most diabolic of them was 
credited (without warrant, it is true) to a pope, Honorius the Third, who reigned during the 
years 1216-1227. The work is titled The Grimoire of Honorius the Great, and made its first appear¬ 
ance in 1629, some 400 years after the death of its reputed author. Arthur Edward Waite, author 
of The Book of Ceremonial Magic, cites the grimoire as “a malicious and somewhat clever imposture, 
which was undeniably calculated to deceive ignorant persons of its period who may have been 
magically inclined, more especially ignorant priests, since it pretends to convey the express 
sanction of the Apostolical Seat for the operations of infernal magic and necromancy.” 

All these goetic tracts yielded a boundless profusion of angels (and demons), and I soon had 
more of the fluttering creatures than I knew what to do with. In order to keep my work within 
sizable limits, I started weeding out (Heaven forgive me!) what I considered to be the less 
important names, or the ones about which little or no data could be found. 

At this stage of the quest I was literally bedeviled by angels. They stalked and leaguered me, 
by night and day. I could not tell the evil from the good, demons from daevas, satans from sera¬ 
phim; nor (to quote from a poem composed at the time) “if that world I could not hope to 
prove,/Flaming with heavenly beasts, holy and grim,/Was any less real than that in which I 
moved.” I moved, indeed, in a twilight zone of tall presences, through enchanted forests lit 
with the sinister splendor of fallen divinities; of aeons and archons, peris and paracletes, elohim 
and avatars. I felt somewhat like Dante, in the opening canto of The Divine Comedy, when, 
midway upon the journey of his life, he found himself astray in a dusky wood. Or like some 
knight of old, ready to try conclusions with any adversary, real or fancied. I remember one occa¬ 
sion—it was winter and getting dark—returning home from a neighboring farm. I had cut 

3. Subsequently, in other lists of the seven (Enoch I, Esdras II, etc.), I came upon the names of the following 
angels: Jophiel.Jeremiel, Pravuil, Salathiel, Sariel, Zachariel, and Zaphiel. 


[xii] INTRODUCTION 

across an unfamiliar field. Suddenly a nightmarish shape loomed up in front of me, barring my 
progress. After a paralyzing moment I managed to' fight my way past the phantom. The next 
morning I could not be sure (no more than Jacob was, when he wrestled with his dark antagonist 
at Peniel) whether I had encountered a ghost, an angel, a demon, or God. There were other such 
moments and other such encounters, when I passed from terror to trance, from intimations of 
realms unguessed at to the uneasy conviction that, beyond the reach of our senses, beyond the 
arch of all our experience sacred and profane, there was only—to use an expression of Paul’s 
in I Timothy 4—“fable and endless genealogy.” 

Logic, I felt, was my only safe anchor in reality; but if, as Walter Nigg points out, “angels 
are powers which transcend the logic of our existence,” did it follow that one is constrained to 
abandon logic in order to entertain angels? 4 For the sake of angels I was ready to subscribe to 
Coleridge’s “willing suspension of disbelief.” I was even ready to drink his “milk of Paradise.” 
But I was troubled. Never a respecter of authority, per se, particularly when it was backed by the 
“salvific light of revelation,” I nevertheless kept repeating to myself that I was pitting my per¬ 
sonal and necessarily circumscribed experience, logic, and belief (or nonbelief) against the 
experience, logic, and belief of some of the boldest and profoundest minds of all times—minds 
that had reshaped the world’s thinking and emancipated it (to a degree, at any rate) from the 
bondage of superstition and error. Still, I was averse to associating myself with opinions and creeds, 
no matter how hallowed by time or tradition, or by whomsoever held, that were plainly repugnant 
to common sense. A professed belief in angels would, inevitably, involve me in a belief in the 
supernatural, and that was the golden snare I did not wish to be caught in. Without committing 
myself religiously I could conceive of the possibility of there being, in dimensions and worlds 
other than our own, powers and intelligences outside our present apprehension, and in this 
sense angels are not to be ruled out as a part of reality—always remembering that we create what 
we believe. Indeed, I am prepared to say that if enough of us believe in angels, then angels exist. 

In the course of much reading in patristic lore I came upon a saying by St. Augustine. It is 
taken from his Eight Questions (“de diversis questionibus octoginta tribus”). I wrote down the 
saying on a piece of paper and carried it around with me for a long time, not as something I 
concurred in, but as a challenge. This is what Augustine said: “Every visible thing in this 
world is put under the charge of an angel.” Genesis Rabba, 10, puts it somewhat differently: 
“There’s not a stalk on earth that has not its [protecting or guardian] angel in heaven.” 

Here and there, wherever it suited his thesis or purpose, St. Paul found angels wicked (as in 
Ephesians 6, etc.). In Colossians 2:17 he warns us not to be seduced by any religion of angels. 
Furthermore, God himself, it appears, “put no trust in his servants ... his angels he charged with 
folly” (Job 4:18). There was the further injunction in Hebrews 13, “Be not carried about 
with divers and strange doctrines.” Sound advice! And I was fain to say to Paul, as Agrippa the 
king said to him (in Acts 26:38), “Almost thou persuadest me to be a Christian.” But whose 

4. Walter Nigg’s article “Stay you Angels, Stay with Me,” Harper s Bazaar, December 1962. The phrase 
derives from Johann Sebastian Bach’s “Cantata for Michaelmas Day.” 



INTRODUCTION [ x i i i ] 

strange doctrines did Paul have in mind—Moses’? Isaiah’s? Koheleth’s? Peter’s? St. James’? 
And if it is Paul who thus exhorts us in Hebrews (a book once reputedly his), one might ask: is 
Paul a trustworthy counselor and guide—a man who, as he himself admits, was “all things to all 
men,” and who honored and repudiated angels in almost the same breath? One thing I soon 
realized: in the realm of the unknowable and invisible, in matters where a questioner is finally 
reduced to taking things on faith, one can be sure of nothing, prove nothing, and convince 
nobody. But more of this anon. 

One of the problems I ran into, in the early days of my investigations, was how to hack my 
way through the maze of changes in nomenclature and orthography that angels passed through 
in the course of their being translated from one language into another, or copied out by scribes 
from one manuscript to another, or by virtue of the natural deterioration that occurs with any 
body of writing undergoing repeated transcriptions and metathesis. For example: Uriel, 
“presider over Tartarus” and “regent of the sun,” shows up variously as Sariel, Nuriel, Uryan, 
Jehoel, Owreel, Oroiael, Phanuel, Eremiel, Ramiel, Jeremiel, Jacob-Isra’el. Derivations and/or 
variations ofHaniel, chief of principalities and “the tallest angel in Heaven,” may be set down in 
mathematical equations, to wit: Haniel = Anael = Anfiel = Aniyel = Anafiel = Onoel = 
Ariel = Simiel. The celestial gabbai, keeper of the treasuries of Heaven, Vretil, turns out to be 
the same as, or can be equated with, or is an aphetic form of, Gabriel, Radueriel, Pravuil, Seferiel, 
Vrevoil. In Arabic lore, Gabriel isjibril, Jabriel, Abrael, or Abru-el, etc. In ancient Persian lore he 
was Sorush and Revan-bakhsh and “the crowned Bahman,” mightiest of all angels. To the Ethio¬ 
pians he is Gadreel. 

Michael had a mystery name: Sabbathiel. He passed also for the Shekinah, the Prince of 
Light, the Logos, Metatron, the angel of the Lord, and as St. Peter (for Michael, also, like the 
prince of apostles, holds—or held—the keys of the kingdom of Heaven). In addition, as the 
earliest recorded slayer of the Dragon, Michael may be considered the prototype of the redoubt¬ 
able St. George. To the ancient Persians he was known as Beshter, sustaiher of mankind. 

Raphael, “christened” Labbiel when God first formed him, is interchangeable with Apha- 
rope, Raguel, Ramiel, Azrael, Raffarel, etc. And, to make matters more complicated, our healing 
angel operated under a pseudonym, Azariah (as in The Book of Tobit ). The Zohar equates 
Raphael with a king of the underworld, Bael. 

The archangel Raziel, “chief of the Supreme Mysteries,” and “author” of the famous Sefer 
Raziel (Book of the Angel Raziel), answers to Akraziel, Saraqael, Suriel, Galisur, N’Zuriel, and 
Uriel. The seraph Semyaza may be summoned up by the pronouncement of any of a string of 
variations on his name—Samiaza, Shemhazai, Amezyarak, Azael, Azaziel, Uzza. 

Metatron, the “lesser YHWH” (i.e., the lesser God) and twin brother of Sandalphon, also 
had a mystery name, Bizbul. But Metatron had more than ioo other names (see Appendix) 
and in magical rites he could be invoked by any of them. 

The leopard-bodied Camael (alias Shemuel, Simiel, Quemuel, Kemuel), while serving in 
Hell as a Count Palatine and ruler of the wicked planet Mars, served at the same time in Heaven 
as an archangel of the divine presence. It was Camael (Kemuel) who accompanied God with a 




[ x i v ] INTRODUCTION 

troop of 12,000 spirits at the promulgation of the Holy Law. This is vouched for in legend. 5 
According to another legend, 6 Camael was destroyed by Moses when he tried to hinder the 
Lawgiver from receiving the Torah at the hand of God. 

Satan paraded under, or hid behind, a bewildering array of forms and incarnations. The 
“prince of the power of the air,” as Paul picturesquely dubs him, is our best example of a quick- 
change artist in guises and appellatives. In Zoroastrian theosophy he is Ahriman, enemy of man 
and God, a kind of ur-Satan (since Ahriman antedates by 1,000 years theJudaeo-Christian image 
of a prince regent of evil). In Leviticus, he is Azazel, the “goat of the sin offering.” In Isaiah he is 
Lucifer (or, rather, mistakenly identified as Lucifer). In Matthew, Mark, and Luke he is Beelze¬ 
bub, “lord of flies.” In Revelation he is “that dragon and old serpent, the Devil.” He is Mastema 
and/or Beliar in The Book of Jubilees and The Book of Adam and Eve. He is Sammael in Baruch III, 
The Chaldean Paraphrase of Jonathan, and The Martyrdom of Isaiah. In Enoch he is Satanail and 
Salamiel. In The Apocalypse of Abraham and The Zohar he is Duma as well as Azazel.- In Falasha 
lore he is Suriel, angel of death. And he is Beliar or Beliel in The Testament of the Twelve Patri¬ 
archs, The Zadokite Fragments (where Mastema also figures as an alternate to Beliar), and The 
Sibylline Oracles. In the Koran he is Iblis or Eblis or Haris. And in Jewish tradition he is Yetzer- 
hara, the personified evil inclination in man. To Shakespeare (I Henry IV) he is the “Lordly 
monarch of the north”; to Milton ( Paradise Regained IV, 604) he is the “Thief of Paradise”; 
to Bunyan ( Holy War) he is Diabolus. 7 But whatever his guise, the once familiar peripatetic 
of Heaven is no longer to be found there, as guest or resident; nor is it likely that the black 
divinity of his feet will ever again be sighted on the crystal battlements—unless he is forgiven and 
reinvested with his former rank and glory, an eventuality the Church forbids its followers to 
entertain as possible or desirable, since Satan and his angels have been cursed by the Savior 
Himself “into everlasting fire” (Matthew 25:41). 

Hell itself, one adduces from Enoch II, Testament of Levi, and other apocryphal and pseudepi- 
graphic works, is not located where one would ordinarily suppose it to be, i.e., in the under¬ 
world, but in the “northern regions of the 3rd Heaven,” while Evil in its various aspects is 
lodged in the 2nd as well as the 3rd and 5th Heavens. 8 The first 3 Heavens, according to the 
Baruch Apocalypse (Baruch III), are “full of evil-looking monsters.” In the 2nd Heaven the fallen 
angels (the amorous ones, those that coupled with the daughters of men) are imprisoned and 
daily flogged. In the 5th the dread Watchers dwell, those eternally silent Grigori “who, with their 
prince Salamiel, had rejected the Lord.” 9 When Paul was caught up in the 3rd Heaven, he en- 

5. Rf. Moses Schwab, Vocabulaite de V Angilologie. According to Rabbi Abdimi, no less than 22,000 ministering 
angels descended on Mt. Sinai on this historic occasion (see Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 68). 

6. Louis Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews III, 110. 

7. A recent writer, Jean Lhermitte (True and False Possession, 1963), holds that “The Prince of Darkness no 
longer appears as a personage ... but disguises himself willingly, even preferably, under the appearance of corporate 
personalities or institutions.” 

8. C. E. S. Wood, the American poet, in his Heavenly Discourse, gives Satan’s P.O. address as Washington, D.C. 
That was back in 1927. His Satanic Majesty may have moved since then. 

9. This must have been in the “north of the 5th Heaven, for elsewhere in the same Heaven, whither Zephaniah 
claims a Spirit conveyed him, the Old Testament Prophet “beheld angels that are called Lords, and each had a crown 
upon his head as well as a throne shining seven times brighter than the sun”—quoted by Clement of Alexandria from 
the lost Apocalypse of Zephaniah. 




INTRODUCTION [xv] 

countered there “angels of evil, terrible and without pity carrying savage weapons.” 10 In a 
word, at least 3 Heavens, or regions of at least 3 Heavens, were the abode of the eternally damned. 

Now, to find Hell in Heaven should not have surprised this writer, or anyone with a 
smattering of Greek mythology, for the paradisiacal Elysian Fields, “residence of the shades of 
the Blessed,” are in the immediate vicinity of Hades. A rabbinic commentary ( Midrash Tamaim) 
vouches for the fact that Hell and Paradise are “side by side.” This is close to what one finds in a 
commentary on Psalm 90 ( Midrash Tehillim) where it is stated that there were seven things which 
preceded the creation of the world, and that among the seven things were Paradise and Hell, 
and that “Paradise was on the right side of God, Hell on the left." In a commentary on Ecclesi¬ 
astes ( Yalkut Koheleth) we learn that the two realms are actually only “a hand-breadth apart.” 
This carefully calibrated survey is attributed to the Hebrew sage, Rab Chanina (Kahana), of the 
late 3rd century c.e . 1 1 

How incongruous, indeed how anomalous it was to plant Hell in Heaven must have occurred 
finally to the Great Architect Himself for, one day, without fuss or fanfare, the entire apparatus 
of evil—the arsenals of punishment, the chief Scourgers, the apostate angels, the horned or 
aureoled spirits of wrath, destruction, confusion, and vengeance—was moved from the upper 
to the lower world, where (if it is not too presumptuous to say so) all such paraphernalia and per¬ 
sonnel should have been installed in the first place. 

The noted scholar R. H. Charles, in his introduction to Morfill’s translation of Enoch II, 
observes in a footnote that “the old idea of wickedness in Heaven was subsequently banished 
from Christian and Jewish thought.” True, and none too soon. For what assurance otherwise 
would the faithful have been given that, on arrival in Heaven, they would not be lodged in one 
of the enclaves of Hell? 

Perhaps the best—or worst—example of the confusion to be found in noncanonical as well 

10. The tact that in Paul’s day there still were angels of evil in Heaven “carrying savage weapons” would lead 
one to suppose that the fighting on high did not end with Satan’s rout, and that Michael and his hosts won a Pyrrhic 
victory, or at best a truce. 

11. In this connection, the expression “Abraham’s bosom” (Luke 16), interpreted as denoting “the repose of the 
happy in death,” may be cited here. The Apostles' Creed affirms that Jesus descended to Hell after the Crucifixion, 
purportedly to liberate the “saints in chains” (the unbaptized patriarchs, Abraham among them) in order to transport 
them to Paradise. The parable in Luke presupposes that Abraham is already there; and the fact that the rich man in 
Hades (Dives) is able to converse with Abraham across the “great chasm” suggests that the chasm was not very wide, 
and that, hence, Heaven and Hell were very close to each other, at least witmn speaking distance. Purgatory, it will 
be noted, is not mentioned. The explanation is simple: it did not exist—not, anyway, until 604 c.e. Gregory the 
Great invented it. Perhaps invention is too strong a term. Gregory very likely appropriated the notion of an “upper 
Gehenna” from the ancient Jews, or from the empyrosis of the Greek stoics, or from the twelve cycles of purgation 
of Zoroaster. Be that as it may, Purgatory was made official—it was “legislated into existence”—by decrees at the 
Council of Lyons in 1274, at Florence in 1439, and again in the 1540’s at the Council of Trent, and is today part of 
the religious belief of all or most Christians, except members of the Church of England which, in 1562, condemned 
Purgatory as “a fond thing vainly invented and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to 
the Word of God.” We know of no angels, fair or foul, inhabiting or frequenting the place. According to Origen, 
it is reserved for souls waiting to be purged of the “lighter materials” of their sins “so that they may enter the king¬ 
dom of Heaven undefiled.” The duration of souls in Purgatory, an indefinable time, may be cut down by indul¬ 
gences, prayers, and paid masses. Jews have their Yiskor, which is a prayer for the repose of the dead and is recited 
on Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Passover, and Shavuoth. Where these Jewish dead are reposing is not clear. The Moslems 
have their A1 Aaraaf, a region for “those who are [found] neither good nor bad, such as infants, lunatics, and idiots”— 
Reader’s Encyclopedia, “Araf.” 





[xvi] INTRODUCTION 

as canonical lore is the case of Satan. The Old Testament speaks of an adversary, ha-satan. It is a 
term that stood for an office; it did not denote the name of an angel. To the Jews of Biblical 
times the adversary was neither evil nor fallen (the Old Testament knows nothing of fallen angels), 
but a servant of God in good standing, a great angel, perhaps the greatest. However, he is no¬ 
where named. In Job he presents himself before the Lord in the company of other unnamed 
“sons of God.” There is no question of his being evil or apostate. 12 The one instance where 
ha-satan is given as satan without the definite article (I Chronicles 21), is now generally conceded 
to be a scribal oversight. In a word, the Old Testament did not name its angels, except in Daniel, 
a late, postexilic book. There only two angels are named: Michael and Gabriel (names, by 
the way, that owe their origin to Babylonian-Chaldean sources). In the New Testament, on 
the contrary, Satan is unequivocably a person, so named. Here he is no longer the obedient ser¬ 
vant of God, the “prime in splendour,” but the castout opponent and enemy of God, the Prince 
of Evil, the Devil incarnate. 

The transformation of ha-satan in the Old Testament into Satan in the New, and the con¬ 
flicting notions that arose as a consequence, are pointed up by Bernard J. Bamberger in his 
Fallen Angels: “The classic expositions of the Jewish faith have implicitly or explicidy rejected the 
belief in rebel angels and in a Devil who is God’s enemy. .. . The Hebrew Bible itself, correctly 
interpreted, leaves no room for a belief in a world of evil powers arrayed against the goodness 
of God. .. . Historical Christianity, on the other hand, has consistently affirmed the continuing 
conflict between God and Satan.” This continuing conflict between God and Satan, one might 
add, is little more than a recrudescence, with modifications, of the dualistic system that Christi¬ 
anity (along with Jewish sectarians of the post-Biblical era) inherited from Zoroastrianism. 

Equally difficult to deal with was the question whether (and how many) other spirits in the 
celestial hierarchy were good or evil, fallen or still upright, dwellers of Heaven or Hell. This was 
a specially baffling problem and left me wandering about in a perpetual cloud of unknowing. 
A case in point: In Enoch 1 , 6, Remiel is styled “one of the leaders of the rebel angels.” Farther 
along in the same book, Chapter 18, Remiel is metamorphosed into “one of the seven holy ones 
whom God set over those who rise.” In Revelation 9, Abaddon/Apollyon is the “angel of the 
bottomless pit,” suggesting an evil spirit in the sense of a destroyer; but in Revelation 20, 
Abaddon/Apollyon is manifestly good and holy, for here he is said to have “laid hold on the 
dragon, that old serpent, who is the devil and Satan, and bound him a thousand years” (in The 
Greater Key of Solomon Abaddon is “a name for God that Moses invoked to bring down the 
blighting rain over Egypt”!). Vondel, the Dutch Shakespeare (1587-1678), tells us in his Lucifer 
that Apollyon was known in Heaven, before he joined Satan, as the hierarch “of the snowy 
wings.” To Bunyan in Pilgrim’s Progress Apollyon is an out-and-out devil, the devil, just as he is 

12. The hasidic rabbi Yaakov Yitzhak of Pzysha, known as the holy Yehudi (d. 1814), makes this clear when he 
declared that “the virtue of angels is that they cannot deteriorate.” See Martin Buber, Tales of the Hasidim, Later 
Masters, p. 231. The fact that the adversary challenges God or questions Him docs not, ipso facto, make the adversary 
evil or an opponent of God—-just as, when Abraham and Job "put God to the question, ’ they were not, on that 
account, regarded as evil men, or even as presumptuous men. See Harry M. Orlinsky’s Ancient Israel, p. 30. 


INTRODUCTION [xvii] 

in secular writings generally. 13 Other examples, to cite a handful: Ariel, “earth’s great Lord” 
and an aide to Raphael in the curing of disease, is at the same time a rebel angel in charge of pun¬ 
ishments in the lower world. Kakabel, a high holy prince who exercises dominion over the con¬ 
stellations, is in Enoch one of the apostates. The angel Usiel, Gabriel’s lieutenant in the fighting 
on high, is designated a companion of the lustful luminaries who coupled with mortal women; 
in Zoharic cabala he is the cortex (averse demon) of Gog Sheklah, “disturber of all things.” 
Among the rabbis the opinion is divided with regard to the 90,000 angels of destruction. Are 
they in the service of God or the Devil? Pirke Rabbi Eliezer inclines to the latter view. In the 
Pirke they are called “angels of Satan.” 

It is well to bear in mind that all angels, whatever their state of grace—indeed, no matter 
how christologically corrupt and defiant—are under God, even when, to all intents and purposes, 
they are performing under the direct orders of the Devil. Evil itself is an instrumentality of the 
Creator, who uses evil for His own divine, if unsearchable, ends. At least, such may be gathered 
from Isaiah 45:7; it is also Church doctrine, as is the doctrine that angels, like human beings, were 
created with free will, but that they surrendered their free will the moment they were formed. 
At that moment, we are told, they were given (and had to make) the choice between turning 
toward or away front God, and that it was an irrevocable choice. Those angels that turned 
toward God gained the beatific vision, and so became fixed eternally in good; those that turned 
away from God became fixed eternally in evil. These latter are the demons, they are not the 
fallen angels (an entirely different breed of recusants which hatched out subsequently, on Satan’s 
defection). Man, however, continues to enjoy free will. He can still choose between good and 
evil. This may or may not work out to his advantage; more often than not it has proved his 
undoing. The best that man can hope for, apparently, is that when he is weighed in the balance 
(by the “angels of final reckoning”), he is not found wanting. 14 

Angels perform a multiplicity of duties and tasks. Preeminently they serve God. They do 
this by the ceaseless chanting of glorias as they circle round the high holy Throne. They also 
carry out missions from God to man. But many serve man directly as guardians, counselors, 
guides, judges, interpreters, cooks, comforters, dragomen, matchmakers, and gravediggers. 
They are responsive to invocations when such invocations are properly formulated and the 
conditions are propitious. In occult lore angels are conjured up not only to help an invocant 
strengthen his faith, heal his afflictions, find lost articles, increase his worldly goods, and procure 
offspring, but also to circumvent and destroy an enemy. There are instances where an angel or 

13. In Jewish lore, abaddon is a place—sheol, the pit, or the grave; nowhere is it the name of an angel or demon. 
The term is personified for the first time in Revelation and appears as Abaddon (cap A). St. John makes Abaddon 
synonymous with Apollyon and declares it to be the Greek form of the same angel. The Confraternity edition of 
the New Testament adds here (Apocalypse 9:11): “in Latin he has the name Exterminans.” On the other hand. The 
Magus, which offers a number of portraits of the archfiends in color, splits Abaddon and Apollyon into two separate 
and distinct “vessels of iniquity,” showing Abaddon with tawny hair and Roman nose, Apollyon with russet beard 
and hooked beak. 

14. According to Abbot Anscar Vonier in The Teaching of the Catholic Church (1964), angels still enjoy free will. 
This seems to be another or new interpretation of Catholic doctrine on the subject. 



[xviii] INTRODUCTION 

troop of angels turned the tide of battle, abated storms, conveyed saints to Heaven, brought down 
plagues, fed hermits, helped plowmen, converted heathens. An angel multiplied the seed of 
Hagar, protected Lot, caused the destruction of Sodom, hardened Pharaoh’s heart, rescued Daniel 
from the lions’ den, and Peter from prison. To come closer to our own times: it will be recalled 
that when Spinoza was “execrated, cursed, and cast out” from his community in Amsterdam 
for holding among other “heretical views” that “angels were an hallucination,” the edict of 
excommunication against him was drawn up by the rabbis “with the judgment of the angels.” 

The might of angels, as made known to us in Targum and Talmud, is easily a match for 
the might of the pagan gods and heroes. Michael overthrew mountains. Gabriel bore Abraham 
on his back to Babylon, whither an unnamed angel later conveyed the prophet Habbakuk (by 
the hair) from Judea, to feed Daniel pottage. 13 Jewish legend tells us that, during the siege of the 
Holy City by Nebuchadnezzar, “the prince of the world” (Metatron? Michael? or perchance 
Satan?) lifted Jerusalem “high in the air” but that God thrust it down again. 16 We know from 
Revelation that seven angels of the wrath of God smote a “third part of the stars.” The mighty 
Rabdos is able to stop the planets in their courses. The Talmudic angel Ben Nez prevents the 
earth from being consumed by holding back the South Wind with his pinions. Morael has the 
power of making everything in the visible world invisible. The Atlantean Splenditenes sup¬ 
ports the globe on his back. Ataphiel (Barattiel), hierarch of Merkabah lore, keeps Heaven from 
tumbling down by balancing it on three fingers. The Pillared Angel (mentioned in Revelation) 
supports the sky on the palm of his right hand. Chayyiel, the divine angel-beast, can—if he is so 
minded—swallow the whole world in a single gulp. When Hadranicl proclaims the will of God, 
“his voice penetrates through 200,000 firmaments.” It was Hadraniel who struck Moses “dumb 
with awe” when the Lawgiver caught sight of the dread luminary in the 2nd Heaven. As late as 
the 17th century, the German astronomer Kepler figured out (and somehow managed to fit 
into his celebrated law of celestial mechanics) that the planets are “pushed around by angels.” 

A brief word about the number of angels abroad in the world. Since the quantity, according 
to Church doctrine, was fixed at Creation, the aggregate must be fairly constant. An exact figure 
—301,655,722—was arrived at by 14th-century cabalists, who employed the device of “calcula¬ 
ting words into numbers and numbers into words.” This is a very modest figure if we regard 
stars as angels (just as the Apocalyptics did: John in Revelation, Clement of Alexandria in 
Stromata VI, etc.) and include them in the total. 17 Thomas Hey wood in his Hierarchy cautions 
us metrically: “Of the Angels, th’exact number who/Shall undertake to tell, he shall grow/ 

15. See apocryphal additions to Daniel 5:86. 

16. In 1291-1294 c.e., angels moved the house of the Virgin Mary from Nazareth to Dalmatia, thence to 
various parts of Italy, finally depositing it in the village of Loretto. The miraculous haulage is the subject of a canvas 
(now in the Morgan Library, New York), by the 15th-16th century artist Satume di Gatti. 

17. Rabbi Jochanan (Talmud Hagiga 14a) reminds us that, far from having ceased being formed at Creation, 
angels are born “with every utterance that goes forth from the mouth of the Holy One, blessed be He.” The Jewish 
notion of a continuing act of Creation (as opposed to the tota simul doctrine of the early Church) is traditional in 
Talmud, and embraces not only angels but all things formed in the first six days. This is clear from a hymn found in 
Greater Hechaloth 4:2, where God is praised for not ceasing to create “new stars and constellations and zodiacal signs 
that flow and issue from the light of His holy garment.” 



INTRODUCTION [xix] 

From Ignorance to Error; yet we may/Conjecture,” Albertus Magnus conjectured, and put 
“each choir at 6,666 legions, and each legion at 6,666 angels.” But demons are winged horses 
of another color. Unlike the angels, these apes of God are capable of reproducing their kind. 
What is more, as Origen alerts us, “they multiply like flies.” So today there must be a truly 
staggering horde of them. The problem of population explosion here is clearly something to 
worry about. 18 

As for the vernacular employed by angels, the odds favor Hebrew. In The Book of Jubilees 
and in Targum Yerushalmi, we learn that the language God used at Creation and in the Garden 
of Eden was Hebrew. Even the serpent spoke Hebrew, according to Midrash Lekah Genesis 31:1. 
So, inferentially, angels also spoke it, or speak it. The Apocalypse of Paul puts it precisely: 
“Hebrew, the speech of God and the angels.” Indeed, in rabbinic lore, and in sundry secular 
writings, Hebrew is said to have been the language of all mankind up to the “confusion of 
tongues,” an event that occurred at the building of the Tower of Babel in 2247 b.c.e. (as com¬ 
puted by Archbishop Ussher, noted 17th-century Irish theologian). 19 

That the Torah was originally conceived and set down in Hebrew is a widely postulated 
view among Jews, though disputed by Philo (who thought the language was Chaldean Aramaic) 
and by Muslims generally (who claim it was Arabic). St. Basil thought it was Syriac. 20 On the 
whole it is safe to say that the lingua franca of angels—of all spirits, in fact—is Hebrew. Some 
exegetes hold that angels, being monolingual, speak the holy tongue exclusively, not even 
understanding the closely related Aramaic (as specifically stated in The Zohar I, 92); other 
authorities contend differently. They point out that Gabriel, Metatron, and Zagzagel each had 
a knowledge of seventy languages. 21 In recent times, Sandalphon was overheard conversing in 
Yiddish, the eavesdropper being the storyteller Isaac Bashevis Singer. Furthermore, we have it 
on the word of the Swedish mystic Swedenborg that angels not only speak Hebrew, they also 
write it. In his Heaven and Its Wonders and Hell, he avers that “a little paper was sent to me from 
Heaven on which a few words were written in Hebrew.” This remarkable document, so far as 
is known, was never produced for public scrutiny, nor has it ever turned up among Sweden¬ 
borg’s effects. 

Are angels immortal? In the opinion of most scholars, yes. But are angels eternal? No. 
God alone is eternal. 22 Still, the life span of angels is a fairly long one, starting from the moment 
they were “willed into being” to the last crack of doom. But a number of angels have, mean- 

18. Luther’s followers, in a work entitled Thealrum Diaholorum, not satisfied with the then-current estimates of 
devils, raised the figure to 2.5. billion, later to 10,000 billion. A reassuring thought, provided by Hagiga 16a, is that 
while “demons beget and increase like men, like men they die.” 

19. At the Exodus and in the Wilderness, God also spoke Hamitic. He did this, it is said, in order to make Him¬ 
self understood by the Egyptian Moses and by Hamitic-speaking Jews who made up the greater bulk of Moses’ 
followers. 

20. See The Book of Adam and Eve, p. 245. 

21. Talmud Sotah, fol. 36, narrates that Gabriel taught Joseph seventy languages overnight. The angel Kirtabus 
(in Tyana’s Nuctemeron) is described as a “genius of languages.” 

22. John of Damascus qualifies this by saying in his Exposition of the Orthodox Faith: “God alone is eternal, or 
rather. He is above the Eternal; for He, the Creator of times, is not under the dominion of Time, but above Time.” 



[xx] INTRODUCTION 

while, been snuffed out. 23 Thus God put an end to Rahab for refusing, as commanded, 
to divide the upper and lower waters. 24 God burned the angels of peace and truth, along with 
the hosts under them, as well as an entire legion of administering angels (Yalkut Shimoni), for 
objecting to the creation of man—a project the Creator had His heart particularly set on and was 
determined to carry through, although later He repented of the venture, as we learn from 
Genesis 6:6. God also annihilated a whole “globe of angels,” the Song-Uttering Choristers, for 
failing to chant the Trisagion at the appointed hour. And there is the case of a mortal doing 
away with an immortal: Moses, who in fact did away with two of them—Kemuel (already 
mentioned) and Hemah. This Hemah was the angel of fury “forged at the beginning of the 
world out of chains of black and red fire.” Legend has it that, after swallowing the Lawgiver 
up to the ankles, Hemah had to disgorge him at the timely intervention of the Lord. Moses then 
turned around and slew the vile fiend. 

While there are numerous instances of angels turning into demons, as exemplified in the 
fall of one-third of the Heavenly hosts (Revelation 12), instances of mortals transformed into angels 
(named angels) are rare. 25 Four instances have come to light, three deriving from passages in 
Genesis and II Kings. The first relates to the patriarch Enoch, who was apotheosized into the 
god-angel Metatron. The second relates to the patriarch Jacob, who became Uriel, then Isra’el, 
“archangel of the power of the Lord” and chief tribune among the sons of God. 26 The third 
relates to the prophet Elijah, who drove to Heaven in a fiery chariot and, on arrival, was trans¬ 
formed into the angel Sandalphon. 27 The fourth instance, vouched for in The Douce Apocalypse, 
is that of St. Francis, who evolved into the angel Rhamiel. 28 Another instance is the transforming 

23. The noted 12th-century Jewish poet and theologian, Judah ha-Levi (1085-1140) in his work called The 
Book of Kuzari (IV), taught that there were two classes or species of angels. He wrote: “As for the angels, some are 
created for the time being, out of the subtle elements of matter (as air or fire). Some are eternal (i.e., existing from 
everlasting to everlasting), and perhaps they are the spiritual intelligences of which the philosophers speak.” He goes 
on to say: “It is doubtful whether the angels seen by Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel were of the class of those created 
for the time being, or of the class of spiritual essences which are eternal.” What were they then? one might ask. 
Saadia B. Joseph was of the opinion that they were visions seen during prophetic ecstasy rather than outward reali¬ 
ties. In the view of St.John of Damascus (700P-754?), Orthodox Faith, angels are immortal, but “only by grace, not 
by nature.” 

24. This “angel of insolence and pride” had two lives. He was deprived of the first for the reason given above. 
Two thousand years later, resuscitated but still obdurate, he reappears at the Exodus. Here he is drowned by God 
for espousing the cause of the Egyptians, which, as that nation’s tutelary angel, he was honor bound to do. 

25. Origen’s belief in a “final restitution,” when God would forgive all his sinning creatures, even the most 
damned, opened the door to a return of Satan to his archangelic perch in the Heavenly purlieus. Because of this 
heretical belief Origen, it is said, was never canonized. 

26. Prayer of Joseph. 

27. Elijah-Sandalphon became the celestial psychopomp “whose duty it was,” says Pirke R. Eliezer, “to stand 
at the crossways ot Paradise and guide the pious to their appointed places.” 

28. According to Jewish tradition, all patriarchs, along with those who led exceptionally virtuous lives, 
attained angelic rank when they got to Heaven. This, however, has been disputed: “the belief that the souls of the 
righteous after death become angels has never been part of Jewish thought” ( Universal Jewish Encyclopedia I, 314). 
That it was at one time part of patristic thinking can be deduced from Theodotus ( Excerpts ) to the effect that “those 
who are changed from men to angels are instructed for a thousand years by the angels, after they are brought to 
perfection” and that then “those who have been taught are translated to archangelic authority.” 



INTRODUCTION [xxi] 

of Anne, the Virgin’s mother, into the angel Anas ( q.v .). Mention might also be made here of 
three Biblical psalmists—Asaph, Heman, and Jeduthun—who showed up in Heaven, with their 
earthly names and occupations unchanged, as celestial choirmasters. 

Regarding the sex or gender of angels, I was often hard put to arrive at any conclusion in 
the matter, even with the help of scholars. True, angels are pure spirits and so should be presumed 
to be bodiless and, hence, sexless. 29 But the authors of our sacred texts were not logicians or 
men of science; in the main, they were prophets, lawgivers, chroniclers, poets. They did not 
know how to represent invisible spirits other than by giving them visible, or tangible, embodi¬ 
ment: accordingly, they pictured angels in their own image (i.e., in the guise of men), acting 
and talking and going about their business—the Lord’s business—the way men do. 30 Angels in 
Scripture, as a consequence, were conceived of as male. 31 However, it was not long before the 
female of the species began putting in an appearance. In early rabbinic as well as in occult lore, 
there are quite a number of them: the Shekinah, for one. She was the “bride of God,” the divine 
inwohnung in man, who dwelt with lawfully wedded couples and blessed their conjugal union. 
There was Pistis Sophia (“Faith/Wisdom”), a high-ranking gnostic aeon, said to be the “pro¬ 
creator of the superior angels.” There was Barbelo, consort of Cosmocrator, a great archon, 
“perfect in glory and next in rank to the Father-of-All.” There was Bat Qol, the “heavenly 
voice” or “daughter of the voice” of Jewish tradition, a prophetess symbolized as a dove, who 
gave warnings and counsel when the days of prophecy were over. Another female power that 
comes to mind is the gnostic Drop or Derdekea. According to the Berlin Codex, Drop used to 
descend to earth on critical occasions “for the salvation of mankind.” And there were the six 
left-side emanations of God, created to counterbalance the ten male emanations that issued from 
God’s right side. 32 And finally there was the vixen Eisheth Zenunim, angel of prostitution and 
mate of Sammael. In Hebrew, eisheth zenunim means “woman of whoredom” and the epithet 
applied with equal force to three other wives of Sammael: Lilith, Naamah, Agrat bat Mahlah. 


29. In theology there are three classifications of spirit: (1) God, Who is divine spirit; (2) angels and demons, 
who are pure spirits; and (3) man, who is impure spirit. 

30. In The Zohar (Vayera 101a) we read: “When Abraham was still suffering from the effects of the circum¬ 
cision, the Holy One sent him 3 angels, in visible shape, to enquire of his well-being.” And the text goes on to say: 
“You may perhaps wonder how angels can ever be visible, since it is written, ‘Who makes his angels spirits’ (Psalms 
104:4). Abraham, however, assuredly did see them, as they descended to earth in the form of men. And, indeed, 
whenever the celestial spirits descend to earth, they clothe themselves in corporeal elements and appear to men in 
human shape.” But it is difficult to reconcile the foregoing with the statement in The Book of Jubilees (15:27) that 
“all the angels of the presence and all the angels of sanctification” were already circumcised when they were created. 
On the issue of the materiality of angels, authorities have been divided. Those who believe that angels are composed 
of matter and form include Alexander of Hales, Bernard ofClairvaux, St. Bonaventura, Origen. Those who hold, 
to the contrary, that angels are incorporeal include Dionysius the Areopagite, John of Rochelle, Moses Maimonides, 
Maximus the Confessor, and William of Auvergne. 

31. The Koran 53:27: “Those who disbelieve in the Hereafter [are those who] name the angels with the names 
of females.” 

32. In the texts of the early commentators, Moses of Burgos and Isaac Ben R. Jacob ha-Cohen, as in the supple¬ 
ment to The Zohar, there are also ten evil emanations (male), of which “only seven were permitted to endure.” 
See Appendix. 



[xxii] INTRODUCTION 

This free-loving quartet constituted a kind of composite Jewish equivalent of the Sidonian 
Astarte. 

Zoroastrianism, which was not averse to including females in its pantheon, had its Anahita, 
a lovely luminary characterized as “the immortal one, genius of fertilizing waters.” Offsetting 
her was Mairya, evil harbinger of death, represented indiscriminately as male and female. She 
(or he) tempted Zoroaster with the kingdoms of the earth, just as, in Matthew 4, Satan tempted 
Jesus. Another angel of indeterminate sex was Apsu. In Babylonian-Chaldean mythology, Apsu 
was the “female angel of the abyss”; but, though female, she fathered the Babylonian gods and 
was at the same time the husband or wife of Tamat. She (or he) was slain finally by her (his) 
son Ea. A true tumtum ! 33 It seems, also, according to Genesis Rabba and confirmed by Milton 
in Paradise Lost I, 423-424, that angels; at least some of them, were able to change their sex at 
will. The Zohar (Vayehi 232 b) phrases it this way: “Angels, who are God’s messengers, turn 
themselves into different shapes, being sometimes female and sometimes male.” 

To revert to the question as to whether angels have an existence outside Holy Writ, or 
apart from the beliefs and testimony of visionaries, fabulists, hermeneuts, ecstatics, etc, Such a 
question has been a debatable one from almost the start, even before the down-to-earth Sad- 
ducees repudiated them and the apocalyptic Pharisees acknowledged and espoused them. 
Aristotle and Plato believed in angels (Aristotle called them intelligences). Socrates, who 
believed in nothing that could not be verified by (or was repugnant to) logic and experience, 
nevertheless had his daimon, an attendant spirit, whose voice warned the marketplace philosopher 
whenever he was about to make a wrong decision . 34 Now, to invent an angel, a hierarchy, or 
an order in a hierarchy, required some imagination but not too much ingenuity. It was sufficient 
merely to (1) scramble together letters of the Hebrew alphabet; (2) juxtapose such letters in 
anagrammatic, acronymic, or cryptogrammatic form; (3) tack on to any place, property, 
function, attribute, or quality the theophorous “el” or “irion.” Thus Hod (meaning splendor, 
like zohar) was transformed into the angel Hodiel. Gevurah (meaning strength) burgeoned into 
the angel Gevurael or Gevirion. Tiphereth (meaning beauty) provided the basis for the sefira 
Tipherethiel. The lords of the various hierarchic orders came into being in similar fashion, 
Cherubiel becoming the eponymous chief of the order of cherubim; Seraphiel, the eponymous 
chief of the order of seraphim; Hashmal, of the hashmallim, etc. Countless “paper angels” or 
“suffix angels,” many of them unpronounceable and irreducible to intelligent listing, were thus 
fabricated; they passed, virtually unchallenged, into the religious and secular literature of the 
day, to be accredited after a while as valid. In some cases they were given canonical or deutero- 
canonical status. The practice preempted no one from begetting ex nihilo and ad infinitum his 

33. Tumtum is a Talmudic term for any spirit whose sex could not be easily determined. See M. Jastrow, 
Dictionary of the Targumin, Talmud Bahli and Yerusalmi, and the Midrashim Literature. 

34. In the Middle Ages, the most eminent scholars and divines ranged themselves on opposite sides of the 
question. And that is perhaps still true today; a belief in angels is part of the doctrine of three of the four major 
faiths—Christian (mainly Catholics), Jewish (mainly orthodox), Mohammedan. 



INTRODUCTION [xxiii] 

own breed of angels, and putting them into orbit. 33 The unremittirtg industry of early cabalists 
in creating angels spilled over into the raiding of pagan pantheons, and transforming Persian, 
Babylonian, Greek, and Roman divinities into Jewish hierarchs. Thus the kerubim of the ancient 
Assyrians—those huge, forbidding stone images placed before temples and palaces—emerge 
in Genesis 3 as animate cherubim, guardian angels armed with flaming swords east of Eden 
and, later, in upper Paradise, as charioteers of God (after Ezekiel encountered them at the River 
Chebar). The Akkadian lord of Hell, the li^n-headed Nergal, was converted into the great, holy 
Nasargiel, and in this acceptable guise served Moses as cicerone when the Lawgiver visited the 
underworld. Hermes, the good daimon , inventor of the lyre and master of song in Greek 
mythology, became in Jewish lore the angel Hermesiel and identified with David, “sweet singer 
of Israel.” The rabbinic Ashmedai derived from the zend Aeshmadeva. Etc., etc. 

The Church, let it be said to its credit, tried to call a halt to the traffic, although the Church 
itself at one time recognized a considerable number of angels not in the calendar, and even per¬ 
mitted them to be venerated. 36 Scripture, as we have seen, gives the names of no more than two 
or three angels. That there may well be seven named angels in Scripture is the subject of a paper 
by this compiler; it is a thesis on which, admittedly, no two theologians are likely to agree. 

In the “orthodox” count, fixed by the 6th-century pseudo-Dionysius (otherwise known as 
Dionysius the Areopagite), 37 there are nine orders in the celestial hierarchy. But there are other 
“authoritative” lists provided by sundry Protestant writers that give seven, nine, twelve orders, 
including such rarely encountered ones as flames, warriors, entities, seats, hosts, lordships, etc. 
The Dionysian sequence of the orders, from seraphim to angels (a sequence for which there is 
no Biblical warrant, and which Calvin summarily dismissed as “the vain babblings of idle men”) 
has likewise been shuffled about, some sources ranking seraphim last (rather than first), archangels 
second (rather than eighth), virtues seventh (rather than fourth or sixth), and so on. 38 

Miracles, feats of magic, heavenly visitations, and overshadowings are often ascribed to 

35. Isaac de Acco (13th-14th century), a disciple of Nahmanides, “laid claim to the performance of miracles 
by a transposition of Hebrew letters according to a system he pretended to have learned from the angels." See 
A. E. Waite, The Holy Kabbalah, p. 53. 

36. Certain early theologians like Eusebius (c. 263-c. 339) and Theodoret (c. 393-c. 458) opposed the veneration 
of angels, and a Church council at Laodicea (343-381?) condemned Christians “who gave themselves up to a masked 
idolatry in honor of the angels.” This, despite the fact that St. Ambrose (339?-397) exhorted the faithful, in his 
De Viduis, 9, to “pray to the angels, who are given to us as guardians.” In the 8th century, at the 2nd Council of 
Nicaea (787), there was another change of heart, for the worship of angelic beings was then formally approved. 
The practice, nevertheless, seems to have fallen into disuse. Today there is a trend in some ecclesiastical circles to 
revive it. The Dominican priest Pie-Raymond R6gamey, author of What Is an Angel? (1960), thinks that veneration 
of angels is not a bad thing, but warns against the “danger of such devotion becoming superficial.” 

37. The time that Dionysius lived and wrote has never been satisfactorily determined. Originally his writings 
were attributed to one of the judges of the Greek areopagus (court), whom Paul converted (Acts 17:34). But scholars, 
finding such dating untenable, moved the time ahead to the 6th century. However, according to a French legend 
cited by A. B. Jameson ( Legends of the Madonna), “Dionysius the Areopagite was present at the death of the Virgin 
Mary,” which would place him back in the 1st century. The legend relates that “Dionysius stood around the bier 
beside the twelve apostles, the two great angels of death (Michael andGabriel), and a host oflamenting lesser angels.” 

38. Cf. varying sequences of the ninefold hierarchy offered by Augustine (City of God), Gregory the Great 
(Homilia and Moralia), Isidore of Seville ( Etymologiarum ), Bernard of Clairvaux (de consideration), Edmund Spenser 
(An Hymne of Heavenly Beautie), Drummond of Hawthornden (Flowres of Sion), etc. 



[ x x i v ] INTRODUCTION 

different angels. 39 Thus, the three “men” whom Abraham entertained unawares have been 
identified as God, Michael, and Gabriel; also, according to Philo, as the Logos, the Messiah, and 
God. In Matthew, the news of Mary being found with child of the Holy Ghost is conveyed to 
her spouse Joseph by the “angel of the Lord”; in Luke it is Gabriel who does the announcing— 
not to Joseph but direct to Mary who, however, seems to know nothing of the matter. The over¬ 
night destruction of the army of Sennacherib, numbering 185,000 men, ascribed in II Kings to 
the “angel of the Lord,” has been laid to the prowess of Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, or Remiel. No 
one has yet, to the knowledge of this investigator, identified the specific “angel of the Lord” 
whom David saw “standing between the earth and the heaven, having a drawn sword in his 
hand stretched over Jerusalem” (I Chronicles 2:16). A good guess would be Michael, for that 
battle-ax of God, when he is not in Heaven assisting Zehanpuryu or Dokiel in the weighing in 
of souls, is busy on earth lopping off the heads of the unfaithful. 40 

In their hurried exodus from Egypt, and in their encounter with Pharaoh’s horsemen at the 
Red (Reed) Sea, the Hebrews were helped by “the angel of God, which went before . .. and 
behind them ... in a pillar of fire and cloud” (Exodus 14). Here the identity of the angel of God 
poses no problem: he was Michael or Metatron, each the tutelary prince-guardian of Israel. 
However, Michael or Metatron did not fight alone: he had the aid of a swarm of “ministering 
angels who began hurling [at the pursuing or retreating Egyptians] arrows, great hailstones, fire, 
and brimstone.” 41 Present also, it is reported, were hosts of “angels and seraphim, singing songs 
of praise to the Lord,” which must have helped considerably in turning the tide of battle. 
On the enemy side, harrying the Hebrews, was the guardian angel of Egypt, once holy but now 
corrupt. It appears though that Egypt had more than one guardian angel—four in fact, and that 
they all showed up, armed to the teeth. Various sources identify them as Uzza, Rahab, Mastema. 
and Duma. The fate of Rahab we know: he was drowned, along with the Egyptian horsemen. 
Mastema and Duma went back to Hell, where they had unfinished business to attend to. As for 
Uzza, some authorities say he was actually Semyaza, grandfather of Og, a leader of the fallen 
angels; and that since the Red Sea episode, and after his unfortunate affair with the maiden 
Ishtahar (immortalized in song by Byron), he hangs head down between Heaven and earth in 
the neighborhood of the constellation Orion. Indeed, Graves and Patai in their Hebrew Myths 
say that Semyaza is merely the Hebrew form for the Greek Orion. 

39. Miracles and magic were not always frowned upon by the Church, despite Jesus’ exhortation against 
signs and wonders as a basis for belief (John 4:48). When Pico della Mirandola (1463-1494) declared that “no science 
yields greater proof of angels, purgatory, hellfire, and the divinity of Christ than magic and the Kabbalah,” Pope 
Sixtus IV “was delighted and had the Kabbalah translated into Latin for the use of students of divinity” (Albert 
C. Sundberg, Jr., in The Old Testament of the Early Church, Harvard Theological Studies, 1964). However, a commis¬ 
sion appointed by a succeeding pope, Innocent VIII, condemned at least ten of Pico’s theses as “rash, false, and hereti¬ 
cal.” This seems to have been the attitude of the Church thereafter, the cabala being proscribed as a Jewish system of 
black magic, the “laboratory of Satan.” 

40. Tractate Beshallah, Mekilta de Rabbi Ishmael, vol. 1, p. 245. 

41. Martin Buber, Tales of the Hasidim, Later Masters, chapter on Rabbi Yaakov of Sadagora. While God, 
naturally, rejoiced over the victory of His Chosen People, He did not like to see His angels crowing over it. Thus, the 
Talmudists describe God as silencing an angelic chorus that chanted hallelujahs when the Egyptian hosts met with 
disaster, by crying out: “How dare you sing in rejoicing when my handiwork [i.e., the Egyptians] is perishing in the 
sea!” [R/ Ben Zion Bokser, The Wisdom of the Talmud, p. 117.] 



INTRODUCTION [xxv] 

Jacob’s antagonist at Peniel was God, as Jacob himself finally figured out when day broke 
(Genesis 32:30). But our learned rabbis, after pondering the text, have concluded that the antago¬ 
nist was not God but an angel of God, and that he was either Uriel, Gabriel, Michael, Meta- 
tron, or even Sammael, prince of death. 42 

When Enoch was translated to Heaven, his angelic guide, according to Enoch’s own testi¬ 
mony, was Uriel. But later on in the same book (Enoch I) Uriel turns out to be Raphael, then Raguel, 
then Michael, then Uriel all over again. Apparently they were the same angel, for Enoch 
throughout speaks of “the angel that was with me.” But perhaps it is too much to expect Enoch 
to be consistent. He is, as we have seen, notoriously unreliable. True, we do not have his original 
scripts, or even early copies; the writings accredited to him have come down to us in a hopelessly 
corrupt form, much of it clearly “doctored” to conform to the views of interested parties. Still 
it is hard to believe he was a clear thinker or accurate reporter, although he purports to have 
been an eyewitness in many of the incidents he describes. 

The habitat of angels proved equally perplexing. In the opinion of Aquinas, angels cannot 
occupy two places at the same time (theoretically it would not be impossible for them, being 
pure spirits, to do so). On the other hand, they can journey from one place to another, however 
far removed, in the twinkling of an eye. In angelology, one comes upon instance after instance 
where an angel is a resident of, or presider over, two or three Heavens simultaneously. Thus, in 
Hagiga 12b, Michael is the archistratege of the 4th Heaven. Here he “offers up daily sacrifice.” 
But Michael is also governor of the 7th and 10th Heavens. As for Metatron,.he is' reputed to 
occupy “the throne next to the throne of Glory,” which would fix his seat in the 7th Heaven, 
the abode of God. But we find Metatron, like Michael, a tenant of the 10th Heaven, the primum 
mobile, which is likewise the abode of God—when, that is, God is not in residence in the 
7th. 

Gabriel, lord of the 1st Heaven, has been glimpsed sitting enthroned “on the left-hand side 
of God (Mctatron’s throne, then, must be on God’s right). 43 This would indicate that Gabriel’s 
proper province is not the 1st but the 7th or 10th Heaven (it was in the 10th Heaven that Enoch 
beheld “the vision of the face of the Lord”). However, according to Milton in Paradise Lost IV, 
549, Gabriel is chief of the angelic guard placed over Paradise, and Paradise being in the 3rd 
Heaven, we should, accordingly, find the enthroned Annunciator camping out there. 

Logically, one should look for Shamshiel, prince of Paradise, 44 in zebul or sagun (the 3rd 
Heaven) where Azrael, suffragan angel of death, lodges, next to the Tree of Life. But some 

42. There are any number of princes or angels of death. Prominent among them, besides Sammael, are Kafziel. 
Kezef, Satan, Suriel, Yehudiam, Michael, Gabriel, Metatron, Azrael, Abaddon/Apollyon. They are all under orders 
from God. When they fail to accomplish their mission, as in the case of Moses who refused to give up the ghost, then 
God Himself acts as His own angel of death. According to legend (Ginzberg, The Legends ofthe Jews III, 473), after 
God used His best arguments to persuade the aged Lawgiver that he would be better off dead than alive, and the 
Lawgiver still proving stubborn, God descended from Heaven (in the company of Michael, Gabriel, and Zagzagel) 
and “took Moses’ soul with a kiss” (Jude 9). The legend goes on to say that God then buried Moses, but “in a spot 
that remained unknown, even to Moses himself.” 

43. It is here also "on the right hand of God the Father Almighty” that Jesus sits, according to the Apostles’ 
Creed. 

44. Other princes of Paradise include Johiel, Zephon, Zotiel, Michael, Gabriel. 



[ x x v i ] INTRODUCTION 

sources place Shamshiel in charge of the 4th Heaven (also called zebul). 45 On the other hand, if 
we go by The Book of Jubilees, Shamshiel is chief of the Watchers, and so properly he would be 
overseeing the 2nd or 5th Heaven, where the Watchers dwell, “crouched in everlasting despair.” 
Furthermore, in the guise of Shemuiel (the archonic warden who stands at the windows of 
Heaven “listening for the songs of praise ascending from synagogues and houses of study below”), 
Shamshiel would be posted at the portal of the 1st Heaven. Which leaves Shamshiel where? 
Obviously, in an emergency, it would be difficult to locate him. 

A final instance: Zagzagel or Zagzagael, prince of the Torah, “angel with the horns of glory,” 
is the celestial guard of the 4th Heaven—let us bear in mind that Shamshiel is already in charge 
at this level—and Zagzagel, being at the same time seneschal of the 7th Heaven, his stewardship 
of the 4th Heaven poses a knotty problem. Confusion without end ! One is constrained to cry 
out, with the dying Goethe: “More light!” 

A contemporary of the great Hillel, Ben Hai Hai (identified with another noted rabbi of 
his day, Ben Bag Bag) used to say: “According to the labor is the reward.” 46 Goethe in Faust, 
part 6, comforts his readers with a similar maxim: “Kuhn das Miihen, herrlich der Lohn”— 
“Daring the labor, lordly the reward.” 

If there is any reward for the labor of compiling this Dictionary, it is in the knowledge that 
every effort has been made to keep the sins of commission and omission down to a minimum 
(and no one knows better than the author how many sins may be committed in the course of 
such a work). There are still many problems left unresolved here. This is due either to the 
inaccessibility of much of the extant material in the field or to its indecipherability, or because 
the wit and wisdom to provide the solutions were wanting. Future investigators, better equipped, 
for whom some of the underbrush has been cleared away, may be able to provide the solutions, 
along with the names of additional angels that no doubt will turn up in new finds. I might 
interpose here (to paraphrase Rabbi Nathan’s famous dictum, “He who preserves a life preserves 
a world”) that the preserving of a single angel—not one of the “suffix” creatures—is like pre¬ 
serving a whole hierarchy. The task certainly is not an easy one, but it may prove easier than 
the one confronting this voyager when he started out on his quest, primed with only the 
scantiest notion of the labor that lay ahead. 

A good way to conclude this Apologia pro libro suo is to quote from a recently published 
paper on the guise of angels. It was there intimated that “in view of the continuing hold of the 
supernatural over the minds of men, and the fact that a belief in the existence of angels (and 
demons) is an article of faith with two of our major world religions, and part of the tradition 
of at least four of them (Persian, Jewish, Christian, Muslim), it is highly probable that we shall 
have the winged creatures with us for a long, long time to come.” True, we may not always 
know whether we are in the presence of “a spirit of health or goblin damned,” whether we are 
being fanned by “airs from Heaven or blasts from Hell,” but it is best to be on guard. Even 
Satan, as Paul cautioned us, can show himself transformed into an angel of light. 

45. In Peter de Abano, Heptameron, zebul is also a designation for the 6th Heaven. 

46. Pirke Aboth, chapter 5, mishna 26. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 


In the course of compiling this Dictionary, I availed myself of the counsel, knowledge, and help of a host 
of friends. Some read early versions of the text; others were generous with the loan of books; still others 
brought to my attention sources of information I might otherwise not have known. To all such, my 
gratitude and thanks. Appreciating the fact that a list of persons to whom one is indebted is hardly ever 
complete, I ask indulgence of those whose names are here omitted, not through any conscious act of 
mine, but by virtue of a faulty memory—a malady from which, I gather, many human beings suffer. 

From almost the beginning, two scholars encouraged and sustained me; also, on occasion, rescued 
me from exegetical pitfalls: Dr. Harry M. Orlinsky, professor of Bible at Hebrew Union College- 
Jewish Institute of Religion, New York, and Dr. Abraham Berger, chief of the Jewish Division, New 
York Public Library. In acknowledging my indebtedness to these distinguished colleagues and friends, 
I absolve them at the same time of responsibility for any errors, oversights, theological sins, indefensible 
assumptions or conclusions of which I may be guilty, and which are apt to occur in a work of this kind 
and extent, despite every effort at rooting them out. The responsibility is solely mine. I cheerfully 
shoulder it. And I leave it to Hamlet’s “angels and ministers of grace’’ to defend me. 

In the Oriental Division of the New York Public Library where I was (and still am) a frequent 
visitor, I benefited greatly from the friendly interest and wide-ranging knowledge of Francis Paar and 
Zia U. Missaghi (Ray Lord). They were unsparing of their time and help. In the Rare Book Room and 
in the quarters of the Berg Collection at the same institution I found the directors and the staff members 
equally knowledgeable, obliging, and helpful. 

Gershom Scholem of the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, in response to my inquiries as to the identity 
of the right and left emanations of God (the sefiras), generously provided me with their names, along 
with the sources where I might come upon them (the 16th-century texts of Jacob and Isaac ha-Cohen of 
Soria). I am extremely grateful to Dr. Scholem. I am grateful to Dr. Solomon Zeitlin of Dropsie College, 
Philadelphia, for trying to “authenticate” the seven archangels “that stand and enter before the glory of 
the Lord” (The Book of Tobit). I am indebted to Prof. Theodor H. Gaster of Columbia University for 
his interesting observations on the angel Suriel; and to Prof. Bruce M. Metzger of Princeton for making 
clear his views on Jeremiel and Uriel as being the same angel under different names. I am equally under 
obligation to Dr. Meir Havazelet of Yeshiva University, New York, who culled angels for me from the 
minor midrashim and who did not hesitate to ring me up in the middle of the night to spell out the 
names of winged creatures he had suddenly come across (in hechaloth or Merkabah lore) and which, he 
feared, I might have overlooked. 

xxvii 



[xxviii] ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I would be remiss if I did not speak here of the help accorded me by the late H. D. (Hilda Doo¬ 
little), noted American poet long resident abroad. She was an avid reader in esoterica; also a devout 
believer in angels, whom she invoked by name and apostrophized in song. From Zurich, where she made 
her home for many years until her recent death, she sent me rare books in practical cabala “for our 
mutual benefit.” Our friendship, though brief and late in coming, I count among my most cherished 
memories. 

Perhaps this would be a good place to make general acknowledgment to editors, authors, pub¬ 
lishers, heads of libraries and museums, custodians or owners of works of art, for permitting the use of 
illustrations over which they hold the right of reproduction. Specific acknowledgment is made through¬ 
out the Dictionary where such illustrations appear. And, for their friendly cooperation, help, patience, 
and indulgence, I am happy to record my gratitude to the editorial and production staffs of The Free 
Press and The Macmillan Company. 

This would be a good place also to speak of the unwavering interest, devotion, and faith in my 
work on the part of my wife Mollie, who proved to be at all times my severest critic (hence, my 
best friend). To her I owe and acknowledge a debt of gratitude which I know I shall never be able 
fully to discharge. 

And now, without interruption, a roster of those many others who, over the years, in greater or 
lesser degree, and perhaps without themselves being aware of having done so, enlivened and enhanced 
my labors, if only through a chance remark, an apt quotation, the verification of a date or the title of a 
book. Here then they are, from A to Y: 

John Williams Andrews, Professor Charles Angoff, Oscar Berger, Rabbi Ben Zion Bokser, 
Josephine Adams Bostwick, Edmund R. Brown, Eric Burger, Vera and Eduardo Cacciatore, Herbert 
Cahoon, Leo Cherne, Thomas Caldecot Chubb, Frank E. Comparato, Miriam Allen De Ford, Eugene 
Delafield, Arto DeMirjian, Jr., Dr. Alfred Dorn, Alexis Droutzkoy, Dan Duffin, Richard Ellis, Prof. 
Morton S. Enslin, John Farrar, Emanuel Geltman, Dr. Jivko Ghelev, Louis Ginsberg, Dean Loyd 
Haberly, the late Prof. Moses Hadas, Geoffrey Handley-Taylor, Hector Hawton, Prof. Abraham 
Joshua Heschel, Richard Hildebrand, Calvin Hoffman, Arthur A. Houghton, Jr., James Houston, W. 
Carter Hunter, Sulamith Ish-Kishor, Jeremiah Kaplan, Abraham Eli Kessler, John Van E. Kohn, Surya 
Kumari, Myra Reddin Lalor, Isobel Lee, Dr. Elias Lieberman, Dr. Gerhard R. Lomer, Eugenia S. Marks, 
Prof. Alfeo Marzi, Samuel Matza, Edward G. McLeroy, Gerard Previn Meyer, Martha Mood, Prof. 
Harry Morris, Kay Nevin, Rabbi Louis I. Newman, Louise Townsend Nicholl, Hugh Robert Orr, Jane 
Blaffer Owen, Mrs. Lori P. Podesta, Jane Purfield, Prof. Joseph Reider, Mrs. R. S. Reynolds, Sr., 
Rossell Hope Robbins, Leighton Rollins, Liboria Romano, Sylvia Sax, Howard Sergeant, Robert 
Sargent Shriver, Jr., Isaac Bashevis Singer, Chard Powers Smith, the late Prof. Homer W. Smith, 
Sidney Solomon, Prof. Walter Starkie, Rabbi Joshua Trachtenberg, Prof. Joseph Tusiani, Valery Webb, 
Charles A. Wagner, Vivienne Thaul Wechter, Prof. Robert H. West, John Hall Wheelock, Estelle 
Whelan, Basil Wilby, Claire Williams, Prof. Harry A. Wolfson, Dr. Amado M. Yuzon. 




A’albiel —an angel in the service of the arch¬ 
angel Michael. [Rf. M. Gaster, Wisdom of the 
Chaldeans.] 

Aariel (“lion of God”)—the name of an angel 
found inscribed on an Ophitic (gnostic) amulet 
alongside the name of the god Ialdabaoth (q.v.). 
[R/! Bonner, Studies in Magical Amulets.] 

Aba —an angelic luminary concerned with 
human sexuality and who may be invoked in 
cabalistic magical rites. Aba serves as a ministering 
angel to Sarabotes (who is Friday ruler of the 
angels of the air). [See Abalidoth. Rf. de Abano, 
The Heptameron; Barrett, The Magus; Masters, Eros 
and Evil.] 

Ababaloy —an angel invoked in Solomonic 
incantation operations. Ababaloy is mentioned in 
the black-magic manual, Grimorium Verum. 

Abachta (Abagtha)—in rabbinic writings, one 
of the 7 angels of confusion, the other 6 being 
Barbonah (Harbonah), Bigtha, Carcas, Biztha, 
Mehuman, and Zether. Abachta is also numbered 
among the “pressers of the winepress.” [Rf Ginz- 
berg. The Legends of the Jews IV, 374.] 


'Abaddon (Abbad on, the “destroyer”)—the 
Hebrew name for the Greek Apollyon, “angel of 
the bottomless pit,” as in Revelation 9:10; and 
the angel (or star) that binds Satan for 1,000 years, 
as in Revelation 20. The Thanksgiving Hymns (a 
copy of which turned up among the recently dis¬ 
covered Dead Sea scrolls) speaks of “the Sheol of 
Abaddon” and of the “torrents of Belial [that] 
burst into Abaddon.” The lst-century apocryphon 
The Biblical Antiquities of Philo speaks of Abaddon 
as a place (sheol, hell), not as a spirit or demon or 
angel. In Paradise Regained (IV, 624) Milton like¬ 
wise employs Abaddon as the name of a place, 
i.e., the pit. As far as is known, it was St. John, 
who first personified the term to stand for an 
angel. In the 3rd-century Acts of Thomas, Abaddon 
is the name of a demon, or of the devil himself— 
which is how Bunyan regards him in Pilgrim’s 
Progress. According to Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon, Abaddon is a name for God that Moses 
invoked to bring down the blighting rain over 
Egypt. The cabalist Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla 
denominates Abaddon as the 6th lodge of the 7 
lodges of Hell (arka), under the presidency of the 
angel Pasiel (q.v.). Klopstock in The Messiah calls 


1 



[2] ABADON I ABDIA 

Abaddon “death’s dark angel.’’ A reference to 
Abaddon’s “hooked wings” occurs in Francis 
Thompson’s poem “To the English Martyrs.” [See 
Apollyon.] Abaddon has also been identified as the 
angel of death and destruction, demon of the 
abyss, and chief of demons of the underworld 
hierarchy, where he is equated with Samael or 
Satan. [R/. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal; 
Grillot, A Pictorial Anthology of Witchcraft, Magic 
and Alchemy, p. 128.] In the latter work, Abaddon 
is the “Destroying Angel of the Apocalypse.” In 
Barrett, The Magus, Abaddon is pictured, in color, 
as one of the “evil demons.” 

Abadon—a term for the nether world (see 
Abaddon). The spelling here (with one ‘d’) is from 
The Zohar (Deuteronomy 286a). 

Abagtha [Abachta] 

Abalidoth—a celestial luminary who, like the 
angel Aba ( q.v .), is concerned with human sexual¬ 
ity. Abalidoth is a minister-angel serving King 
Sarabotes, Friday ruler of the angels of the air. [Rf 
Barrett, The Magus II; Masters, Eros and Evil.] 

Abalim (Arelim)—an order of angels known in 
Christian angelology as thrones. The equation is 
put thus in The Magus. “Thrones, which the 
Hebrew call Abalim, that is, great angels, mighty 
and strong.” The chief intelligences (i.e., angels) 
of the order are Zaphkiel and Jophiel (qq.v.). 

Aban—in ancient Persian lore, Aban is (or was) 
the angel of the month of October. He governed 
also the 10th day of that month. [Rf Hyde, 
Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum .] 

Abariel—in ceremonial magic tracts, an angel 
used for invoking. The name Abariel is found 
inscribed on the 2nd pentacle of the moon. [Rf 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon .] 

Abaros [Armaros] 

Abasdarhon—supreme ruling angel of the 5th 
hour of the night. [R/! Waite, The Lemegeton .] 

Abathur Muzania (Abyatur)—in Mandaean 
cosmology, the uthra (angel) of the North Star. He 
presides over the scales in which the human soul is 
weighed at the death of the body. Cf Ashriel and 


Monker (the latter, the Mohammedan black 
angel), both credited with performing a similar 
task. [Rf. Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.] 

Abay—an angel of the order of dominations 
(dominions), invoked in cabalistic conjuring rites. 

Abbadon [Abaddon] 

Abbadona—a fallen angel, a seraph, at one 
time the chosen companion of the faithful Abdiel 
(q.v.). In Klopstock, The Messiah, Canto 21, 
Abbadona, not wholly committed to the rebellion 
and constantly bemoaning his apostasy, is called 
“the penitent angel.” It should be pointed out, 
however, that a fallen angel cannot repent—not, 
at least, in Catholic doctrine—for once an angel 
sins, he is “fixed eternally in evil” and his mind, 
accordingly, can think evil only. 

Abbaton—a name of God or of a holy angel 
employed in Solomonic conjurations to command 
demons. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 
The word has the meaning of death and, in this 
sense, Abbaton is Death and a guardian spirit in 
Hell. [Rf. the Coptic Book of the Resurrection of 
Christ by Bartholomew the Apostle, segments of 
which are quoted by M. R. James in The Apocry¬ 
phal New Testament .] 

Abdals (“the substitutes”)—in Islamic lore, the 
name given to 70 mysterious spirits whose identi¬ 
ties are known to God alone, and through whose 
operations the world continues to exist. When one 
of these divine entities dies (the Abdals are not, 
apparently, immortal), another is secretly appoint¬ 
ed by God to replace him. Of the 70, two score 
reside in Syria. (Cf. “The Just” in Jewish folklore, 
and the Lamas of India.) 

Abdia (‘ ‘servant”)—the name of an angel that 
appears on the external circle of the pentagram 
of Solomon. Abdia is listed in Figure 156 in 
Waite, The Lemegeton. The listing of an angel in a 
book of black magic does not mean necessarily 
that he is evil. Many good and great angels are so 
listed; also, many good and great angels are in 
Hell, stationed there to serve God’s purpose—just 
as there are evil angels in certain quarters in 
Heaven (the grigori, for example). 




Angel with the Key of the Abyss by Albrecht Diirer. Gravure on wood, in the Bibliothique 
Nationale. The angel is Abaddon/Apollyon. From Willi Kurth, The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht 
Diirer. New York: Dover Publications, 1963. 













[4] ABDIEL I ACCUSING ANGEL 


Abdiel (‘ ‘servant of God”)—the earliest trace¬ 
able reference to Abdiel as an angel is in The Book 
of the Angel Raziel, a Jewish cabalistic work of the 
Middle Ages written in rabbinic Hebrew, the 
authorship credited to Eleazor of Worms. In 
Paradise Lost V, 805, 896, Abdiel is the “flaming 
seraph” who routs Ariel, Arioc, and Ramiel (rebel 
angels among Satan’s hosts) on the first day of 
fighting in Heaven. Satan himself reels from 
Abdiel’s “mighty sword stroke.” Milton hails the 
seraph as “faithful only hee; among innumerable 
false, unmov’d,/Unshak’n, unseduc’d” (896-897). 
West in Milton and the Angels, p. 124, states that 
Abdiel as an angel was invented by Milton; 
however, on p. 154, Professor West correctly 
points out that Abdiel is to be found in The Book 
of the Angel Raziel (op. cit.). In the Bible (I Chron¬ 
icles), Abdiel is not the name of an angel but of a 
mortal, a Gedite, a resident of Gilead. This is 
doubtlessly the original source for the name. 
Abdiel figures as an angel in Anatole France’s 
fictional The Revolt of the Angels. Here Abdiel is 
known as Arcade. 

Abdizriel (Abdizuel)—in the cabala, one of 28 
angels ruling the 28 mansions of the moon. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus.] For the names of all 28 
angels, see Appendix. 

Abedumabal (Bedrimulacl)—in the goetic 
tract Grimorium Verum, an angel invoked in 
magical prayer. 

Abel (“meadow”)—souls on arrival in Heaven 
are judged by Abel, who is one of 12 powers 
engendered by the god laldabaoth (q.v.). He is 
also of the angels of the 4th Heaven ruling on 
Lord’s Day and invoked from the east. In The 
Testament of Abraham 13:11, Abel is the angel 
“before whom every soul must appear for 
judgment after Enoch, the heavenly scribe, 
fetches the book containing the record of the soul 
in question.” [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Abelech (Helech)—in occult lore, a name of 
God or of an angel invoked to command demons. 
[Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 


Abezi-Thibod (“father devoid of counsel”)— 
in early Jewish lore, Abezi-Thibod is another 
name for Samael, Mastema, Uzza, and oth.r chief 
devils. He is a powerful spirit who fought Moses 
in Egypt, hardened Pharaoh’s heart and assisted 
Pharaoh’s magicians. He was drowned (with 
Rahab, q.v.) in the Red (i.e., Reed) Sea. With 
Rahab, he shares the princedom over Egypt. In 
The Testament of Solomon (Jewish Quarterly Review, 
London, 1889, XI), Abezi is the son of Beelzeboul 
(Beelzebub) and the demon of the Red Sea: “I am 
a descendant of the archangel,” he declares. 

Abheiel—one of the 28 angels'ruling the 28 
mansions of the moon. 

Abiou—corresponding angel of Eiael (q.v.). 

Abiressia—in gnostic lore, Abiressia is one of 
12 powers engendered by the god laldabaoth. [See 
Abel. Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics II.] 

Ablati—in Solomonic magical tracts, an angel 
invoked in the Uriel conjurations. He is “one of 
four words God spoke to his servant Moses,” the 
other 3 words being Josta, Agla, and Caila. [Rf. 
Grimorium Verum; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic; 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic.] 

Aboezra—an angel so named in The Book of 
Ceremonial Magic —“the most holy Aboezra.” He 
is invoked in the benediction of the Salt, as 
prescribed in the Grimorium Verum. 

Abracadabra (“I bless the dead”)—one of 3 
holy names invoked in the conjuration of the 
Sword. The word is one of the most ancient in 
magic; it derives, so it is said, from the Hebrew 
“ha brachah dabarah” (“speak the blessing”). As 
an amulet or charm, inscribed on parchment, it 
was hung around the neck to ward off disease. 
The invocant, when chanting the word, reduced 
it letter by letter until he had only the final “A” 
left. [See Abraxas.] 

Abrael [Abru-El] 

Abragateh—a spirit or angel invoked in 
Solomonic prayer by the Master of the Art. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 



Abramus [Abrimas] 

Abrasiel—an angel of the 7th hour of the day, 
operating under the rulership of Barginiel. [Rf. 
“The Pauline Art” in Waite, The Book of Cere¬ 
monial Magic, p. 67.] 

Abraxas (Abraxis, Abrasax, etc.)—in gnostic 
theogony, the Supreme Unknown; in Persian 
mythology, the source of 365 emanations. The 
name Abraxas is often found engraved on gems 
and used as an amulet, or for incantation. In the 
cabala, he is the prince of aeons. He is encountered 
in The Sword of Moses, The Book of the Angel 
Raziel, and other tracts of magic and mysticism. 
According to the older mythographers, Abraxas 
is, or was, a demon, and placed with the Egyptian 
gods. The word “abracadabra” is reputedly 
derived from Abraxas. Originally it was a word 
expressing, in the gnostic system, the aeons or 
cycles of creation; in a deeper sense, it served as a 
term for God. The gnostic writer Basilides, who 
is said to have invented Abraxas, according to 
Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions, claims that 
Abraxas was the archon-ruler of 365 Heavens, and 
acted as mediator between the animate creatures 
of the earth and the godhead. [See pictorial repre¬ 
sentation of a cock-headed Abraxas in Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 208.] 

Abrid—in occult lore, an angel of the summer 
equinox, effective especially as an amulet against 
the evil eye. [Rf Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition, p. 139, where Abrid is listed with 
half a dozen other memunim, i.e., deputy angels.] 

Abriel—one of the angels of (or formerly of) 
the order of dominations, invoked in cabalistic 
rites. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Abrimas—an angel invoked at the close of the 
Sabbath. [Rf Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition, p. 139.] 

Abrinael [Abrunael] 

Abru-El (“power of God”)—the Arab equi¬ 
valent for Gabriel. [Rf Forlong, Encyclopedia of 
Religions.] 

Abrunael—one of the 28 angels ruling over the 


...Abracadabra, ancient magic word [ 5 ] 

28 mansions of the moon. See Appendix for a list 
of all 28 ruling angels. 

Absinthium—the Latin form for Wormwood 
(q.v.). 

Abtelmoluchos [Temeluch] 

Abuhaza—in occultism, an angel ministering 
to Arcan, the latter being ruler of the angels of 
the air on Monday. He is subject to the West 
Wind. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus.] 

Abuionij—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, and other occult works, an angel serving 
in the 2nd Heaven. 

Abuiori (Abuioro)—in ritual magic, a Wed¬ 
nesday angel resident in either the 2nd or 3rd 
Heaven (according to different sources). He is to 
be invoked from the north. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameroir, Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Abuliel—in Jewish occult lore, the angel in 
charge of the transmission of prayer. He is men¬ 
tioned in Joffe and Mark, Great Dictionary of 
Yiddish Language I. Since he is not mentioned in 
Margouliath, Malache Elyon (Heavenly Angels), 
or in any of the hechaloth tracts that have so far 
come to light, or in Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic 
and Superstition, or in any of Gershom Scholem’s 
works, Abuliel cannot be regarded as an angel of 
great importance. The supreme angels of prayer 
are Akatriel, Metatron, Raphael, Sandalphon, 
Michael, and Sizouze. It is possible that Abuliel 
assisted one of the foregoing. 

Abuzohar—one of the angels of the moon, 
serving on Monday and responsive to invocations 
in ritual magic. [Rf. Les Admirables Secrets d’Albert 
le Grand.] 

Acclamations—according to Robert Fludd 
in his Utriusque cosmi majoris et minoris historia, the 
acclamations are one of 3 primary angelic hier¬ 
archies, each hierarchy being subdivided into 3 
secondary hierarchies, Fludd calls the other 2 
primary hierarchies voices and apparitions. 

Accusing Angel, The—usually the accusing 
angel is the adversary ( ha-satan ), as in Job. He is 
also Sammael or Mastema (q.v.). The hasidic 


[6] ACHAIAH I ADOIL 

Rabbi Zusya, in referring to Pirke Aboth (Sayings 
of the Fathers), recalls the dictum that “every sin 
begets an accusing angel.” 

Achaiah (“trouble”)—in the cabala, one of 8 
seraphim; he is the angel of patience and the dis¬ 
coverer of the secrets of nature. His corresponding 
angel is Chous. For Achaiah’s sigil, see Ambelain, 
La Kabbah Pratique, p. 260. In the New Testament, 
Achaiah is a Roman province. Paul visited the 
churches in that region (Acts 18:12, 27). 

Achamoth—one of the aeons, and a daughter 
of Pistis Sophia ( q.v .). In Ophitic gnosticism, 
Achamoth is the mother of the evil god Ildabaoth. 
[Rf. King, The Gnostics and Their Remains.] 

Achartiel and Achathriel—angelic names 
found inscribed on oriental charms ( kameoth ) for 
warding off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Achazriel—an angel who serves as usher in the 
celestial court. [Rf. Deuteronomy Rabba.J 

Acheliah—an angel whose name is found 
inscribed on the 1st pentacle of the planet Venus. 
[R/. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Achides—this angel has his name inscribed on 
the 3rd pentacle of the planet Venus. [Rf. Shah, 
The Secret Lore of Magic\ Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Achsah—a spirit of benevolence invoked in 
prayer by the Master of the Art in Solomonic 
conjurations. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Achtariel [Akatriel] 

Achusaton —one of 15 throne angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. For the 
names of all 15, see Appendix. 

Aciel—one of the 7 underworld planetary sub¬ 
rulers, called Electors by Cornelius Agrippa, 
serving under the overlordship of the angel 
Raphael. [Rf. Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon.] 

Aclahaye—genius of gambling; also one of the 
genii of the 4th hour. [R/. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron.] 


Acrabiel—an angel governing one of the signs 
of the zodiac. [R/. Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III.] 

Adabiel—in The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, 
one of the 7 archangels. Probably another form 
for Abdiel (q-v.). Adabiel has dominion over the 
planet Jupiter (other sources give Mars). He is 
sometimes equated with Zadkiel, or even with 
the king of Hades, Nergal. 

Adad—in Assyro-Babylonian mythology, the 
divinity of thunder; also “lord of foresight.” [Rf. 
Huyghe, Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, p. 59.] 

Adadiyah—one of the more than 100 names 
of Metatron. 

Adam (“man”)—in The Book of Adam and Eve 

I, 10, Adam is called “the bright angel.” In Enoch 

II, he is a “second angel.” When he was created, 
Adam reached from “the earth to the firmament,” 
according to the midrash Bereshith Rabba. In the 
cabala, Adam is the 6 th sephira Tiphereth (mean¬ 
ing “beauty”), according to Pistorius. Adam’s 
dust, declared Rabbi Meier, was gathered from 
all parts of the earth. Talmud records that Adam 
was originally androgynous and the exact image 
of God (Who was likewise conceived as andro¬ 
gynous). The story in The Apocalypse of Moses is 
that Adam was whisked to Heaven by Michael 
in a fiery chariot. Another legend is that he was 
fetched from Hell by Jesus and transported to 
Heaven along with the other “saints in chains. 
Still another legend, recounted in the Revelation 
of Moses (Ante-Nicene Fathers Library, 8 ) is that 
Adam was buried by 4 angels—Uriel, Gabriel, 
Raphael, Michael. In Mathers, The Kabbalah 
Unveiled, the 10 sefiroth, in their totality, represent 
or constitute the archetypal man, Adam Kadmon. 

Adam’s Angel [Raziel] 

Adatiel—an air spirit invoked in ritual magic. 
In the goetic tract the Black Raven, Adatiel is 
pictured as habited in a “billowing black-and- 
white mantle,” but in the Magia [Rf. Butler, 
Ritual Magic ] he is pictured in a “billowing blue 
mantle.” 



Adeo—an angel of the order of dominations, 
according to The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 
Adeo is invoked in magical rites. 

Adernahael (Adnachiel?)—this angel was given 
by God a magical formula, set down in an 
Ethiopian amulet, for the cure of colic and stomach 
trouble. [Rf. Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 
186.] 

Adhaijijon—an angel of the Seal, invoked in 
conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses.] 

Adhar—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron (q.v.). 

Adiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkahah), 
an angelic guard of the 7th heavenly hall. 

Adimus—at a church council in Rome in 745 
C.E., Adimus was one of a half-dozen reprobated 
angels, the others including Uriel (sic), Raguel, 
Simiel. The bishops who invoked these angels, 
or approved their veneration, were excommuni¬ 
cated. [Rf Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed 
Angels.] 

Adir (Adiri, Adiron, Adi)—an angel invoked in 
conjuring operations by a progressive shortening 
of his name; also one of the many names for God. 
[See Adiririon.] 

Adirael (“magnificence of God”)—one of the 
49 spirits (once exalted) now serving Belzebud, 
sub-prince of Hell. [Rf Mathers, The Book of the 
Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage, p. 108.] 

Adiram—an angel invoked in the benediction 
or exorcism of the Salt. [Rf Grimorium Verum.] 

Adiriah—an angel resident in the 7th Heaven. 
[Rf. Margouliath, Malache Ely on.] 

Adiriel—an angel resident in the 5th Heaven, 
according to The Zohar. [See Adiririon.] 

Adirir(i)on (Adir, Adriron)—angelic chief of 
“the might of God;” also a name for God. 
Adiririon is invoked as an amulet against the evil 
eye. He is said to be a guard stationed at one of 
the halls or palaces of the 1st Heaven. According 
to Margouliath, Malache Elyon, Adiririon may be 


.. .Aclahaye, genius of gambling [ 7 ] 

equated with Adiriel [Rf Scholem, Major Trends 
in Jewish Mysticism ; Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic 
and Superstition.] In Sefer Raziel (The Book of 
the Angel Raziel), Adirion or Adiririon is a 
“trusty healing-God, in whose hands are the 
Heavenly and earthly households.” 

Adityas—the shining gods of the Vedic 
pantheon, consisting of 7 celestial deities or angels, 
with Varuna as chief. The other 6 are: Mithra, 
Savitar, Bhaga, Indra, Daksha, Surya. [Rf. Gaynor, 
Dictionary of Mysticism ; Redfield, Gods IA Diction¬ 
ary of the Deities of All Lands.] 

Adjuchas—genius of the rocks; also one of the 
genii of the 11th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeroti ; Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Admael—one of the 7 archangels with 
dominion over the earth. Admael is stationed, for 
the most part, in the 2nd Heaven. [Rf. Jewish 
Encyclopedia, “Angelology.”] 

Adnachiel (Advachiel, Adernahael)—angel of 
the month of November, with rulership over the 
sign of Sagittarius. Adnachiel alternates with 
Phaleg as a ruling angel of the order of angels. [Rf. 
Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels’, 
Barrett, The Magus; Budge, Amulets and Talis¬ 
mans; De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal; Camfield, 
A Theological Discourse of Angels.) 

Adnai (“pleasure”)—an angel whose name is 
found inscribed on a pentacle of the planet Venus. 
[Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon; Shah, 
The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Adnarel (“my lord is God”)—in Enoch 
writings, one of the angelic rulers of one of the 
seasons (usually winter). [See Narel.] 

Adoil (“hand of God”)—a primordial essence 
or divine creature of light summoned out of the 
invisible depths and who, at God’s command, 
burst asunder. This occurred (according to Enoch 
II) at the time Enoch was being shown around the 
10 Heavens. Out of Adoil issued all things visible 
in the world. The name Adoil does not appear 
elsewhere than in Enoch II. R. H. Charles sees here 
a modification of the egg theory of the universe 
in ancient Egyptian myth. 



[8] ADONAEL / AESHMA 

Adonael—in The Testament of Solomon, one of 
the 7 archangels and the only angel who is able to 
overcome the demons of disease, Bobel (Botho- 
thel) and Metathiax. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Adonaeth—by appealing to the angel Adon- 
aeth, the demon Ichthion (who causes paralysis) 
can be routed. [Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of 
Magic.] 

Adonai (Adonay, “God”)—one of the 7 
elohim or angels of the presence (creators of the 
universe) in Phoenician mythology. Adonai is 
also an angel invoked in the conjuration of Wax 
(in Solomonic magic operations) and in exorcisms 
of fire. In Ophitic gnosticism, Adonai is one of 7 
angels generated by Ildabaoth “in his own image.” 
[Rf. King, The Gnostics and Their Remains.] In the 
Old Testament, Adonai is another word for God, 
as “When I have mercy on the world, I am 
Adonai.” 

Adonaios (Adonaiu, Adoneus)—in the Ophitic 
(gnostic) system, one of the 7 archons or potentates 
that constitute the Hebdomad, rulers of the 7 
Heavens; also one of the 12 powers engendered by 
the god Ialdabaoth. [Rf Origen, Contra Celsum\ 
Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Adoniel—in Waite, The Lemegeton, a chief 
officer angel of the 12th hour of the night, serving 
under Sarindiel. His name is found inscribed on 
the 4th pentacle of the planet Jupiter, along with 
the name of the angel Bariel. The pentacle is 
reproduced in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon, plate IV. 

Adossia (fictional)—a supervising archangel in 
Gurdjieff’s cosmic myth, All and Everything, 
Beelzebub's Tales to his Grandson< 

Adoth—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, a cherub or seraph used in conjuring rites. 

Adoyahel—in the cabala, a ministering throne 
angel. He is one of 15, as listed in The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses. For the names of all 15, 
see Appendix. 

Adrael (“my help is God”)—an angel serving 
in the 1st Heaven. [See Adriel.] 


Adrai—in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 
an angel invoked in the conjuration of Ink and 
Colors. 

Adram[m]elech[k] (“king of fire”)—one of 2 
throne angels, usually linked with Asmadai ( q.v.). 
In demonography, Adramelech is 8th of the 10 
archdemons; a great minister and chancelor of the 
Order of the Fly (Grand Cross), an order said to 
have been founded by Beelzebub. According to 
the rabbis, Adramelech manifests, when conjured 
up, in the form of a mule or a peacock. In Selig- 
mann, History of Magic, he is pictured in the shape 
of a horse. In II Kings 17:31, Adramelech is a god 
of the Sepharvite colony in Samaria to whom 
children were sacrificed. He has been equated with 
the Babylonian Anu and with the Ammonite 
Moloch. In Paradise Lost, Milton refers to Adra¬ 
melech as an “idol of the Assyrians” (the name 
here deriving from Assyrian mythology), and in 
the same work —Paradise Lost VI, 365, Adramelech 
is a fallen angel overthrown by Uriel and Raphael 
in combat. In Klopstock, The Messiah, Adramelech 
is “the enemy of God, greater in malice, guile, 
ambition, and mischief than Satan, a fiend more 
curst, a deeper hypocrite.” See picturization in 
SchafF, A Dictionary of the Bible, p. 26, where 
Adramelech is shown bearded and winged, with 
the body of a lion. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal 
(1863 ed.), shows him in the form of a mule with 
peacock feathers. 

Adrapen—a chief angel of the 9th hour of the 
night, serving under Nacoriel. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Adriel (“my help is God”)—one of the 28 
angels ruling the 28 mansions of the moon. 
Adriel is also one of the angels of death, according 
to Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, 
wherein, it is claimed, he will “in the last days 
slay all souls then living.” In Ozar Midrashim II, 
316a and 317, Adriel is one of the angelic guards 
of the gates of the South Wind (also of the East 
Wind). 

Adrigon—one of the many names of Metatron 
{q.v.). 

Aduachiel [Adnachiel] 




Infant angel by Titian. Reproduced from 
Regamey, Anges. 


Advachiel [Adnachiel] 

Aebel—one of 3 ministering angels (the other 2 
were Shetel and Anush) whom God appointed to 
serve Adam. According to Yalkut Reubeni and 
The Book of Adam and Eve, the 3 angels “roasted 
meat” for Adam and even “mixed his wine.” 

Aeglun—genius of lightning and one of the 
genii of the 11th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron .] 

Aehaiah—one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Aeon—in gnosticism, the aeon is a celestial 
power of a high order. It is a term used to desig¬ 
nate the 1st created being or beings,,with Abraxis 
as head; also, as an emanation of God, to be com¬ 
pared with the sefira (q.v.). Since Creation there 
have been, according to Basilides, 365 aeons 
(other sources give 8, 12, 24 and 30), chief among 
them, apart from Abraxis, being the female 
personification of wisdom (Pistis Sophia) and the 
male personification of power (Dynamis). Prior 
to the 6th century and the Dionysian hierarchic 


.. .Adramelech, the enemy of God [ 9 ] 

system, the aeons were counted among the 10 
angelic orders; they were personalized by the 
3rd-century Hippolytus thus: Bythios, Mixis, 
Ageratos, Henosis, Autophyes, Hedone, Akinetos, 
Nonogenes, and Macaria. As far back as the 
1st and 2nd centuries c.e., Ignatius Theophorus, 
in his Epistles to the Trallians, spoke of the “mighti¬ 
ness of the aeons, the diversity between thrones 
and authorities, the preeminence of the seraphim.” 
“The aeons,” says W. R. Newbold in “Descent 
of Christ in the Odes of Solomon” (Journal of 
Biblical Literature, December 1912), “are the 
hypostatized thoughts of God,” emanated in 
pairs, male and female, and, “taken together form 
the pleroma or fullness of God.” There is a myth 
of a proud aeon (probably Abraxis) who mirrored 
himself on chaos and became lord of the world. 
Early in life, George William Russell, the Irish 
poet and mystic, decided to sign his writings, 
“Aeon.” A proofreader, who could not decipher 
the word, queried “AE?” Russell adopted the 
initials and thereafter never wrote under his own 
name. [Rf King, The Gnostics and Their Remains ; 
Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten-, George 
William Russell (AE), The Candle of Vision.] 

Aeshma—the basis for Asmodeus (q.v.). In 
Persian myth, Aeshma is one of the 7 archangels 
(i.e., amesha spentas). The name is drawn, in turn, 
from the Zend Aeshmo daeva (the demon Aesh¬ 
ma). 

Angels by Diirer, detail from Mass of St. Gregory. 

Woodcut reproduction, title page of Jean 

Danielou, The Angels and Their Mission. 


[10] AETHERIAL / AHANIEL 

Aetherial Powers —a term for angels in 
Paradise Regained 1,163. 

Af (“anger”)—one of the angels of destruction, 
a prince of wrath, and a ruler over the death of 
mortals. With Hemah ( q.v .), Af once swallowed 
Moses up to his “circumcised membrum,” but 
had to disgorge him when Zipporah (Moses’ 
wife) circumcised her son Gershom, thus appeas¬ 
ing God’s wrath against the Lawgiver who had, 
it appears, overlooked the covenantly rite. Af 
resides in the 7th Heaven and is 500 parasangs tall. 
He is “forged out of chains of black and red fire.” 
[Rf. The Zohar; Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews 
II, 308, 328; Midrash Tehillim.] 

Afafiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 7th heavenly hall. 

Afarof [Afriel] 

Af Bri—an angel who favors the people of 
Israel; he exercises control over rain. ( Cf. Matarel.) 
[Rf. Margouliath, Malache Elyon.] 

Affafniel—a wrathful angel, prince of 16 faces 
(4 on each side of his head) that constantly change 
their aspect. [Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel] 

Afkiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 5th heavenly hall. 

Afriel (Afarof)—an angel of force (power?) 
who may be Raphael in another guise. [Rf Mont¬ 
gomery, Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur; 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] In The 
Testament of Solomon, Afarof is reputed to possess 
the power of thwarting the machinations of the 
demon Obizuth, a female destroyer of children. 

Afsi-Khof—an angel who governs the month 
of Av (July-August), as listed in Schwab, Vocabu¬ 
laire de I’Angelologie. 

Aftemelouchos—according to a legend told in 
the Falasha Anthology, an angel of torment who, 
in Heaven, carries a fork of fire on the river of fire. 
[Rf. Apocalypse of Paul.] 

Aftiel—in rabbinic lore, the angel of twilight. 
He is mentioned in Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’An- 
gelologie. 


Agad—in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, an 
angel of the order of powers. In one of her poems 
“Sagesse,” the poet H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) men¬ 
tions Agad. 

Aga£—an angel of destruction invoked in 
ceremonial rites at the close of the Sabbath. 
[R/ Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 

Agalmaturod—in Waite, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, “a most holy angel of God” invoked in 
magical operations. 

Agares (Agreas)—once of the order of virtues, 
Agares is now a duke in Hell, served by 31 legions 
of infernal spirits. He manifests in the form of an 
old man astride a crocodile and carrying a goshawk. 
He teaches languages and can cause earthquakes. 
His sigil is shown in Waite, The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts, p. 166. According to legend, Agares 
was one of the 72 spirits Solomon is reputed to 
have shut up in a brass vessel and cast into a deep 
lake (or banished to “lower Egypt”). 

Agason—an angelic spirit invoked in Solomonic 
conjurations as “thy Most Holy Name Agason.” 
[Rf Grimorium Verum.] 

Agathodaemon—in gnosticism, “the seven- 
voweled serpent [seraph], the Christ.” Derived 
from the Egyptian serpent Agathodaimon, the 
good spirit, as opposed to Kakadaimon, the evil 
spirit. Agathodaemon has also been designated a 
guardian angel or genius and identified with 
Hermes, “the bringer of good, the angel standing 
by the side of Tyche.” [Rf Harrison, Epilogomena 
to the Study of Greek Religion, p. 296; De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal; Spence, An Encyclopaedia 
of Occultism ; Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine.] 

Agbas—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 4th heavenly hall. 

Agiel—an angel’s name found inscribed on the 
1st pentacle of the planet Mercury. According to 
Paracelsus’ doctrine of Talismans, Agiel is the 
presiding intelligence (i.e., spirit, angel) of the 
planet Saturn, acting in concert with the spirit 
Zazel. [Rf Christian, The History and Practice of 
Magic I, 318.] 




Expulsion of Lucifer from heaven. A Caed¬ 
mon paraphrase. Reproduced from J. Charles 
Wall, Devils. 


Agkagdiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Agla —in the cabala, an angel of the Seal 
invoked in conjurations of the Reed; also, a spirit 
invoked in Monday conjurations addressed to 
Lucifer. In rites of exorcism, Agla is called on by 
lot, and here he is a magic word of power for the 


... Agates, can cause earthquakes [11] 

exorcism of demons. In addition, Agla is a name 
of God that Joseph invoked when he was deliv¬ 
ered from his brothers. Agla is a combination of 
the 1st letters of the 4 Hebrew words meaning 
“Thou art forever mighty, O Lord” (atha gadol 
leolam Adonai). [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon', Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of 
Pacts ; De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal .] 

Agmatia—an angel of unknown origin, men¬ 
tioned in Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah 
Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition. 

Agniel—in The Zohar (Tikkun suppl.), the 
4th of the 10 unholy sefiroth. 

Agrat bat Mahlat—an angel of prostitution, 
one of the 3 mates of Sammael ( q.v .). The other 
2 mates are Lilith and Naamah. 

Agreas [Agares] 

Agromiel—an angelic guard of the 6th Heaven. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim, 1,116.] 

Aha —an angel of the order of dominations; a 
spirit of fire used in cabalistic magical operations. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses] 

Ahabiel—in Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation 
Texts from Nippur, an angel invoked in love 
charms. 

Ahadiel—an angelic enforcer of the law, as 
noted in Margouliath, Malache Elyon. [Cf. Akriel.] 

Ahadiss—an angel who exercises dominion 
over the month of Heschwan (October-Novem- 
ber). [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angdlologie.] 

Ahaha—an angel of the Seal, used in conjuring. 
[Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Ahaij —in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, 
a spirit of the planet Mercury, summoned up in 
ritual magic. 

Ahamniel—one of the chief angel-princes 
appointed by God to the Sword. [Rf. M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses, XI.] 

Ahaniel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels, 
as listed in Margouliath, Malache Elyon. [Rf. 













[12] AH ARIEL / ALCIN 

The Book oj the Angel Raziel; Budge, Amulets and 
Talismans.] 

Ahariel—angelic ruler of the 2nd day, serving 
under Gabriel. [Rf. Margouliath, Malache Elyon.] 

Ahassior—angelic ruler of the month of Tebet 
(December-January). [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
VAngMogie.] 

Ahaviel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental Hebrew charm (kamea) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Ahiah (Hiyyah)—son of the fallen angel 
Semyaza (q.v.). [R/. Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews III, 340.] It should be pointed out that while 
angels, being pure spirits, cannot propagate their 
kind, fallen angels, being corrupt and demonic, 
are able to do so. 

Ahiel (“brother of God”)—one of the 70 
childbed amulet angels, an assistant to the angel 
Qaphsiel (Kafsiel), ruler of the 7th day. [Rf. The 
Book of the Angel Raziel.] 

Ahjma’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Ahriman (Ariman, Aharman, Dahak, Angro- 
Mainyus, etc.)—the Persian prince of evil, proto¬ 
type of the Christian Satan. According to Zoro¬ 
aster, who was tempted by the archfiend but 
came off triumphant from the encounter, it was 
Ahriman who brought death to the world by 
virtue of slaying the prototype of man and beasts. 
[Rf Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions.] Ahriman 
was not entirely evil until Sassanid times. The 
Magi once sacrificed to Ahriman. He is coeval 
with Ahura Mazda and equally supreme in power, 
but will be overcome in the end by the great 
Persian “omniscient lord of heaven and earth.” 

Ahura [Asuras] 

Ahzariel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm (kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Aiavel—one of the 72 angels governing the 
signs of the zodiac. For the names of all 72 angels, 
see Appendix. 


Aiel—an angel of the air, ruler on Lord’s Day 
(Sunday), governor of one of the 12 zodiacal 
signs (Aries). He is a resident of the 4th Heaven 
and must be summoned from the north. He is one 
of the “fiery triplicities.” [R/ de Abano, The 
Heptameron; Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Ailoaios—in gnostic lore, ruler of the 2nd gate 
“leading to the aeon of the archons.” [See invoca¬ 
tion to Ailoaios in the writings of Origen, re¬ 
produced in Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of 
Christianity II, 73.] 

Aishim (“the flames”)—according to The 
Zohar, the aishim constitute an order of angels. 
The term is derived from Psalms 104:4: “who 
maketh his angels spirits, his ministers a flaming 
fire.” [See Is(c)him.] 

Aisthesis (Thelesis, “free will”)—in gnosticism, 
a great luminary emanated from the divine will. 

Akae (“oath”)—according to M. Gaster, Logos 
Ebraikos and the Book of Enoch, the word Akae 
stands for the “ineffable name of God, the know¬ 
ledge of which gives man the power of acting 
almost like one of the superior beings.” See also 
Kasbeel, “chief of oaths.” In Enoch I (69:14) the 
angel Kasbeel “places this oath Akae in the hand 
of Michael.” It is through the power and secrets 
of this oath that “the sea was created and the earth 
founded upon the water.” 

Akat(h)riel Yah Yehod Sebaoth (Achtariel, 
Aktriel, Ketheriel, Yehadriel)—one of the great 
crown judgment princes placed over all the other 
angels. He is equated with the “angel of the Lord,” 
a term frequently used in the Old Testament for 
the Lord Himself. Elisha ben Abuya, one of the 4 
sages that visited Heaven during their lifetime, 
reported: “When I ascended into Paradise, I 
beheld Akatriel JHWH, Lord of Hosts, at the 
entrance, and 120 myriads of ministering angels 
surrounded him.” Cabalistically, Akatriel is the 
name of the godhead as manifested on the throne 
of Glory. In an 8th-century apocalyptic tract 
dealing with Akatriel, Metatron appears once or 
twice in Akatriel’s place. [Rf. Talmud Berachoth 
7a; Cordovero, Pardes Rimmonim', Scholem, 


Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Tal¬ 
mudic Tradition.] 

Aker—one of the 9 angels who will rule or 
judge “at the end of the world,” according to the 
Revelation of Esdras. [R/ Ante-Nicene Fathers 
Library, vol. 8, p. 573. For the names of the 8 
angels, see Angels at the World’s End.] 

Akram(m)achamarei—in the Coptic Pistis 
Sophia, this spirit is 1st among a triad “standing 
high in the gnostic hierarchy of deities; master of 
the heavenly firmaments,” and is invoked in 
magical rites, as revealed in a “curse” tablet re¬ 
produced by Bonner in Studies in Magical Amulets. 
Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, 
and Talmudic Tradition, p. 95, believes that Akra- 
machamarei, because of his depiction as a sun god, 
“could be interpreted as a representation of the 
angel Ariel.” 

Ak(h)raziel (“herald of God”)—probably 
another form of Raziel or Galizur ( q.v .). Akraziel 
is the angel of proclamation; also guard of the 
last gate in Heaven. He is the angel who revealed 
to Adam the divine mysteries. When Moses’ 
death was sealed and the Lawgiver pleaded for 
longer life, God bade Akraziel announce that 
Moses’ prayer was not to ascend to Heaven. [Rf 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews III, 419.] 

Akriel—angel of barrenness. Akriel is appealed 
to in cases of stupidity; also when reciting verses 
from Deuteronomy. [Rf. Margouliath, Malache 
Elyon\ Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Super¬ 
stition.] 

Akteriel [Akathriel]—a great angel who, 
according to a Lurian but un-Jewish legend [R/l 
Bamberger, Fallen Angels], was summoned by 
Sandalphon to reveal to him how Sammael, 
prince of evil, and the latter’s hosts could be 
subdued. Nothing fruitful came of the mission 
even though Akteriel had the benefit of the advice 
of Metatron (twin brother of Sandalphon), 
who accompanied Akteriel. In a word, the over¬ 
coming of evil, or of the prince of evil, was not 
something that angels, even the greatest of them, 
could accomplish. 


.. .Ahiah, son of a fallen angel [13] 

Akzariel—an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental charm (famed) for warding off evil. 
[Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Alaciel (fictional) [Nectaire] 

Alad—a title applied to Nergal, lord of the 
dead. [Rf. Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology Folklore 
and Symbols.] 

Aladiah—one of the 72 angels bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae. [Rf Barrett, 
The Magus II.] 

Alaliyah—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron (q.v.). 

Alamaqanael—one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the West Wind. [R/l Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316.] 

Alat—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 7th heavenly hall. 

Alazaion—“a most holy angel of God” 
invoked in magical rites, especially in the conjura¬ 
tion of the Reed. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon; Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic.] 

Albim—an angelic guard of the gates of the 
North Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Albion’s Angel—an angel, not otherwise 
named, in Blake’s painting “Breach in the City— 
in the Morning after Battle,” which serves as 
frontispiece for the poet-painter’s Visions of the 
Daughters of Albion. According to Hagstrum, 
William Blake, Poet and Painter, Albion’s Angel is a 
“personification of the Tory Establishment under 
George III, or the Poetic Genius in an age of arid 
classicism and aristocratic art.” For reproduction 
of Albion’s Angel, see Fogg Museum Bulletin, 
vol. X (November 1943). Albion is an ancient 
name of England. 

Albrot—one of 3 holy names (of God or 
angels) invoked in the conjuration of the Sword. 
[Rf. Grimorium Verum.] 

Alcin—one of numerous angelic guards 
stationed at the gates of the West Wind, as cited 
in Ozar Midrashim II, 316. 



[14] ALFATHA / AMEZYARAK 



Repose in Egypt with Dancing Angels by 

Vandyck. Reproduced from Anna Jameson, 

Legends of the Madonna. 

Alfatha —an angel with dominion over the 
north. [Rf. Gospel of Bartholomew in James, The 
Apocryphal New Testament .] For other angels who 
exercise dominion over the north, see Gabriel, 
Chairoum. 

Alimiel—one of the intelligences or chora 
(i.e., angels) of the first altitude. He is one of 5, 
the other 4 being Gabriel, Barachiel, Ledes, 
Helison. [Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic; 
Waite, The Almadel of Solomon.] In Ozar Midra- 
shim, Alimiel is one of the 7 guards of the curtain 
or veil of the 7th Heaven. He is equated with 
Dumahel. 

Alimon —in Mosaic incantation rites, a great 
angel prince who, when invoked, protects the 
invocant from gunshot wounds and from sharp 
instruments. His aides are the angels Reivtip and 
Tafthi. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Almiras—in ceremonial magic, the “master 
and chief of invisibility.” An adept must usually 
be in possession of the magic ring of Gyges to 
effect contact with the master. [Rf. The Grand 
Grimoire.] 

Ad Moakkibat [Moakkibat] 

Almon—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard of the 4th heavenly hall. 


Alphariza (Aphiriza)—an intelligence of the 
2nd altitude. [Rf. Waite, The Almadel of Solomon.] 

Alphun—the genius (i.e., angel) of doves. In 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron, Alphun 
figures as one of the governors of the 8th hour. 
[Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Alpiel—in Hebrew mysticism, an angel or 
demon who rules over fruit trees. [Rf. Spence, 
An Encyclopaedia of Occultism; Gaynor, Dictionary 
of Mysticism.] 

Altarib—an angel who exercises dominion 
over winter. He may be summoned in magical 
rites. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron.] 

AI Ussa—in pagan Arab mythology, a female 
angel. Her idol was destroyed on orders of 
Mohammed. [Rf. Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology 
Folklore and Symfco/s.] 

Al-Zabamiya—in the Koran (sura 74, 30), a 
term denoting angelic guards serving in Hell. 
There were 19 of them. [Rf. The Encyclopaedia of 
Islam, III, “Angels.”] 

Amabael—an angel who, like Altarib, exer¬ 
cises dominion over winter. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Amabiel—angel of the air on Tuesday and a 
presiding spirit of the planet Mars. Amabiel is 
also one of the angelic luminaries “concerned with 
human sexuality.” [Rf. Malchus, The Secret 
Grimoire of Turiel; de Abano, The Heptameron; 
Masters, Eros and Evil; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Amalek—in The Zohar (I) a spirit identified 
with Sammael as “the evil serpent, twin soul of 
the poison god.” [Cf Deuteronomy 25:19.] 

Amaliel—angel of punishment; also of weak¬ 
ness. [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Ange'lologie.] 

Amamael—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 3rd 
heavenly hall. 

Amarlaii (Amarlia)—an angel invoked for 
the curing of cutaneous diseases. [Rf. Talmud 
Shabbath, fol. 67, col. 1.] 


Amarlia (Amarlaii)—an angel who came out 
of the land of Sodom to heal painful boils, as noted 
in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Amaros [Armaros] 

Amarzyom—one of 15 throne angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. For the names 
of all 15, see Appendix. 

Amatiel—one of the 4 angels exercising 
dominion over spring. [Rf de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Amatliel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 3rd 
heavenly hall. 

Amator—in cabala, a “holy, angelic name” 
used in conjuring after proper investiture by the 
invocant. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon.] 

Amazaroc [Amezyarak] 

Ambassadors—a term for angels, as in “the 
ambassadors of peace” (Isaiah 33:7) which, in 
The Zohar, is translated “angels of peace.” 

Amber—the term amber, occurring in Ezekiel 
1:4, is taken to mean “by the ancient Hebrews, 
the fire-speaking being, belonging to an angelic 
genus, just as cherubim, seraphim, etc., denote 
distinct classes of angels.” [Rf. C. D. Ginsburg, The 
Essenes and the Kabbalah, p. 242; see Hashmal.] 

Ambriel (Amriel)—angel of the month of May 
and a prince of the order of thrones. Ambriel is 
chief officer of the 12th hour of the night, one 
of the rulers of the 12 zodiacal signs with dominion 
over Gemini. The name Amriel is found inscribed 
on an oriental Hebrew charm ( kamea ) for warding 
off evil. In the cabala ( The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses) Ambriel is a spirit cited for conjur¬ 
ing purposes under the 7th seal of the planet 
Mars. [Rf. Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed 
•Anjjels; Waite, The Lemegeton ; Barrett, The Magus 
II; Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Ameratat (Ameretat)—in early Persian lore, 
the angel of immortality. Ameratat is one of 6 or 7 
celestial powers or archangels (the amesha spentas) 
in the Zoroastrian system. [A/! Geiger and Kuhn, 


...Alimon,for protection from guns [15] 

Grundriss der iranischen Philologie III.] Some 
scholars see the Mohammed Marut (a Koranic 
fallen angel) derived from the Persian Ameratat 
[Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian and 
Mohammedan Literature, p. 131.] 

Amertati—an angel in Arabic lore; called also 
Mordad (q.v.). [Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, 
Christian and Mohammedan Literature, p. 131.] 

Amesha Spentas (“holy, immortal ones”— 
amshashpands)—the Zoroastrian equivalents of 
the Judaeo-Christian archangels. Usually 6 in 
number, they exercised dominion over the plan¬ 
ets. The amesha spentas are also said to be the 
Persian prototype of the cabalistic sefiroth. In their 
highest occult meaning the amesha spentas 
became (or originally were) the noumenal Sravah. 
As in the case of the sefiroth, which have their evil 
counterpart, so the amesha spentas have (or had) 
their opposites in the great demons or daevas, 
headed by Anra Mainya (Ahriman). The 6 “holy 
immortal ones” were: Armazd (chief); Ameretat 
(immortality); Ar(a)maiti (holy harmony, who 
was female); Asha (righteousness); Haurvatat 
(salvation); Kshathra Vairya (rulership); Vohum- 
anah (good thought). There was also a 7th: 
S(a)raosha. [Rf. Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum 
Persarum; Blavatsky, The Secret Doctrine II; 
Lenormant, Chaldean Magic; Miiller, History of 
Jewish Mysticism.] In The Dabistan, p. 136, other 
amesha spentas are recorded, 4 of them said to 
have been “closest to the just God.” They are: 
Bahman, Ardibahist, Azarkhurdad, Azargushtasp. 
The 6 “evil” archangels were Tauru, Zairicha, 
Khudad, Murdad, and two others. [Rf. Forlong, 
Encyclopedia of Religions.] 

Amezyarak (Amazarec, Semyaza)—in Enoch I 
(8:2), an angel who taught conjurors and root 
cutters their art. He was one of 200, or one of the 
leaders of 200, who descended from Heaven to 
cohabit with the daughters of men. The Greek 
text of Enoch I reads “Semiazas” in place of Amez¬ 
yarak. In R. H. Charles, Enoch I, the name is given 
as Amiziras. Eliphas Levi ( The History of Magic) 
differentiates Amazarac (Amezyarak) from Semy¬ 
aza in the listing of the apostate angels. 



[16] AMHIEL I ANAK 

Amhiel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Ami car—a most holy spirit (or another name 
for God) invoked in prayer at Vesting. [Rf. Waite, 
The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.] It was not 
unusual for many angels, including those of the 
highest rank, to be impressed into the service of 
invocants when the latter were dabbling in black 
magic. 

Amides—an angel, like Amicar, invoked in 
prayer at Vesting. [Rf. Malchus, The Secret 
Grimoire of TurieL] 

Amilfaton—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah ), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Amisiel—in Waite, The Lemegetoti, an angel of 
the 5th hour, operating under the rule of Sazquiel. 

Amisiyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Amisor—the name of a great angel invoked 
in Solomonic magical rites, specifically in the 
invocation at fumigation. [Rf. Grimorium Verum; 
Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Amitiel—angel of truth, invoked as an amulet. 
Michael and Gabriel are credited as being such 
angels, along with Amitiel. In rabbinic writings, 
when God proposed the creation of man, the 
angels of truth and of peace (unnamed in the 
legend), as well as other angels, opposed the idea. 
For this opposition, the angels of truth and of 
peace were burned. [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews; Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] 

Amiziras [Amezyarak] 

Ammiel ("people of God”)—angel of the 4th 
hour of the day serving under Vachmiel. Ammiel 
is also mentioned as an angel of the 7th hour of 
the night, serving under Mendrion. [Rf. Waite, 
The Lemegeton, pp. 67, 69.] 

Amnixiel—one of the 28 angels that rule over 
the 28 mansions of the moon. Amnixiel is also 
mentioned as an extra in the list of the 7 Electors 


of Hell (which would make him, at the very least, 
a fallen angel). [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II; Butler, 
Ritual Magic.] 

Amnodiel—like Amnixiel, Amnodiel is one 
of the 28 angels that rule over the 28 mansions of 
the moon. He also figures as an extra in the list 
of the 7 Electors of Hell. 

Amoias—in the gnostic Paraphrase of Shem, 
one of the mysterious entities to whom the secrets 
of Creation were revealed. [Rf Doresse, The 
Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, p. 148.] 

Ampharool—an angel who was called by 
Solomon “king of the genii of flying.” Ampharool 
presides over instant travel and comes to an invo- 
cant when summoned by name. [Rf The Book of 
Power.] 

Amra’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Amriel [Ambriel] 

Amshashpands [Amesha Spentas] 

Amtiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 3rd 
heavenly hall. 

Amudiel—an extra in the list of the 7 Electors 
of Hell. 

Amuhael X—an angel called on in conjuring 
rites. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Amulet Angels—there were 70 of these angels 
and they were invoked frequently at the time of 
childbirth. For their names, see Appendix. 

Amwak’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Amy—once an angel of the order of angels 
and of the order of powers, Amy is now “a great 
president” in the lower realms. He “gives perfect 
knowledge of astrology and the liberal arts.” 
He hopes (so he confided to King Solomon) to 
return to the 7th throne "in 1200 years,” which, 



says the demonologist Wierus, “is incredible.” 
Amy’s seal is figured in The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts, p. 184. 

Anabiel—in the cabala, an angel who, when 
invoked for such purposes in magical rites, is 
able to cure stupidity. [Rf. Moses Botarel’s works 
and Enoch lore.] 

Anabona—In Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, the name of a spirit or angel “by which 
God formed man and the whole universe.” It is 
said that Moses heard this name (Anabona) when 
the Ten Commandments were given him on Mt. 
Sinai. 

Anabotas (Arabonas)—in the Grimorium Vennn, 
an angel invoked in cabalistic rites. 

Anachiel—the name of one of the 4 important 
angels found inscribed in Hebrew characters on 
the 3rd pentacle of the planet Saturn, according to 
The Greater Key of Solomon. The mystical circle 
of evocation is reproduced on p. 54 of The Secret 
Lore of Magic. In Longfellow’s The Golden Legend 
(1st American ed. 1851), Anachiel is the governing 
angel of the planet Saturn. In later editions Long¬ 
fellow substituted Orifel for Anachiel. 

Anael (Haniel, Hamiel, Onoel, Ariel, etc.)— 
one of the 7 angels of Creation, chief of princi¬ 
palities [Cf. Nisroc], prince of archangels, and 
ruler of the Friday angels. Anael exercises domin¬ 
ion over the planet Venus, is one of the lumin¬ 
aries concerned with human sexuality, and is 
governor of the 2nd Heaven, where he is in charge 
of prayer ascending from the 1st Heaven. It is 
Anael who proclaims “Open all ye gates” in 
Isaiah 26:2. In addition, he controls kingdoms and 
kings on earth and has dominion over the moon. 
Apart from variations already noted, Anael is, 
or appears to be, another form for Aniyel, Ana- 
phiel (Anafiel), Aufiel. [Rf Christian, The History 
and Practice of Magic II, 440.] With Uriel, Anael is 
combined by Shakespeare in The Tempest to form 
the sprite Ariel (see Churchill, Shakespeare and His 
Betters). In Longfellow’s The Golden Legend, Anael 
is one of the angels of the 7 planets, specifically the 
angel of the Star of Love, (i.e., the Evening Star or 


...Anael, prince of the archangels [17] 

Venus). In The Book of Tobit, Anael is the name of 
Tobit’s brother. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic ; 
Grimorium Verum; de Abano, The Heptameron; 
Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy.] 

Anafiel (Anaphiel, Anpiel, “branch of God”)— 
chief of the 8 great angels of the Merkabah; 
keeper of the keys of the heavenly halls; chief 
seal bearer, prince of water. When, according to 
legend, Metatron (q.v.), angel of the divine face, 
was to be punished, Anafiel was designated by 
God to flog His favorite angel with 60 lashes of 
fire. According to 3 Enoch, it was Anafiel (other 
sources credit Rasuil or Samuil) who bore Enoch 
to Heaven in the first place, Enoch then being 
transformed into Metatron. [R/! Scholem, Major 
Trends in fewish Mysticism ; Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
I'Aitgelologie.] In Hechaloth Rabbati, where Anafiel 
is compared with the Creator, he is identified as 
Metatron. 

Anahel—a prince of angels of the 3rd Heaven, 
but one who serves in the 4th Heaven (according 
to The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses). As 
Anahael, he is one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Anahita (Anaitis)—a female angel of the high¬ 
est rank in Zoroastrianism. She is the “immaculate 
one, genius of fertilizing water and of the fruit¬ 
fulness of the earth.” [Rf. Redfield, Gods IA 
Dictionary of the Deities of All Lands.] 

Anai—a name written in Heaven “in the 
characters of Malachim” (angels) and invoked in 
powerful conjurations to command demons. 
[Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Anaireton (Amereton)—one of the “high, 
holy angels” of God invoked in magical rites, 
specifically in the conjuration of Ink and Colors 
and the invocation or exorcism of the Salt. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic; Grimorium 
Verum.] 

Anaitis [Anahita] 

Anak—sing, for Anakim. 



[18] ANAKIM / ANAZIMUR 

Anakim (-enim? “giants”)—the offspring of 
fallen angels and mortal women, an issue touched 
on in Genesis 6. The anakim were so tall that, 
according to The Zohar, “the Hebrews were like 
grasshoppers in comparison.” In the latter work, 
the angels Uzza and Azael are singled out as 
having begotten children “whom they called 
anakim.” The original name of the anakim was 
nefilim. [Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christ¬ 
ian and Mohammedan Literature-, Deuteronomy 
1:28; Joshua 14:12.] In Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews I, 151, it is related that the anakim 
“touched the sun with their necks.” This is con¬ 
sonant with the view, often expressed in rabbinic 
and Islamic writings, that angels reached from 
Heaven to earth—-just as Adam did when he was 
first formed, and as Israfel did, or does. [Rf. 3 
Enoch. ] 

Anamelech [Adramelech] 

Ananchel (or Ananehel—“grace of God”)— 
an angel sent by God to Esther to give her favor 
in the sight of the Persian king Ahasuerus [Rf. 
Old Testament, Esther.] Origen speaks of Anan¬ 
chel in his “On Romans” (IV, 12). [Rf. The Biblical 
Antiquities of Philo, p. 73.] 

Anane—one of the troop of fallen angels, as 
listed in Enoch I. 

Ananehel [Ananchel] 

Ananel (Anani, Hananel, Khananel)—regarded 
as both good and evil. As an evil angel (one of the 
fallen archangels), Ananel is said to have descended 
from Heaven on Mt. Hermon and to have brought 
sin to mankind. [Rf. Enoch I; Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique.] 

Anani [Ananel] 

Ananiel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Anaphaxeton (Anaphazeton, Arpheton, Hipe- 
ton, Oneipheton)—one of the holy angels of God 
invoked in magical rites. Anaphaxeton is the name 
which, when pronounced, will cause the angels 
to summon the whole universe before the bar of 


justice on Judgment Day. He is also a spirit to be 
invoked in the exorcism of the Water. [Rf. Waite, 
The Book of Ceremonial Magic.] 

Anaphiel [Anafiel] 

Anapion—in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel 
of the 7th hour of the night, serving under 
Mendrion. 

Anas—“and God sent two angels, Sihail and 
Anas, and the four Evangelists to take hold of the 
fever-demons [12 of them, all female] and beat 
them with fiery rods.” The source of the tale is a 
12th-century MS in the British Museum and the 
tale is retold by M. Gaster in Studies and Texts in 
Folklore II, p. 1030. Gaster believes that Sihail is 
merely another form for Mihail (Michael) and 
Anas a form for St. Anne, mother of Mary, here 
turned into an angel. 

Anataniel A’—in M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses, one of the angel princes of the hosts of X. 

Anauel—an angel who protects commerce, 
bankers, commission brokers, etc. Anauel’s cor¬ 
responding angel is Aseij. [R/". Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique.] 

Anayz—in de Abano, The Fleptameron, an 
angel of Monday said to reside in the 1st 
Heaven. He is invoked from the south. Since 
angels are bodiless, their “residence” in any 
heaven, or in any place, is hypothetical. Angels 
are resident wherever they happen to be operating; 
it is only for convenience that they are given a 
locus operandi. All material descriptions of angels, 
(wings, size, speech, physical actions) are likewise 
to be taken figuratively. 

Anazachia—an angel’s name inscribed in 
Hebrew characters on the 3rd pentacle of the 
planet Saturn. Anazachia is one of 4 angels shown 
on the pentacle, the other 3 being Omeliei, Ana- 
chiel, and Aranchia. The magical circle of evoca¬ 
tion is reproduced in Shah, The Secret Lore of 
Magic, p. 54. [Rf. Gollancz, Clavicula Salomonis .] 

Anazimur—one of the 7 exalted throne angels 
of the 1st Heaven “which execute the commands 


The angels ascending and descending Jacob’s Ladder. A dream-incident related in Genesis 28. 

Reproduced from Hayley, The Poetical Works of John Milton. 










ANCIENT OF DAYS / ANGEL 


[ 20 ] 

of the potestates,” according to The Book of the 
Angel Raziel. [Rf. de Abano, Elementia Magica-, 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses-, writings of 
Cornelius Agrippa.] 

Ancient of Days—in the cabala, a term applied 
to Kether, 1st of the sefiroth ( q.v .); also to Macro- 
posopus (“vast countenance”) who is, in the cabala, 
“God as He is in Himself.” Ancient of Days is, 
further, used as a term to denote the “holy ones 
of the highest,” i.e., the most exalted and venerable 
of the angels. In Daniel 7:9, the expression is the 
prophet’s title and vision of God: “I beheld till 
the thrones were cast down, and the Ancient of 
Days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, 
and the hair of his head like the pure wool; his 
throne was like the fiery flame, and his wheels as 
burning fire.” Dionysius in The Divine Names 
defines the term Ancient of Days as “both the 
Eternity and the Time of all things prior to days 
and eternity and time.” The term has also been 
used to apply to Israel. William Blake refers to the 
Ancients of Days as Urizen, the figure of Jehovah 
in this poet’s mystical poems. It is the title of one 
of his famous drawings; see also Blake’s “Elohim 
[God] Giving Life to Adam.” Hymn 519 of the 
Hymnal of the Protestant Episcopal Church 
[Thos. Nelson, 1920] opens with “Ancient of 
Days, who sittest throned in glory; To thee all 
knees are bent.” 

Ancor—an angel invoked in the conjuration of 
the Reed. Ancor is likewise a name for God in 
prayers at Vestment. [Rf Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon-, Waite, The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts.] 

Andas—in occult writings, Andas is repre¬ 
sented as one of the ministering angels to Varcan, 
a king who rules the angels of the air on Lord’s 
Day (Sunday). In de Abano, The Heptameron, the 
magic circle for the incantation of angels for the 
1st planetary hour of Sunday shows Andas at the 
outer perimeter. 

Aneb—an angel ruler of an hour with the 
attribute “Dicu Clement.” [Rf Ambelain, La 


Kabbale Pratique-, and the poem “Sagesse” by 
H.D. (Hilda Doolittle).] 

Anepaton (Anapheneton)—“a high, holy angel 
of God,” whose name appears in an invocation 
ring. Anepaton is also a name for God when 
conjured up by Aaron. [Rf Butler, Ritual Magic-, 
Grimorium Verum; Waite, The Lemegeton ; The Book 
of Ceremonial Magic.] 

Anereton (Anaireton)—“a high, holy angel 
of God” invoked in Solomonic rites. [Rf. Shah, 
The Secret Lore of Magic-, Grimorium Verum.] 

Anfial—one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Anfiel (Anafiel, “branch of God”)—in Pirke 
Hechaloth, a guard of the 4th Heaven. See also 
Margouliath, Malache Elyon and Bereshith Rabbah. 
According to the Jewish Encyclopedia (p. 595), 
Anfiel’s crown “branches out to cover the Heaven 
with the divine majesty.” Here he is head 
and chief of the porters and seal-bearers of the 7 
Heavens. 

Angel (Hebrew, “malakh”)—the word derives 
from angiras (Sanskrit), a divine spirit; from the 
Persian angaros, a courier; from the Greek angelos, 
meaning a messenger. In Arabic the word is 
malak (a Jewish loan word.) In popular usage an 
angel denotes, generally, a supernatural being 
intermediate between God and man (the Greek 
“daimon” being a closer approximation to our 
notion of angel than angelos). In early Christian 
and pre-Christian days, the term angel and daimon 
(or demon) were interchangeable, as in the writ¬ 
ings of Paul and John. The Hebrews drew their 
idea of angels from the Persians and from the 
Babylonians during the Captivity. The 2 named 
angels in the Old Testament, Michael and Gabriel, 
were in fact lifted from Babylonian mythology. 
The 3rd named angel, Raphael, appears in the 
apocryphal Book of Tobit. “This whole doctrine 
concerning angels” (says Sales in his edition of 
The Koran, “Preliminary Discourse,” p. 51) 
“Mohammed and his disciples borrowed from the 
Jews, who borrowed the names and offices of 
these beings from the Persians.” While Enoch, in 
his writings dating back to earliest Christian times 



and even before, names many angels (and demons), 
these were ignored in New Testament gospels, 
although they began to appear in contemporane¬ 
ous extracanonical works. They had a vogue in 
Jewish gnostic, mystic, and cabalistic tracts. 
Angelology came into full flower in the 11th— 
13th centuries when the names of literally thous¬ 
ands upon thousands of angels appeared, many of 
them created through the juggling of letters of the 
Hebrew alphabet, or by the simple device of 
adding the suffix “el” to any word which lent 
itself to such manipulation. An angel, though 
immaterial, that is, bodiless, is usually depicted as 
having a body or inhabiting a body, pro tern, 
and as winged and clothed. If an angel is in the 
service of the devil, he is a fallen angel or a demon. 
To Philo, in his “On Dreams,” angels were in¬ 
corporeal intelligences. He held that the rabbis, 
on the contrary, thought of angels as material 
beings. In Roman Catholic theology, angels were 
created in the earliest days of Creation, or even 
before Creation, tota simul, that is, at one and the 
same time. In Jewish tradition, angels are “new 
every morning” (Lamentations 3:23) and continue 
to be formed with every breath God takes (Hagiga 
14a). In the pseudo-Dionysian scheme with its 
9 heavenly choirs, angels as an order rank low¬ 
est in the scale of hierarchy, the seraphim rank¬ 
ing highest. The archangels show up 8th in the 
sequence, despite the fact that the greatest angels 
are often referred to as archangels. Strictly speak¬ 
ing, when one refers to the named angels in the 
Bible, it is correct to say there are only 2 or 3. 
But the following may be considered: Abaddon / 
Apollyon, mentioned in Revelation as the “angel 
of the bottomless pit.” Wormwood, referred to as 
a star (Revelation 8:11), but to be understood as 
an angel. And there is Satan, who in the Old Testa¬ 
ment is a great angel, one of the most glorious, 
certainly not evil and with no hint of his having 
fallen. He goes by his title of adversary {ha-satan). 
It is only in Christian and post-Biblical Jewish 
writings that ha-satan of the Old Testament is 
turned into an evil spirit. A case for including 
Rahab among the named angels of the Bible 
might also be made: Talmud refers to Rahab as 
“the angel of the sea.” 


...Anfiel, whose crown covers the heavens [21] 

“Angel in the Forest”—the title of Marguer¬ 
ite Young’s chronicle of the Rappites, a German 
religious sect that established a short-lived com¬ 
munity on the Wabash River during the years 
1815-1824. The title derives from the angel 
(Gabriel) whom Father Rapp, cult leader, claimed 
he saw in the forest—an angel “with the good 
taste to leave footprints behind”—for these foot¬ 
prints can be seen, to this day, on a stone slab in 
New Harmony, Indiana. 

Angel of Abortion [Kasdaye] 

Angel of the Abyss—usually identified as 
Uriel, the “angel set over the world and Tartarus.” 
[Cf. Apsu, female angel of the abyss in Babylonian- 
Chaldean mythology; Rf. Charles, Critical Com¬ 
mentary of the Revelation of St.John, p. 239]. 

Angel of Adversity—in works like The Zado- 
kite Fragments and The Book of Jubilees, the angel of 
adversity is Mastema, prince of evil, equated with 
Satan. 

Angel of Agriculture [Risnuch] 

Angel of the Air [Chasan, Casmaron, Cherub, 
Iahmel] 

Angel of Albion—an angel “created” by Blake 
as a character in his “Visions of the Daughters of 
Albion.” 

Angel of Alchemy and Mineralogy—Och 

(q.v.). 

Angels of the Altitudes—among the principal 
rulers of the 4 altitudes or chora are Barachiel, 
Gabriel, Gediel. [Rf The Almadel of Solomon.] 
For the names of other rulers of this class of 
celestial hierarchs, see Appendix. 

Angel of Anger—in his visit to Paradise, as 
reported in the apocalyptic Revelation of Moses, 
the great Lawgiver encounters the angels of anger 
and wrath in the 7th Heaven. He finds these angels 
composed “wholly of fire.” Our angel of anger is 

Af (<?•*'•) • 

Angel of Annihilation—in the story relating 
to Esther and Ahaseurus, the angel of annihilation 
is Harbonah or Hasmed. [Rf Midrash Tehillim on 



22 


ANGEL: ANNOUNCEMENTS / BOTTOMLESS PIT 



Annunciation by Tintoretto in Scuola San Rocco, Venice. Reproduced from Rdgamey, Angus. 

Psalm 7.] Both Harbonah and Hasmed are angels Angel of the Apocalypse—Orifiel; also 


of punishment or of confusion. 

Angel of Announcements—in ancient Persian 
lore, the angel of announcements is Sirushi, who 
ranks also as the angel of Paradise. 

Angel of Annunciation—Gabriel. The Angel 
of Annunciation is the subject of innumerable 
paintings by the great masters: da Vinci, Mem- 
ling, Fra Filippo Lippi, Fra Angelico, El Greco, 
Titian, etc. In the annunciation to Mary, as 
related in Matthew, the name of Gabriel does not 
occur; it occurs in the account by Luke (both with 
regard to Elizabeth and Mary). 


Anael (Haniel, Anafiel), Zachariel, Raphael, 
Samael, Michael, Gabriel, and St. Francis of 
Assisi. According to Cornelius Agrippa, each 
angel is credited with a reign of 354 years. The 
title “Angel of the Apocalypse” was claimed by 
St. Vincent Ferrer (1350-1419). [Rf. Levi, Trans¬ 
cendental Magic.] Malvina Hoffman, American 
sculptress, did a figure in gold bronze titled the 
“Archangel of the Apocalypse.” 

Angel of April—Asmodel. In ancient Persian 
lore, the angel was Andibehist. 

Angel of Aquarius—in works of ceremonial 





magic, the angel of Aquarius is Ausiel (Ausiul). 
Rabbi Chomer in Levi’s book of magic cites the 2 
governing spirits of Aquarius as Archer and Ssak- 
makiel (Tzakmaqiel). 

Angel of Aquatic Animals [Manakel] 

Angel of Aries —in ceremonial magic, the 
angel of Aries (the Ram) is Aiel of Machidiel, 
the latter being also the angel of March. In the 
cabala, the 2 spirits governing the sign of Aries are 
Sataaran and Sarahiel (Sariel). 

Angel of the Ark of the Covenant —the 2 

angels of the ark of the covenant are usually 
Zarall and Jael, both belonging to the order of 
cherubim. Another angel, Sandalphon, has been 
described as “the left-hand cherub of the Ark.” 
Some authorities, interpreting Exodus 25, main¬ 
tain that 4 angels should be represented on the ark, 
2 on each side. See picturization in Schaff, A 
Dictionary of the Bible, p. 67. 

Angel of Ascension —in the Acts of the Apos¬ 
tles (1:10) the angels of ascension are spoken of as 
“two men [which] stood by in white apparel.” 
Chrysostom, Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem speak 
of angels present at the Ascension. [Rf. Danielou, 
The Angels and Their Mission .] In noncanonical 
writings there are frequent references to the angels 
of ascension as 2 in number, but nowhere are they 
named. In the “Ascension,” a canvas by Mantegna 
(1431-1506), Christ is shown fully robed, rising to 
Heaven with 11 child-angels surrounding him 
in the ascent. 

Angel of Aspirations and Dreams —accord¬ 
ing to Jewish cabala, the moon is the angel of 
aspirations and dreams; in occult lore, it is Gabriel. 
[Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Angel of Augsburg, The —a name given to 
Agnes Bemauer, the lovely but low-born wife of 
Duke Albrecht of Wiirtenberg. She was drowned 
as a witch in 1435, at the instigation of Albrecht’s 
father, Duke Ernest of Bavaria. The drowning is 
the subject of a woodcut reproduced in Paul 
Carus, The History of the Devil. 

Angel of August —in Trithemius, The Book of 
Secret Things, the angel of August is Hamaliel; 


.. .Angel of Ascension [23] 

he is said to have dominion over the sign of Virgo 
in the zodiac. Occult lore cites another angel of 
August, or August-September (in Hebrew, the 
season is Elul )—i.e., Morael, who is also the angel 
of awe or fear. In ancient Persian lore, the angel of 
August was Shahrivari. 

Angel of Autumn —Guabarel; Tarquam. The 
head of the sign of August is Torquaret. [Rf. De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Angel of Babylon —in Midrash Tehillim we 
learn that “the angel of Babylon mounted 70 
rounds [of the ladder of Jacob] and the angel of 
Media 52.” Neither the name of the angel of 
Babylon nor that of Media is given. 

Angel of the Balances [Soqed Hozi, Dokiel, 
Michael, Zehanpuryu’h] 

Angel of the Baptismal Water —Raphael. 
But see also Barpharanges. It was Tertullian who 
declared that the baptismal water receives its 
healing properties from an angel (whom, how¬ 
ever, he did not name). [Rf. Smith, Man and his 
Gods, p. 306.] 

Angel of Barrenness [Akriel] 

Angel Over (Tame) Beasts [Behemiel, Hariel] 

Angel Over (Wild) Beasts [Thegri (Thuriel), 
Mtniel, Jehiel, Hayyal]. [Rf Hermes Visions; 
Jewish Encyclopedia I, 595.] 

Angel of Benevolence [Zadkiel, Hasdiel, 
Achsah] 

Angel Over Birds [Arael, Anpiel] 

Angel of the Bottomless Pit —same as angel 
of the abyss, i.e., Abaddon (which is the Hebrew 
form for the Greek Apollyon), as in Revelation 20. 
Known in post-Biblical lore as the “destroyer” 
and “king of the demonic locusts” or “grass¬ 
hoppers.” In Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress, this angel 
is a devil, the devil. St. John regards the angel of 
the bottomless pit as apparently not evil, since it is 
the angel that binds Satan for 1,000 years (Revela¬ 
tion 20:2). As La.igton makes clear in his Satan, a 
Portrait (p. 39) the angel of the abyss (i.e., the angel 
of the bottomless pit) “is not [in Revelation] 



ANGEL: BURNING BUSH / DARKNESS 


[24] 

identified with Satan.” Diirer in his Apocalypse 
series (1498) executed a woodcut titled “Angel 
with the Key of the Bottomless Pit.” 

Angel of the Burning Bush —Zagzagel; 
Michael. A strict interpretation of the use of the 
term (in Exodus 3:2; Luke 20:37; Acts 7:35) 
would suggest that it is the Lord Himself who is 
the angel of the burning bush, made manifest in 
angelic guise. The ascription to Zagzagel is 
found in Targum Yerushalnti. Rembrandt did a 
well-known painting of the subject titled “Moses 
and the Burning Bush.” 

Angel of Calculations [Butator] 

Angel of (the sign of) Cancer —Cael. Ac¬ 
cording to Rabbi Chomer, an exegetical authority 
quoted by Levi in Transcendental Magic, the govern¬ 
ing spirits of the sign of Cancer are Rahdar and 
Phakiel. 

Angel of Capricorn —in ceremonial magic, 
the angel of Capricorn is Casujoiah. According to 
Rabbi Chomer, quoted by Levi, Transcendental 
Magic, the governing spirits of this zodiacal sign 
are Sagdalon and Semakiel (Semaqiel). 

Angel of Carnal Desires [Angel of Lust] 

Angel of Chance (in the sense of gambling)— 
Barakiel, Uriel, and Rubiel. [Rf. De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Angel of Chaos —Michael. Where chaos is 
equated with darkness, and darkness with death, 
then the angel of chaos is Satan. [Rf. The Inter¬ 
preter’s Bible ; Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews V, 
16 -] 

Angel of the Chaste Hands [Ouestucati] 

Angel of Chastisement —Amaliel. In addition, 
one comes upon other angels of chastisement or 
punishment in apocryphal and post-Biblical 
writings. Compare “the mail-clad lords with the 
flaming eyes.”,. . . “his eyes are as lamps of 
fire,” in Daniel 10:6, as descriptive of one of these 
hierarchs. In Coptic lore, the demon of chastise¬ 
ment is Asmodel—who, however, in occult lore, 
is an angel, the angel of the month of April. 


Angels (Order of)—in the pseudo-Dionysian 
scheme of the celestial hierarchy, the order of 
angels occurs last of the 9. The ruling princes of 
the order are usually given as Phaleg and Adna- 
chiel (Advachiel). 

Angels of Clouds —in The Book of Jubilees 
there is mention of the angels of clouds who, it is 
reported, were created on the 1st day of Creation. 
They are hot named. 

Angels of Cold —likewise mentioned but not 
named in The Book of Jubilees. The angels of cold 
are also referred to in the Revelation of John, a New 
Testament apocryphon included in the Ante- 
Nicene Fathers Library. 

Angels of the Colonies —creation of Blake 
as characters in his “Visions of the Daughters of 
Albion.” 

Angel of Comets (or Meteors)—Zikiel or 
Ziquiel; also Akhibel. 

Angel of Commission Brokers —Anauel, 
who also protects commerce, bankers, etc. 

Angel of Commotion —Zi’iel, as noted in 
Odeberg ,3 Enoch. 

Angel of Compassion —Rachmiel or Raphael 
( qq.v .). The angel of compassion, symbolizing the 
United Nations, is interpreted in a painting by the 
Swiss artist Max Hunziker and done by him for 
the benefit of UNICEF. The Nepalese have a god 
of compassion called Avalokiteshvara, who re¬ 
nounced Nirvana in order to serve and save man¬ 
kind. An image of this deity was displayed at the 
Asia Society headquarters in New York in 1964. 

Angel of Conception [Laila(h)] 

Angels of Confusion —there are 7 of these 
angels of confusion. They were dispatched by God 
to the court of Ahasuerus to put an end to this 
king’s pleasure in the time of Queen Esther. [Rf. 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews IV, 374.] It seems 
likely that the angels of confusion were also 
present and participated in the Tower of Babel 
incident. [Rf. Genesis 11:7.] The individual angels 
of confusion are described in Talmud as follows: 



Mchuman—confusion; Biztha—destroyer of the 
house; Barbonah—annihilation; Bigtha—presser 
of the winepress; Abatha—another presser of the 
winepress; Zethar—observer of immorality; and 
Carcas—the knocker. 

Angel of Constellations —Kakabel (Kochbiel) 
and Rahtiel (qq.v.). [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews 1,140.] 

Angels of Corruption (or Perdition)—origin¬ 
ally, according to Talmudic lore, there were 70 
tutelary angels assigned by God to rule over the 
70 nations of the earth. These angels, corrupted 
through national bias, became the malache habbala 
(angels of corruption). The sole angel of this group 
who remained uncorrupted was the tutelary or 
guardian angel of Israel, Michael. [Rf. Eisen- 
menger, Traditions of the Jews 1,18; Lea, Materials 
Toward A History of Witchcraft I, 17; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews.] 

Angel of the Covenant —a title applied to 
Metatron, Phadiel, Michael, Elijah, the “angel of 
the Lord,” and even to Mastema. According to 
The Zohar I, it is the angel of the covenant who is 
meant in such verses as Exodus 4:26, 24:1; 
Leviticus 1:1. In the Vision of Paul 14, Michael is 
called the “Angel of the Covenant.” But Regamey 


.. .Angels of Confusion [25] 

in What Is An Angel?, citing Malachi 3:1, says 
“the Angel of the Covenant must be the Lord 
himself.” The hasidic Rabbi Elimeleckh of 
Lizhensk (d. 1786) refers to Elijah as the “Angel of 
the Covenant.” [Rf. Buber, Tales of the Hasidim ; 
The Early Masters, p. 257.] 

Angels of Creation —there were 7 of these 
angels in the beginning (i.e., at the time of 
Creation) and they were placed in control of the 
7 planets—the 7 including the sun and moon, 
according to the astronomical knowledge of the 
time of the scribes, who set down the events of the 
“first days.” The 7 angels of creation usually given 
are Orifiel, Anael, Zachariel, Samael (before this 
angel rebelled and fell), Raphael, Gabriel, and 
Michael. The Book of Enoch reports that the angels 
of Creation reside in the 6th Heaven. 

Angel of Darkness —also called prince of dark¬ 
ness and angel of death (Belial, Bernael, Haziel, 
Beliar, Satan, etc.). “All who practice perversity 
are under the domination of the angel of dark¬ 
ness.” [Rf. Manual of Discipline in T. Gaster, The 
Dead Sea Scriptures, pp. 43—44.] “All men’s afflic¬ 
tions and all of their moments of tribulation are 
due to this being’s malevolent sway.” According 
to Budge, Amulets and Talismans, quoting “the 
later rabbis,” the angel of darkness is Kochbiel. In 


Angels of the Ascension. A miniature from The Bible of St. Paul. Reproduced from Lost 
Books of the Bible. 



[26] ANGEL: DAWN / EARTH 

Chaldean lore, and in Kramer, From the Tablets of 
Sumer, the angel is An. In Mandaean lore there 
were 5 primal beings of darkness: Akrun (Krun), 
Ashdum (Shdum), Gaf, Hagh, Zasgi-Zargana. 
[Rf. Mansoor, The Thanksgiving Hymns ; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews V; The Book of Jubilees', 
Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, p. 251.] 

Angel of Dawn—in gnosticism, applied to the 
dragon which, in Revelation, is a term for Satan 
or Lucifer. [Rf Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology 
Folklore and Symbols .] 

Angel of the Day (Angel of Daylight)— 
Shamshiel, as in 3 Enoch. [Rf Amulets and Talis¬ 
mans, p. 375; Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews II, 
314.] 

Angel of Death—in rabbinic writings there 
are at least a dozen angels of death: Adriel, 
Apollyon-Abaddon, Azrael, Gabriel (as guardian 
of Hades), Hemah, Kafziel, Kezef, Leviathan, 
Malach ha-Mavet, Mashhit, Metatron, Sammael 
(Satan), Yehudiah (Yehudiam), Yetzer-hara. In 
Falasha lore the angel of death is Suriel. In Christian 
theology, Michael is the angel of death who “leads 
souls into the eternal light” at the yielding up of 
the ghost of all good Christians. The Arabic angel 
of death is Azrael. He is also Iblis, as in the 
Arabian Nights tale, “The Angel of Death with 
the Proud King.” The Babylonian god of death 
is Mot. According to Schonblum, Pirke Rabbenu 
ha-Kadosh, there are 6 angels of death: Gabriel 
(over the lives of young people), Kafziel (over 
kings), Meshabber (over animals), Mashhit (over 
children), Af (over men), Hemah (over domestic 
animals). The angel of death is not necessarily an 
evil or a fallen angel. He remains at all times a 
legate of God and in God’s service. [Rf Talmud 
Baba Metzia, 86a.] In Zoroastrianism, the angel of 
death or the demon of death is Mairya (male or 
female), who offered Zoroaster the empire of the 
world [Cf Satan tempting Jesus; see also Saltus, 
Lords of the Ghostland, chap, on Ormuzd]. In the 
Apocalypse of Baruch there is an angel of death, 
unnamed, who makes his first appearance in that 
work. [Rf Smith, Man and his Gods.] In Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews IV, 200, we read of Elijah 


fighting and overcoming the angel of death. There 
is also a legend about Aaron seizing the angel of 
death and locking him in the Tabernacle “so that 
death ceased.” The seizure must have been short¬ 
lived. (The Aaron legend may have inspired the 
popular Broadway play, Death Takes a Holiday.) 
This angel of death was most likely Kezef, as 
suggested in Targum Yerushalmi. The great whale 
or crocodile of Biblical lore, Leviathan (along with 
Rahab), is also identified as an angel of death, 
according to various rabbinic sources. In Talmud 
Abodah Zarah, 20, the angel of death, Sammael, is 
described as “altogether full of eyes; at the time 
of a sick man’s departure he [the angel] takes his 
stand above the place of his [the sick man’s] head, 
with his sword drawn and a drop of poison 
suspended on it.” To Eisenmenger ( Traditions of 
the Jews) the supreme angel of death is Metatron, 
whose subordinates are Gabriel and Sammael. In 
his Book of Beliefs and Opinions, Saadiah Gaoii (10th 
century) says that “our teachers have informed us 
that the angel sent by God to separate body from 
soul appears to man in the form of a yellowish 
flame, full of eyes shining with a bluish fire, hold¬ 
ing in his hand a drawn sword pointed at the 
person to whom death is coming.” Saadiah then 
goes on to suggest a parallel or affinity with the 
“angel of the Lord” in I Chronicles 21:16 who 
stands “between the earth and the heaven, having 
a drawn sword in his hand stretched over Jeru¬ 
salem.” The angel who would qualify here, not 
so much in the description of him as in relation to 
his office, is the benevolent angel of death, Azrael 
( q.v.). Over 6 persons the angel of death has no 
power (says Talmud Baba Bathra, fol. 17), to wit: 
Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Moses, Aaron, and Miriam. 
With regard to Jacob, it is said that “not the angel 
of death ended his life, but the Shekinah took his 
soul with a kiss” ; and that Miriam also “breathed 
her last in this manner.” A rabbi (ben Levi) out¬ 
witting the angel of death is the subject of Long¬ 
fellow’s poem “The Spanish Jew’s Tale.” 

Angel of December—Haniel or Nadiel. In 
ancient Persian lore, the angel of December was 
Dai (q.v.). 

Angel of the Deep—Tamiel, Rampel; also 



Rahab. [See Angel of the Sea.] [Rf. M. Gaster, The 
Sword of Moses; Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews V.] 

Angel of Deliverance—in Zoharistic writings, 
the angel of deliverance is Pedael. [Rf. Abelson, 
Jewish Mysticism, p. 117.] 

Angel of the Deserts—one of the unnamed 
“splendid, terrible and mighty angel chiefs who 
passed before God to extol and rejoice in the first 
Sabbath.” [Rf Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba and numer¬ 
ous Talmudic commentaries listed in Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews.] 

Angel of Destiny [Oriel or Manu] 

Angels of Destruction (“malache habbalah”) 
—Uriel, Harbonah, Azriel, Simkiel, Za’afiel, Af, 
Kolazonta, Hemah. Chief of the group is Kemuel, 
according to the Revelation of Moses, but, accord¬ 
ing to 3 Enoch, the chief is Simkiel. In the latter 
book, the angels of destruction correspond to the 
angels of punishment, and these in turn may be 
equated with the angels of vengeance, wrath, 
death, ire. They may also be compared to the 
Avestan devas. “When executing the punishments 
on the world, the angels of destruction are given 
the ‘Sword of God’ to be used by them as an 
instrument of punishment.” [Rf. 3 Enoch, 32:1.] 
According to Moses Gaster, there were 40,000 
such angels but, according to a Jewish legend, 
there were (or still are) in Hell alone 90,000 angels 
of destruction. It is said that the angels of destruc¬ 
tion helped the magicians of Egypt in Pharaoh’s 
time; that they duplicated the miracles performed 
by Moses and Aaron, specifically the miracle of 
changing water into blood. [Rf. Exodus 7:20.] 
There is a division of opinion among rabbinic 
writers as to whether the angels of destruction are 
in the service of God or of the devil. Apparently, 
even when they serve the devil, it is with the 
permission of God. In The Zohar I, 63a, Rabbi 
Judah, discoursing on the Deluge, declared that 
“no doom is ever executed on the world, whether 
of annihilation or any other chastisement, but the 
destroying angel is in the midst of the visitation.” 
In Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, it is related 
that when Moses visited Hell, he beheld in a region 


.. .Angels of Destruction [27] 

called Titha-Yawen sinners (mainly usurers) stand¬ 
ing “up to their navel in mud” lashed by the 
angels of destruction “with fiery chains, the 
sinners’ teeth being broken with fiery stones from 
morning until evening.” Cf. Dante’s description 
of the tortures suffered by sinners in the Inferno. 
[R/". The Apocalypse of Baruch ; The Book of Enoch; 
Talmud Bab-Sanhedrin; Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition; Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 516.] 

Angel of the Disk of the Sun—Chur, in 
ancient Persian lore. Cf. Galgaliel, angel of the 
wheel of the sun (q.v). 

Angel of Divination [Eistibus] 

Angel of the Divine Chariot [Rikbiel 
YHWH] 

Angel of the Divine Presence (Angel of the 
Face)—Blake subtitled his engraving “The 
Laocoon,” “The Angel of the Divine Presence.” 

Angel of Dominions (dominations)—Zacha- 
rael, who is usually designated prince of this 
hierarchic order. Dionysius, in his famous work 
on the celestial orders, placed the dominions or 
dominations first in the 2nd triad of the 9 choirs. 

Angel of Doves [ Alphun] 

Angels (or Lords) of Dread—according to 
3 Enoch, 22, they work in unison with the Captains 
of Fear in surrounding the throne of Glory and 
“singing praise and hymns before YHWH, the 
God of Israel.” They aggregate “thousand times 
thousand and ten thousand times ten thousand.” 

Angel of Dreams—Duma(h) and Gabriel. In 
the cabala, according to Levi, Transcendental 
Magic, the angel of dreams is the Moon, or 
Gabriel. The Zohar II, 183a, refers to Gabriel as the 
“supervisor of dreams.” 

Angel of the Dust [Suphlatus] 

Angels of the Earth—traditionally there are 7 
angels of the earth: Azriel, Admael, Arkiel 
(Archas), Arciciah, Ariel, Harabael or Aragael, 
Saragael, Yabbashael. Variants include Haldiel, 
Tebliel, Phorlakh, Raguel, and Samuil. The 4 
angels of the earth listed in Heywood, The 



[28] ANGEL: EARTHQUAKES 

Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, are actually angels 
of the 4 winds: Uriel (south), Michael (east), 
Raphael (west), Gabriel (north). In ancient 
Persian lore, the spirit of the earth was Isphan 
Darmaz. [Rf. Enoch II; Pesikta R. Kahana 155a.] 

Angel of Earthquakes [Sui’el; Rashid] 

Angels of the East (or of the Rising Sun)— 
Michael, Gauriil, Ishliha, Gazardiel. 

Angel of Edom—the name Edom was a 
designation for Rome, but the angel of Edom 
designated Satan. “I will ascend above the heights 
of the clouds, I will be like the Most High,” the 
angel of Edom boasted. And God replied: 
“Though thou mount on high as the eagle, and 
though thy nest be set among the stars, I will bring 
thee down from thence.” The angel of Edom was 
one of the angels on the ladder that Jacob saw in 
his dream, set between earth and Heaven. [Rf. 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews I, V.] 

Angel of Egypt—Mastema, Rahab, Duma(h), 
Uzza, and Sammael. On their way out of Egypt 
the Israelites were affrighted most “at the sight of 
the Angel of Egypt darting through the air as he 
flew to the assistance of the people under his 
tutelage.” The identity of the angel is not given 
in the source quoted (Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews III, 13). Some rabbinic texts say the angel 
was Abezi-thibod; others that it was, or might 
have been, Sammael, Mastema (in The Book of 
Jubilees), or Uzza. Another good guess would be 
Rahab ( q.v .). 

Angel of the Embryo [Sandalphon] 

Angel of Esau—Sammael, with whom Jacob 
wrestled at Peniel. 

Angel of Evil—Satan, Malach Ra, Mastema, 
Bemael, Beliar (Beliel), Ahriman (Persian), etc. 

Angel of Evil Deeds—a holy angel in the 
service of God. He is pictured (but not named) as 
a Recording Angel in Longfellow, The Golden 
Legend. 

Angels of the Face (or Angels of the Presence) 
—among the most frequently mentioned angels 
of the face in rabbinic lore are Metatron, Michael, 


/ FOUR WINDS 

Jehoel, Suriel, Yefehfiah, Zagzagael, Uriel. There 
were about 12 of them and they were also spoken 
of as the angels of sanctification or the angels of 
glory—all of them circumcised at Creation. [See 
Angels of the Presence.] 

Angel of Fall (autumn)—'Torquaret. [R/ Shah, 
Occultism, Its Theory and Practice, p. 43.] 

Angel of Fascination [Tablibik] 

Angel of Fasts—Sangariah, as cited in The 
Zohar (Exodus 207a). 

Angel of Fate [Manu] 

Angel of Fear (Yrouel; Morael)—these are 
amulet angels ( q.v.). 

Angel of February (Barchiel; Barbiel)—for 
angels governing other months of the year, see 
Appendix. [Rf. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal 
IV.] In ancient Persian lore, the angel of February 
was Isfandarmend (q.v.). 

Angel of Fertility—in Mandaean lore, the 
angel of fertility is Samandiriel or Yus(h)amin. 
In Talmud Pesikta Rabbati 43:8, it is stated that 
“Abraham gave heed to the Angel of Fertility 
when the great Lawgiver, then in his 100th year, 
was told by God to visit Sara in her tent.” 
Abraham heeded God’s counsel. Sara was 90 at 
the time and barren; but, through perhaps the 
overshadowing of Samandiriel or Yus(h)amin, 
she conceived and gave birth to Isaac. Another 
heavenly spirit present at the union of the aged 
couple was the Shekinah (q.v.). 

Angel of the Fiery Furnace—the angel of the 
Lord (not named) seen walking in the midst of the 
unconsuming fire with Sidrach, Misach, and 
Abednego, the 3 Judaean princes captive in Baby¬ 
lon who had refused to obey Nebuchadnezzar’s 
command to worship a golden image. The angel 
miraculously delivered the 3 princes from death. 
He was later described by the Babylonian king as 
having a form like that of “the Son of God.” [Rf 
Daniel 3.] 

Angel of the Fifth Heaven—the presiding 
spirit of the 5th Heaven is Michael—that is, if the 
5th Heaven is Machum; but if the 5th Heaven is 



Mathey, then the presiding spirit is Sammael. 
Assisting angels ruling the 5th Heaven include 
Friagne, Hyniel, Ofael, Zaliel. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron.] In Mohammedan lore, the 5th 
Heaven is the abode of the Avenging Angel “who 
presides over elemental fire.” 

Angel of Fire—Nathaniel (Nathanel), Arel, 
Atuniel, Jehoel, Ardarel, Gabriel, Seraph; also 
Uriel, “angel of the fire of the sun.” Revelation 
14:18 speaks of the angel of the heavenly altar 
“who has authority over fire.” Cf Agni, the Vedic 
god of fire and mediator (angel) between gods and 
men. The Zoroastrian genius of fire is Atar ( q.v .). 
In the Fourth Book of Maccabees there is mention 
of an angel of fire whom Aaron overcomes; he 
is to be compared with the destroying spirit in 
Reider, The Book of Wisdom 18:22. When the 
Baal-worshipping Jair succeeded Abimelech to the 
throne in Israel and ordered the 7 men faithful to 
God to be consigned to the flames, Nathanel, 
“lord over fire,” extinguished the flames and 
enabled the 7 to escape. Nathanel then burnt Jair 
along with 1,000 of his men. For the legend, see 
Pseudo-Philo 39; also The Chronicles of Yerahmeel 
48:175. The Prokofieff opera L’Ange de Feu, com¬ 
posed between 1920 and 1926, is based on a novel 
by the Russian poet Valerie BrusofF. It was pub¬ 
lished in 1903. The chief character is Madiel, angel 
of fire, who returns to the heroine (a 16th-century 
visionary) in the form of a German knight. A 
concert performance of the opera was given in 
Venice in 1955; an American premiere occurred 
in New York at the City Center in September 
1965. According to Kircher, Ecstatic Voyage (to 
the planets), the sun—so he reported—“is peopled 
with angels of fire swimming in seas of light 
around a volcano from which pour myriads of 
meteors.” One of Marc Chagall’s celebrated oils 
is his apocalyptic Angel of Fire or Flaming Angel 
(the canvas is titled “Descent of the Red Angel”) 
that plunges from Heaven on a peaceful and 
unsuspecting world, and shatters it. 

Angel of the Firmament—Him Hml. 

Angel of the First Heaven—Sabrael, Asrulyu, 
Pazriel (Sidriel), Gabriel, etc. 


.. .Angel of Fertility [29] 

Angel over Fish—Gagiel, Arariel, Azareel. 

Angel of Flame—El Auria, a name equated 
with Ouriel (Uriel). [See Angel of Fire.] 

Angel of the Flaming Sword [Angel of the 
Garden of Eden] 

Angel of Food—Manna; the angel of nourish¬ 
ment is Isda. 

Angel of the Footstool—in Arabic lore, the 
angel of the footstool (Kursi) offers arrivals to the 
7th Heaven a pillar of light to support them when 
standing before the divine judge for interrogation. 
[Rf 3 Enoch, 181; Nicholson, “An Early Arabic 
Version,” etc.] 

Angel of Force—Afriel, equated with Raphael. 

Angel of Forests [Zuphlas] 

Angel of Forgetting or Forgetfulness (or 

Oblivion)—usually Poteh or Purah {q.v). 

Angel of Fornication [Angel of Lust] 

Angels of the Four Cardinal Points (or 

Regents of the Earth)—in Blavatsky, The Secret 
Doctrine, the “winged globe and fiery wheels,” 
recalling Ezekiel’s description of the 4 living 
creatures (Ezekiel I) glimpsed at the River Chebar. 
In Hindu lore, the 4 regents are the Chatur 
Maharajas, and are named Dhritar-ashtra, Virud- 
haka, Virupaksha, and Vaishravana. [Rf. Lead- 
beater, The Astral Plane.] 

Angels of the Four Elements—over fire, 
Seraph or Nathaniel; over air, Cherub; over water, 
Tharsis or Tharsus; over earth, Ariel. 

Angels of the Four Winds—Uriel, over the 
south; Michael, over the east; Raphael, over the 
west (serving also as governor of the south, with 
Uriel); Gabriel, over the north. [Rf. Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, p. 214.] 
Revelation 7 speaks of “four angels standing at the 
four corners of the earth, holding fast the four 
winds of the earth”—derived, supposedly, from 
The Book of Enoch (Enoch I). The Book of the Angel 
Raziel gives Usiel (Uzziel) as one of the 4 angels 
of the 4 winds. 



ANGEL: FOURTH HEAVEN / HOPE 


[30] 

Angels of the Fourth Heaven—Michael; 
Shamshiel; Shahakiel. 

Angel over (Wild) Fowl—Trgiaob. [Rf. M. 
Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Angel over Free Will [Tabris] 

Angels over Friday—Anael (Haniel, Anafiel); 
Rachiel; Sachiel. 

Angel of Friendship—in ancient Persian lore, 
the angel of friendship was Mihr (q.v.). He was 
also the angel of love and ruled the 7th month. 
[Rf. Chateaubriand, Genius of Christianity.] 

Angel over Fruit (or Fruit Trees)—Sofiel; 
Alpiel; Serakel; Ilaniel; Eirnilus. 

Angel of Fury—Ksoppghiel, who is the leader 
of the many angels of this order. [Cf. Zkzorom- 
tiel.] 

Angel of the Future—Teiaiel or Isiaiel ( q.v .). 
In Assyro-Babylonian mythology, the god of 
foresight was Adad. 

Angels of the Garden of Eden—the 2 angels 
commonly identified as the angels of Eden are 
Metatron and Messiah, both of the order of 
cherubim. But Raphael is also regarded as the 
angel of the earthly paradise by virtue of his having 
guarded the Tree of Life. John Dryden in his 
State of Innocence, or The Fall of Man concludes his 
dramatic poem/with Raphael hustling our first 
parents out of Eden (rather than Michael, as in 
Milton, Paradise Lost). [R/] The Zohar\ Waite, 
The Secret Doctrine in Israel.] To R. L. Gales (“The 
Christian Lore of Angels”), it is Jophiel who 
stands at the gates of the Garden of Eden with the 
flaming sword. 

Angel of Gehenna (Gehennom, Gehinnom)— 
Temeluchus, Kushiel, Shaftiel, Nasargiel, Duma. 
In the New Testament, Gehenna is another name 
for Hell. [Rf. Maseket Gan Eden and Gehinnom, 
quoted in Jewish Encyclopedia I, 593.] In the 
writings of the cabalist Joseph ben Abraham 
Gikatilla, Gehennom is the name of the 1st lodge 
of the 7 lodges in Hell, with Kushiel as the 
presiding angel. 


Angel of Gemini (“twins”)—Ambriel or, in 
ceremonial magic, Giel. According to Rabbi 
Chomer (Hebrew cabalist and master of Gaffarel), 
the 2 governing spirits of Gemini are Sagras and 
Saraiel. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Angel of Gethsemane—according to Gales, 
writing in the National Review on “The Christian 
Lore of Angels,” it is the angel Chamuel (Kamuel, 
Haniel) who strengthened Jesus, in His agony in 
the Garden of Gethsemane, with the assurance of 
resurrection. Luke 22:43 speaks of this angel but 
does not name him. Some sources identify Gabriel 
as the angel of Gethsemane. 

Angel of Glory—Sandalphon, who is also the 
angel of prayer and tears. See Longfellow’s poem 
“Sandalphon.” The angels of glory, as a group, 
are identified or equated with the angels of 
sanctification. They reside in the highest Heaven, 
Araboth, number 660,000 myriads, and “stand 
over against the throne of Glory and the divisions 
of flaming fire.” [Rf 3 Enoch 22; The Book of the 
Angel Raziel.] 

Angel of God—Uriel, or God Himself. In 
the Old Testament the expression “angel of the 
Lord” or “angel of God” is a theophorous term. 
It stands for the Elohim (god or gods), as in the 
Mekilta of Rabbi Ishmael. \ Rf Origen, In Joanem 
quoting from the Prayer of Joseph, a Jewish 
pseudepigraphon; see Angel of the Lord.] 

Angel of Good—so called, though unnamed, 
in The Apocalypse of Abraham. 

Angel of Good Counsel—Jesus, according to 
Dionysius the Areopagite in The Mystical 
Theology and the Celestial Hierarchies. 

Angel of Good Deeds—pictured, but not 
named, as a recording angel in Longfellow, The 
Golden Legend. 

Angel of Grace [Ananchel] 

Angel of the Grail—pictured (but not named) 
by the Maitre de Liesborn. The painting was done 
or published in 1465 and is reproduced on plate III 
in Regamey, Anges. The Angel of the Grail is also 
shown in a frieze, “The Vision of Galahad,” by 



Edward A. Abbey in the Boston Public Library. 
[Rf Baxter, The Holy Grail.] 

Angel of the Great (or Mighty) Counsel— 

the Messiah, the Holy Ghost, the Head of Days. 
(See Angel of the Covenant.) “Our Lord and 
Savior is called an angel of great counsel because 
he is the announcer of His father’s Will.” [Rf. 
Nicetas of Remesiana (335-414 c.e.) in “The 
Names and Titles of our Savior” quoted in 
Fremantle, A Treasury of Early Christianity .] St. 
Hilary in his On the Trinity IV calls the son of 
God (i.e., Jesus) “the angel of the Great Counsel.” 
[Rf. Isaiah 9:6 (Septuagint version).] Gregory 
Thaumaturgus in his Panegyric Addressed to Origen 
thanks “that holy angel of God who fed me from 
my youth ... perchance the Angel of the Mighty 
Counsel.” 

Angel of Greece—Javan or Yavan (a name for 
Greece). Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews I, 35, 
quoting from various Talmudic sources, reports 
that “the angel of Greece mounted 180 rounds of 
Jacob’s ladder.” 

Angel of Grief—depicted in the famous 
monument in the Protestant Cemetery in Rome. 
It is the work of an American sculptor and poet, 
W. W. Story, who, with his wife, lies buried 
there. A replica, at Stanford University in Cali¬ 
fornia, was erected to the memory of the victims 
of the 1906 earthquake. 

Angel of Hades—Uriel, Raphael. The 1st 
(Uriel) is set over Tartarus; the 2nd (Raphael) is 
“prince of Hades.” While Raphael is in charge of 
departed souls, the officiating angel of the newly 
dead was, at least originally, Uriel. [Rf. Enoch I, 
and Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews V, 70, 273, 
310.] 

Angel of Hail (or Hailstorms)—Bardiel or 
Baradiel or Barchiel; also Nuriel, Yurkami, and 
the twin irin kaddishin. 

Angel of Healing—usually Raphael; but also 
Suriel and Assiel. 

Angel of Health—Mumiah; also Raphael. 

Angel of Heavenly Baptism—Seldac (q.v). 


...Angel of the Grail [31] 

Angel of Hell- -there are 7 presiding angels of 
Hell under the ethnarchy of Duma(h). The other 
6 most commonly listed are Kshiel, Lahatiel, 
Shaftiel, Maccathiel, Chutriel, Pasiel. Other 
listings give Dalkiel, Rugziel, Nasargiel. [Rf. 
writings of Joseph ben Abraham Gikatilla; 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews II.] 

Angel of Herbs—in the Alphabet of Rabbi 
Akiba, the angel of herbs (unnamed) is included 
among the “splendid, terrible, and mighty angel 
chiefs” who passed before God to extol and 
rejoice in the 1st Sabbath. 

Angel of Heroism—Narsinha, who is the 
“man-lion avatar” and "lord of heroism.” 

Angel Over Hidden Things—Satarel (Sar- 
tael), and Gethel (Ingethal). 

Angel of the Hills—like the angel of herbs 
(q.v.), the angel of the hills, unnamed, was 
included by Rabbi Akiba among the “splendid, 
terrible, and mighty angel chiefs” who passed 
before God to extol and rejoice in the 1st Sabbath. 
[Rf. Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba.] 

Angel of His Presence—usually applied to 
the Shekinah ( q.v .). Cf. Isaiah 63:9: “In all their 
affliction he was afflicted, and the angel of his 
presence saved them.” See Angels of the Face; 
Angel of Sanctification; Angel of Glory. In 
rabbinic lore there are 12 angels of this class, with 
Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Zagzagael prominent 
among them. 

Angel of Hoarfrost—an angel mentioned but 
not named in Enoch I. 

Angel of Holiness [Angel of Sanctification] 

Angel of the Holy Spirit—Gabriel. In 
Charles, The Ascension of Isaiah IX, 36, Isaiah sees 
the angel of the holy spirit in the 7th Heaven “on 
the left of my Lord.” 

Angel of Hope—Phanuel, as designated by 
Jean Danielou in his Angels and Their Missions. 
Phanuel is-also the angel of penance “who holds 
the devil in his power.” 



[32] ANGEL: HORROR / LORD 


Angels of Horror—the cherubim, who sur¬ 
round the throne of glory and who “strike fear 
and terror in the hearts of all who behold them.” 
[See Angels of Terror.] 

Angel of Hostility (mal’akh hammastemah)— 
usually applied to Beliel or Beliar or Mastema. 
[Rf. Mansoor, The Thanksgiving Hymns', Vermes, 
Discovery in the Judean Desert, p. 184.] 

Angel of Humanity—in the Revelation of 
Moses, the angel of humanity appears to Eve in 
Eden when she is on her knees praying for 
forgiveness of her sins. The angel raises her up, 
saying: “Arise, Eve, from thy repentance; for 
behold, Adam thy husband has gone forth from 
his body.” This was the first news to Eve that 
Adam had died. Eve died 6 days later. 

Angel of Hurricanes [Za’miel; Zaafiel] 

Angel of Ice—an angel mentioned but not 
named in The Book of Jubilees and in the Revelation 
of John, the latter a New Testament apocryphon. 
[See Angel of Snow.] The Mayans have a god of 
ice called Iztlacoliuhqui. 

Angel of (or over) Immorality—his name 
is Zethar ami he is one of the angels of confusion. 
In Targum Esther, Zethar is the “observer of 
immorality.” God sent him down, with 6 other 
angels of confusion, to put an end to King 
Ahasuerus’ pleasure. [R/ Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews IV, 375.] See Pharzuph; Schiekron. 

Angel of Iniquity—“the angel of iniquity is 
bitter and angry and foolish; and his works are 
pernicious”—from the New Testament apocry¬ 
phon Hermas II. While the angel is not named, 
he may be identified as Apollyon (q.v.). 

Angel of Insolence—Rahab, who is also the 
angel or demon of the primordial waters and 
sometimes identified as the angel of death. [Cf. 
Isaiah 51:9.] 

Angel of Insomnia—Michael, who was sent 
by God to cause the sleeplessness of Ahasuerus (the 
king who, on the advice of the wicked Haman, 
had decreed the annihilation of all the Jews in the 


kingdom). The tale is told in Targum Esther and 
repeated in Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews. 

Angel of Intercession—an unnamed angel 
who intercedes “for the people of Israel, so that 
they may not be utterly destroyed,” as the angel 
declared to Levi when the latter went to Heaven 
(in a dream). [Rf. the Testament of Levi in the 
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs .] 

Angel of Inventions—Liwet, an uthra (angel) 
in Mandaean religious lore. 

Angel of Ire [Zkzoromtiel] 

Angel of Irrevocable Choice [ZefFar] 

Angel of Israel—Michael. Also Javan (q.v.) and 
the unnamed angel in the Testament of Levi and 
the Testament of Dan (in the Testament of the 
Twelve Patriarchs). 

Angel of January—Gabriel. In ancient Persian 
lore, the angel was Bahman. 

Angel of Jehovah [Angel of the Lord] 

Angel of Joy [Raphael; Gabriel] 

Angel of Judgment [Gabriel; Zchanpuryu; 
Phalgus] 

Angel of July—Verchiel (Zarachiel). In ancient 
Persian lore, Murdad (q.v.). 

Angel of June—Muriel (a male angel). In 
ancient Persian lore, Tir. 

Angel of June-July [Imrief ] 

Angel of (the planet) Jupiter—Zachariel 
(Yahriel); Zadkiel; Sachiel; Adabiel; Barchiel; 
Zadykiel. In Longfellow’s The Golden Legend, the 
angel of the planet Jupiter is Zobiachel (q.v.). For 
the names of the angels of the 7 planets, see 
Camfield, A Theological Discourse of Angels. 

Angels of Justice [Tsadkiel; Azza] 

Angel of Knowledge—Raphael, who is also 
the angel of science, health, prayer, and love. 

Angel of the Last Judgment—Michael, 
Gabriel (also Abel, as in The Testament of Abraham). 



Angel of the Law—where “Law” has the 
meaning of Torah (i.e., the Pentateuch), the angel 
is Dina, also known as Yefefiah, Iofiel, Zagzagael. 

Angel of Lawlessness—Beliar (Beliel), Matan- 
buchus. [Rf. The Martyrdom of Isaiah.] 

Angel of (the sign of) Leo—in ceremonial 
magic, the angel is Ol. There are also governing 
spirits of the sign and these are Sagham and 
Seratiel, according to Rabbi Chomer, the Hebrew 
cabalist quoted in Levi, Transcendental Magic. See 
also Verchiel. 

Angel of Liberty—unidentified by name. In 
Victor Hugo’s La Fin de Satan, it is through the 
angel of liberty that Satan is to be finally 
redeemed. [Rf. Papini, The Devil.] 

Angel of Libra (the Balances)—Jael, in 
ceremonial magic. In The Magus, the angel is 
Zuriel. According to Rabbi Chomer the 2 
governing spirits of Librai are Grasgarben and 
Hadakiel (Chadakiel). It was from the writings of 
Rabbi Chomer that Gaffarel (17th-century man 
of learning and librarian to Cardinal Richelieu) 
drew many of his predictions. 

Angel of Life—in his poem “The Two 
Angels,” Longfellow speaks of the angel of life 
and the angel of death (both unnamed). They are 
dressed in robes of white, one “crowned with 
amaranth as with flame,” the other “with aspho¬ 
dels like flakes of light.” Both angels, says Long¬ 
fellow, are from God “on celestial embassy.” 

Angel of Light—Isaac,—Gabriel, Jesus, and 
Satan have been called angels of light, Satan only 
in his disguise as such (II Corinthians 11:14). In 
Jewish tradition, Isaac was looked upon as an angel 
of light because of the supernatural brightness of 
his countenance at birth (a birth announced by 
Michael). In Christian lore of the Middle Ages, 
Gabriel was the angel of light. [R/l Christian, The 
History and Practice of Magic I, 296.] In Parsi 
religion, it was Mihr (Meher, Mithra); also 
Parvargigar (who, in Arabic, was Rab-un-naw, 
“lord of the species”). According to Midrash 
Kotien, 300 angels of light dwell in the 3rd Heaven 
where they “unceasingly sing God’s praises and 


...Angel of Light [3 3] 

watch over the Garden of Eden and the Tree of 
Life.” It should be explained that there are two 
paradises: the terrestrial one and the heavenly one. 
In the cabala, the sun, included among the planets, 
is regarded as an angel of light. 

Angel of the Light of Day—Shamshiel, who 
is also the prince of Paradise. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Angel of Lightning—Barkiel (Barakiel) or 
Uriel, according to The Book of Jubilees; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews; 3 Enoch. Barkiel (q.v.) is 
also the angel of February and is customarily cited 
as one of the 7 archangels. In Conybeare, The 
Testament of Solomon, as in Shah, The Secret Lore 
of Magic, the angel of lightning is claimed to be 
the only power able to overcome the demon Envy. 

Angel of Lights—in The Zadokite Fragments 
the following appears: “Moses and Aaron con¬ 
tinued in their charge through the help of the 
Angel of Lights even though Beliel in his cunning 
had set up Jannes and his brother in opposition of 
them.” [Rf. Rowley, The Zadokite Fragments and 
the Dead Sea Scrolls; Grant, Gnosticism and Early 
Christianity.] Raphael, as regent of the sun; Uriel, 
also called regent of the sun; and Shamshiel, 
“light of day,” may similarly be designated angels 
of light. 

Angel of Longevity—the angels most com¬ 
monly cited in occult writings as controllers or 
dispensers of longevity are Seheiah, Mumiah, 
Rehael. The last-named is of the order of powers. 
For his sigil, see Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique. 

Angel of the Lord—a Biblical theophorism, 
usually identified or personified as Michael, 
Metatron, Malachi, Gabriel, Akatriel, Yehadriel, 
Homadiel, Phinehas, etc. Where the expression 
occurs in the Old Testament, particularly in the 
earlier books, it may be taken to mean, though 
not always, God Himself. In Numbers 22:22 the 
Angel of the Lord is the adversary (i.e., ha-satan) 
acting for the Lord. The apparent contradiction 
between similar accounts in II Samuel 24:1 (where 
it is the Lord who provoked David to number 
Israel) and I Chronicles 21:1 (where it is Satan 
who does the provoking) may be resolved if 



ANGEL: LORD OF HOSTS / MARCH 


[34] 

(1) Satan were spelled lowercase—i.e., satan —to 
denote not the name of an angel (as it was, in fact, 
not meant to denote) but the designation of an 
office, the office of adversary; and if (2) this 
adversary were understood to be acting for God— 
that is, acting as the angel of the Lord. In Judges II, 
the angel of the Lord comes up from Gilgal to 
Bochim to remind the Israelites of the Lord’s 
promise “which I sware unto your fathers” to 
lead them to the Promised land. In the New 
Testament, as in Acts 12:1-7 (where Peter is 
released from prison), the angel of the Lord is not 
the Lord but a heavenly messenger sent by the 
Lord and acting for the Lord. See Raphael’s 
painting “The Angel Waking St. Peter.” In Acts 
12:23, where Herod is struck down by “the angel 
of the Lord,” the term may be equated with, or 
stand for, the angel of death. Justin held that one 
of the 3 angels that visited Abraham (Genesis 18) 
was the Word (i.e., the Logos or Holy Ghost). 
Philo thought that the other 2 were Christ and 
God Himself, or (again) the angel of the Lord, the 
3 constituting a prefiguring of the Trinity. The 
subject of Abraham “entertaining angels un¬ 
awares” was popular with painters of the early 
Italian school. The scene is depicted in a woodcut 
in the Cologne Bible (1478-1480); it also figures in 
one of Hans Holbein’s wood engravings (where, 
by the way, the 3 angels are represented without 
wings). It was an angel of the Lord, say the rabbis, 
who taught Abraham Hebrew, “the language of 
Revelation.” [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 85.] The 
term angel of the Lord, or angel of God, or angel 
of Yahweh appears in connection with the story 
of Hagar (Genesis 16); the sacrifice of Isaac 
(Genesis 22); the burning bush (Exodus 3); 
Balaam (Numbers 22); Gideon (Judges 6); parents 
of Samson (Judges 13); David at the threshing- 
floor of Araunah (2 Samuel); Elijah (2 Kings); the 
smiting of the Assyrian host (2 Kings); etc. 

Angel of the Lord of Hosts—on high, the 
angel is Michael; on earth it is the High-priest, so 
designated “by reason that he belongs to the side 
of Grace.” [Rf. The Zohar (Numbers 145b).] 

Angel of Love—Theliel, Rahmiel, Raphael, 
Donquel, etc. In the cabala, the Roman goddess 


Venus also figures as an angel of love. In rabbinic 
lore the angel of love (not named) approved the 
creation of man when God first proposed the idea 
to an assembly of top hierarchs (some of those 
who disapproved were punished— Rf. Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews). In Talmudic, Zoharistic, 
and Mandaean sources we find Liwet and Anael 
(the latter angel of the star of love) serving as 
additional angels of love. In ancient Persian 
writings, Mihr was the angel who watched over 
love and friendship. 

Angel of Lude—the rooftree angel of France. 
He is represented, though not named, in stained 
glass at St. Bartholomew’s Protestant Episcopal 
Church in New York City. The bronze of the 
angel is by Jehan Barbet de Lyon (1475). It was 
intended as a weathervane for St. Chapelle in 
Paris. In the 19th century the statue was removed 
by the Marquis de Talhouet to his chateau du Lude 
(whence the angel’s name). It was acquired by 
J. P. Morgan and exhibited in the United States. 
A reproduction is in the book Merchants of Art. 

Angel of Lust—in Talmud Bereshith Rahha 85, 
and according to Rabbi Jochanan commenting on 
Genesis 38:13-26, when “Judah was about to pass 
by, without noticing, Tamar (Judah’s daughter-in- 
law, squatting like a harlot at the crossroads), God 
caused the angel of lust to present itself to him.” 
The angel is not named—but compare with 
Pharzuph (or Priapus), whom Amobius in 
Adversus Nationes III, called “the Hellespontian god 
of lust.” [Cf. also with the “spirit of whoredom” 
in Hosea 4:12.] 

Angel of Luxury—in his commentary on 
Matthew, Origen says that anyone who “falls 
away from Michael is put into subjection to the 
angel of luxury, then to the angel of punishment.” 

Angel of Mankind—usually Metatron ( q.v .). 

Angels of the Mansions of the Moon— see 

Appendix for the names of 28 of these governing 
angels of the moon. 

Angel of March—Machidiel (Malchidiel), 
Melkejal, etc. For angels governing other months 




Angels of the Trinity, an icon made c. 1410-1420 by Andr6 Rublev. Here all 3 figures (Jesus, 
God, and the Holy Ghost) are winged and haloed. In the Tretykov Gallery, Moscow. Reproduced 
from Regamey, Anges. 


[36] ANGEL: MARRIAGE / PATIENCE 


of the year, see Angels of the Months of the Year. 
In ancient Persian lore, the angel of March was 
Favardin. 

Angel of the Marriage of Contraries 

[Camaysar] 

Angel of (the planet) Mars—Uriel, Sammael 
(Zamiel), Gabriel, Chamael (or Camuel, as listed 
in Camfield, A Theological Discourse of Angels). 
[R/. Kircher, Oedipus Aegyptiacus; Levi, Trans¬ 
cendental Magic ; Lenormant, Chaldean Magic.] 

Angel of May—Ambriel (Amriel); also Afsi- 
Khof. [Rf. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal.] In 
ancient Persian lore, the angel of May was 
Khurdad. 

Angel of Media—the unnamed tutelary angel 
of the ancient land of Media who became “cor¬ 
rupted through national bias.” According to 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews I, 351, the angel 
of Media mounted 52 rungs of Jacob’s Ladder. 

Angel of Memory—Zachriel, Zadkiel, Mupiel. 
The angels of memory are invoked in Mosaic 
incantations, occult rites, etc. 

Angel of (the planet) Mercury—in grimoires 
and goetic texts, the angels of the planet Mercury 
are variously given as Tiriel, Raphael, Hasdiel, 
Michael, Barkiel, Zadkiel. In practical cabala, the 
angel of Mercury is Bene (Bne) Seraphim. [Rf. 
Levi, Transcendental Magic, Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition.] 

Angel of Mercy—Rahmiel (Rhamiel), Rach- 
miel, Gabriel, Michael, Zehanpuryu, Zadkiel. St. 
Francis of Assisi has been called the angel of mercy 
and has been so pictured (with wings) in The 
Douce Apocalypse. (See also The Zohar\ 3 Enoch.) 
As in the case of 2 other mortals (Enoch and 
Elijah), St. Francis, it is claimed, was transformed 
into an angel and now goes by the name of 
Rhamiel. Another angel of mercy named in 
Merkabah lore is Uzziel, acting under Metatron. 
[Rf introd. 3 Enoch.] 

Angel of Meteors [Angel of Comets, q.v.] 

Angels of Might—“from the shrines of the 


Egyptians, He (Christ) stole the names of the 
angels of might”—so claimed pagan writers, 
according to Arnobius in his Adversus Nationes I. 
The names of these angels of might are not given. 

Angel of Mighty Counsel—the Septuagint 
version of the famous passage in Isaiah 9:6, which 
has been interpreted by Christian apologists as one 
of the prophecies of the advent of Christ, and as 
one of His appellations. 

Angel of Migration—Nadiel (q.v.), who is the 
governing spirit of the month of Kislav (Novem- 
ber-December). 

Angel of Mohammed—when Mohammed, 
according to legend, was transported to Heaven, 
he saw there—as he later reported—an angel with 
“70,000 heads, each head having 70,000 faces, each 
face 70,000 mouths, each mouth 70,000 tongues, 
each tongue speaking 70,000 languages, and all 
employed in singing God’s praises.” Brewer in his 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable estimates that the 
foregoing enumeration “would make more than 
31,000 trillion languages and nearly 5 billion 
mouths.” [Cf the erelim.] 

Angel of Monday—Gabriel; Arcan (king, in 
the nether realms); Bilet; Missabu; Abuzaha; and 
others. 

Angels of Mons (legendary)—in Machen, The 
Bowmen & Other Legends of the War, the angels of 
Mons, phantom horsemen, are reported to have 
appeared at the battle of Mons, bringing aid to the 
English. The report found general acceptance 
among civilians as well as among many of the 
soldiers who fought in the battle. 

Angels of the (12) Months of the Year— 

Gabriel (January); Barchiel (February); Malchidiel 
(March); Asmodel (April); Ambriel or Amriel 
(May); Muriel (June); Verchiel (July); Hamaliel 
(August); Zuriel or Uriel (September); Barbiel 
(October); Adnachiel or Advachiel (November); 
Hanael or Anael (December). In ancient Persian 
lore, the angels were: Bahman (January); Isfand- 
armend (February); Farvardin (March); Ardibehist 
(April); Khurdad (May); Tir (June); Murdad 
(July); Shahrivar (August); Mihr or Miher 



(September); Aban (October); Azar (November); 
Dai (December). [Rf. The Magus II and De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Angels of the Moon—in Solomonic lore, the 
angels governing the moon are variously given as 
Yahriel, Iachadiel, Elimiel, Gabriel, Tsaphiel, 
Zachariel, Iaqwiel, and others. In Longfellow’s 
The Golden Legend, where the 7 planetary angels 
are named, the angel of the moon is given as 
Gabriel, although in later editions of the poem 
Longfellow switched to the angel Onafiel. [Rf. 
Christian, The History and Practice of Magic.] 
Actually, there is no such angel as Onafiel. Long¬ 
fellow coined him inadvertently through a trans¬ 
position of the letters “f” and “n” in Ofaniel, who 
is the traditional angel of the moon. 

Angel of Morals—Mehabiah, an angel who 
assists mortals desiring progeny. In The Magus, 
Mehabiah is cited as one of the 72 angels bearing 
the name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Angel of Mountains [Rampel] 

Angel of the Muses—Uriel, Israfel, Radueriel, 
Vretil (Pravuil). The 9 Etruscan gods, the Noven- 
siles, were regarded collectively as constituting 
the Muses, according to Granius (on the authority 
of Arnobius in his Adversus Nationes III). 

Angel of Music—in Islamic lore, the angel of 
music is Israfel (Israfil), who is often equated with 
Uriel. 

Angel of the Mutations of the Moon—in 

ancient Persian theogony, the angel was Mah. 

Angel of Mysteries—Raziel, Gabriel, Zizuph. 
In Christian, The History and Practice of Magic, 
Gabriel is the “genius of Mysteries.” 

Angel of Night [Leliel ; Metatron ; Lailah] 

Angel of the Noonday Winds [Nariel] 

Angel of the North [Oertha; Alfatha; Uriel; 
Chairoum] 

Angels of the North Star—Abathur, Muzania, 
Arhum Hii, and 4 angels (uthri) in Mandaean lore. 


...Angels of the Months of the Year [37] 

Angel of the North Wind—Chairoum (q.v.). 

Angel of Nourishment—Isda. See Angel of 
Food. 

Angel of November—Adnachiel (Advachiel, 
Adernahael). In ancient Persian lore, the angel of 
November was Azar. 

Angel of Obedience—Sraosha ( q.v .) in Mani- 
cheanism. 

Angel of Oblivion—Purah or Puta or Poteh. 
Referred to also as the angel of forgetfulness. 

Angel of October—Barbiel. In ancient Persian 
lore, Aban. 

Angel of the Odd (fictional)—in Edgar Allan 
Poe’s short story so titled, a wingless, Dutch- 
English speaking angel, more like an automaton, 
who “presides over the contretemps of mankind.” 
The business of this angel or genius is “to bring 
about the odd accidents which are continually 
astonishing the sceptic.” [Rf. vol. 4 of the 10-vol. 
The Works of Edgar Allan Poe.] 

Angel of Omnipotence—there are (or were) 
8 angels of this class, Atuesuel, Ebuhucl, Elubatel, 
Tubatlu, Bualu, Tulatu, Labusi, Ublisi. In the 
Citation of Leviathan, the first 3 angels are invoked 
to force demons to appear and do the bidding of 
the invocant. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, p. 85.] 

Angel of Oracles—Phaldor (q.v.). 

Angel of Order—Sadriel (q.v.). 

Angel of Orion—in the Alphabet of Rabbi 
Akiba, the angel of Orion (unnamed) is included 
among the “splendid, terrible and mighty angel 
chiefs” who passed before God to extol and 
rejoice in the 1st Sabbath. 

Angel of Paradise—both earthly and heavenly: 
Shamshiel, Michael, Zephon, Zotiel, Johiel, 
Gabriel, etc. In Mandaean lore, the angel is 
Rusvon. In ancient Persian lore, the angel was 
Sirushi (or Surush Ashu, or Ashu). [Rf Shea and 
Troyer, The Dabistan, p. 144.] 

Angel of Patience—Achaiah (q.v.), who is also 
adept in discovering the secrets of nature. In 



[ 38 ] 


I 



V 4 V*. 


.-Wi v 


Angels Chanting the “Gloria” by Benozzo Gozzoli (1420-1498). Reproduced from Regamey, 
Anges. 





the cabala, the angel of patience is one of 3, and 
belongs to the order of seraphim. 

Angel of Peace—in Jewish legend, the angel 
of peace (unnamed) is reputed to have opposed 
the creation of man, for which opposition he was 
burned by God, along with the hosts under him. 
The angel of truth was also burned, and for the 
same reason. Later, it seems, they were both 
revived. In Enoch I, 40, the angel of peace leads 
Enoch the patriarch around Heaven and reveals 
to him the names of the 4 archangels of the 
presence—Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Phanuel— 
describing their individual duties. The Testament 
of Asher speaks of “meeting the angel of peace,” 
but does not name him. Traditionally there were 
7 angels of peace. The Zohar translates Isaiah 33:7 
as “Behold, angels cry abroad, the angels of peace 
weep bitterly.” They weep “because they no 
longer know [declares Rabbi Simeon] what to 
make of God’s promise to Abraham at the time 
when He brought him forth.” According to 
tradition [Rf. New Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 441] 
“angels of peace visit every Jewish home when 
the holy Sabbath is being ushered in.” In gnostic 
lore, the prince of peace is Melcbisedec (q.v.). [Rf 
Prince of Peace.] 

Angel of Penance—Phanuel (q.v.). He is also 
the angel of hope and identified as the Shepherd of 
Hermas. 

Angel of Persecution—according to Roman 
Catholic doctrine, in its prebaptismal rites, the 
angel of persecution is a personal devil which is 
in each of us (side by side with a guardian angel). 
See Angel of Perversion. [Rf Corte, Who Is the 
Devil?] 

Angel of Persia—Dob(b)iel or Dub(b)iel, 
known as the guardian angel of Persia. In Daniel 
10:13, Michael contends with the prince of Persia 
(not identified here by name). [Rf Talmud Yoma 
77a.] 

Angel of Perversion — a 2nd-century c.e. 
apocryphon, the Shepherd of Hermas, informs us 
that “every man has close by him 2 angels, one 
an angel of holiness or sanctity, the other an 
angel of perversion.” [Cf Angel of Persecution.] 


.. .Angel of Peace [39] 

Angel of Pisces—in ceremonial magic, the 
angel of this sign of the zodiac (Pisces, fishes) is 
Pasiel. According to Rabbi Chomer, quoted by 
Eliphas Levi, there are 2 governing spirits of 
Pisces and they are Rasamasa and Vocabiel 
(Vocatiel). Hey wood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed 
Angels, lists Varchiel as chief regent of Pisces. 

Angel of the Plagues—an unnamed destroy¬ 
ing angel who, sword in hand, appeared over 
Jerusalem to punish the Jews, particularly King 
David, for authorizing a census (the numbering of 
people being, apparently, an offence to God). 
David appeased the angel of the plagues by 
offering burnt sacrifices on the threshing-floor of 
Araunah, one of the Jebusite inhabitants of old 
Jerusalem. For the incident, see I Chronicles 21. 

Angels of the Planets—there are commonly 
7 angels of the planets which, in occult lore, include 
the sun and moon. The chief is Rehatiel (Rhatiel) 
or Rejatiel. For the name of the governing angel 
for each planet, his sign, the day he governs, etc., 
see Appendix. In the 1st edition of Longfellow’s 
The Golden Legend, the angels of the 7 planets are 
given as: Raphael (Sun); Gabriel (Moon); Anael 
(star of love, i.e., Venus); Zobiachel (Jupiter); 
Michael (Mercury); Uriel (Mars); Anachiel 
(Saturn). In later editions, Longfellow substituted 
Onafiel for Gabriel and Orifel for Anachiel. Both 
Zobiachel and Onafiel seem to be newly coined, 
since they show up in no other source. 

Angel of Plants—Sachluph ( q.v .). 

Angel of the Pleiades—in the Alphabet of 
Rabbi Akiba, this angel, unnamed, is included 
among the “splendid, terrible and mighty angel 
chiefs” who passed before God to extol and 
rejoice in the 1st Sabbath. 

Angel of Poetry—Uriel, Israfel, Radueriel 
(Vretil), Phoenix. 

Angel of (the order of) Powers—in the 

cabala [Rf Levi, Transcendental Magic] the angel 
of the order of powers is Zacharael, or the planet 
Jupiter. Other sources designate Verchiel, Camael, 
Kafziel (Cassiel), and Sam(m)ael. The last named 
is given on the authority of Robert Fludd, 



[ 40 ] ANGEL: PRAISE / RIGH 



Baroque Angels, the work of Franz Schwan- 
thaler (c. 1720). Made for the Heilige Maria 
Kirche, Dresden. From the collection of Edward 
R. Lubin. 

16th-century alchemist. According to Gregory the 
Great, the powers “preside over demons.” In The 
Testament of Abraham, a pseudepigraphic work, the 
angel of powers is Michael. 

Angel of Praise—unnamed. In Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews I, 16, it is related that “the third 
creation of the second day [of Creation] were 
the angel hosts, both the ministering angels and 
the angels of praise.” Specifically, the latter 
would constitute the 3 orders of the 1st triad 
in the Dionysian scheme—seraphim, cherubim, 
thrones. 

Angel of Prayer—in occult writings one finds 
usually 5 or 6 named angels of prayer: Akatriel, 
Gabriel, Metatron, Raphael, Sandalphon, Sizouse. 
But since there are “seven archangels who convey 
the prayers of the saints to God” (according to 
Oesterley in Manson, A Companion to the Bible, 
p. 337), Michael might be included among the 
aforementioned 6. 

Angel of Precipices—Zarobi ( q.v .). 

Angels of Pregnancy— in Mosaic incantation 


T 

rites, the angels of pregnancy are Sinui and 
Sinsuni. These 2 luminaries are invoked to help 
women in labor. According to Jewish legend, God 
appoints an angel to make the newborn Jewish 
male resemble its father, in order, presumably, to 
preclude the charge of adultery which might be 
lodged against the mother where a child bears no 
resemblance to the male parent. [Rf. Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews VI, 83.] 

Angels of the Presence—also known as angels 
of the face. They are customarily 12 in number, 
the chiefs of the group being Michael, Metatron, 
Suriel, Sandalphon, Astanphaeus, Saraqael, Phan- 
uel, Jehoel, Zagzagael, Uriel, Yefefiah, and 
Akatriel. The angels of the presence are also 
equated with the angels of sanctification and the 
angels of glory, 2 classes of hierarchs that were, it 
seems, already circumcised at the time they were 
created. See The Book of Jubilees XV, 27. In the 
just-named pseudepigraphon (1,27 et seq.) the story 
of Creation is unfolded to Moses “by the angel 
of the presence,” who, however, is not named. 
“Probably Michael,” says R. H. Charles. The 
patriarch Judah, in the Testament of Judah (in the 
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs), claims that the 
angel of the presence (not named) blessed him. 
According to The Zohar (I, Vayera), the angels of 
the presence were expelled from the divine 
presence when they revealed the “mystery” (i.e., 
God’s purpose). [Rf. A Rabbinic Anthology, p. 162.] 
Blake in his poem “Milton” speaks of the “seven 
angels of the presence.” He also has a drawing, 
now in the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge, 
titled “The Angel of the Divine Presence Clothing 
Adam and Eve with Coats of Skins.” Rabbinic 
tradition refers to the 70 tutelary angels as angels 
of the presence. According to the Testament of Levi 
(in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs), the 
angels of the presence dwell in the 6th Heaven. 
[Rf Eisenmenger, Traditions of the Jews I; Book of 
Hymns V; Testament of Judah (in the Testament of 
the Twelve Patriarchs); Lea, Materials Toward a 
History of Witchcraft I, 17.] 

Angel of Prid e—Rahab; Satan. 

Angel of Priesthoods and Sacrifices— 




Sachiel-Meleck. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic, 

p. 307.] 

Angels of Principalities—the ruling princes 
of this order, listed 1st in the 3rd triad of the 
pseudo-Dionysian system of the celestial hierarchy, 
include Haniel, Nisroc, Cerviel, and Raguel. The 
order is known also as princedoms. The angels of 
this choir are “protectors of religion” and preside 
over good spirits. In Jude and in the Pauline 
Epistles, the principalities are regarded as both 
beneficent and malevolent luminaries. Nisroc is 
mentioned in Paradise Lost VI, 447 as “of Principal¬ 
ities the prime.” This Nisroc was once an Assyrian 
deity (II Kings 19:37). In occult lore, he is a 
demon. [Rf. Caird, Principalities and Powers.] 

Angel of Proclamation—Gabriel; also Ak(h)- 
raziel or Azkariel. 

Angel of Progress—in Jewish cabala, the 
angel of progress is Mercury. Raphael is also 
referred to as the angel of progress. [Rf. Acts 14: 
11-12; Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 100.] 

Angel of Prostitution—in Zoharistic cabala, 
the angel of prostitution is Eisheth Zenunim (mate 
of Sammael, prince of poison and of death). 
Lilith, Naamah, and Agrat bat Mahlat were 3 
other mates of Sammael and, like Eisheth, angels 
of prostitution. [Rf. Masters, Eros and Evil.] 

Angel of Punishment—there are 7 and they 
are named in Maseket Gan Eden and Gehinnom: 
Kushiel (“rigid one of God”); Lahatiel (“flaming 
one”); Shoftiel (“judge of God”); Makatiel 
(“plague of God”); Hutriel (“rod of God”); 
Pusiel or Puriel (“fire of God”); Rogziel (“wrath 
of God”). See Jewish Encyclopedia I, 593. Another 
angel of punishment is Amaliel ( q.v .). The Coptic 
Pistis Sophia names Ariel as the angel in charge of 
punishments in Hell. The Manual of Discipline 
(plate IV) lists angels of punishment. In Enoch II 
(10:3) the angels of punishment dwell in the 3rd 
Heaven. Cf. the Levi testament in the Testament of 
the Twelve Patriarchs, where armies of punishing 
angels, presumably evil, dwell in the 3rd Heaven. 
These, says Charles in Enoch I, are the grigori 
(q.v.). Hell, by the way, was “in the north of the 


...Angel of Prostitution [41] 

3rd Heaven.” In Coptic gnosticism, the demon of 
punishment is Asmodel; in occult writings, 
Asmodel is the angel of April. Midrash Tehillim, 
commenting on Psalm 7, lists 5 angels of punish¬ 
ment whom Moses encountered in Heaven, to 
wit: (1) Af, angel of anger; (2) Kezef, angel of 
wrath; (3) Hemah, angel of fury; (4) Hasmed, 
angel of annihilation; (5) Mashit, angel of de¬ 
struction. 

Angel of Purity—Tahariel. [Rf. Abelson, 
Jewish Mysticism .] 

Angels of Quaking—the “Angels of Quaking 
surround the throne of glory.” ( Cf. Angels of 
Terror.) Moses beheld these angels during his 
40-day stay in Heaven. [Rf. Ma’ayan ha-Hokmah 
58-60 and other midrashim.] 

Angel of Rage—called N’mosnikttiel in 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. [Cf. Angels of 
Wrath.] 

Angel of Rain—in rabbinic lore, at least 5 
qualify as angels of rain: Matriel, Matarel, 
Matariel, Ridya (Ridia), and Zalbesael (Zelebsel). 
3 Enoch (the Hebrew Book of Enoch) vouches 
for “Batarrel standing for Matarel.” In ancient 
Persian writings, the angel of rain (as also for 
rivers) was Dara. 

Angel of Rarified Air—in Parsi angelology 
the angel is Ram-Khvastra; in Mandaean lore, 
it is Ayar Ziwa. 

Angel of Repentance—according to various 
sources, the angel of repentance is Shepherd, 
Michael, Raphael, Suriel, Salathiel, Phanuel 
(Penuel). [Rf. Shepherd of Hermas; Enoch I; The 
Interpreter’s Bible (Commentary).] 

Angel of Resurrection—the angel who rolled 
away the stone before Jesus’ tomb. In Matthew 28 
he is called the angel of the Lord. [Cf. Gabriel.] 

Angel of Revelation—Gabriel. [See Blake’s 
poem, “Glad Day.”] 

Angel of the Right—in the Valentinian 
(gnostic) theory of Excerpts, the Angels of the 
Right were those who had prior knowledge of 



[42] ANGEL: RIGHTEOUSNESS / STAR OF LOVE 

the birth of Christ. [Rf. Newbold, “The Descent were created already circumcised, a “fact” 
of Christ in the Odes of Solomon” in Journal of attested to in the pre-Christian The Book of 
Biblical Literature, December 1912.] Jubilees. 


Angel of Righteousness—Michael. In The 
Shepherd of Hertnas, the angel (unnamed) is 
described as “mild, modest, gentle and quiet” and 
as one of 2 angels “with man,” the other being an 
“angel ofiniquity” (q.v.). 

Angel of the River Jordan—called Silmai; 
also Nidbai. 

Angel of Rivers—in M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses, the angel of rivers is Trsiel; in Persian lore 
the angel is Dara (q.v.). 

Angel of Rome—usually spoken of as Sam- 
mael, who is Satan in post-Biblical lore. Edom 
(q.v.) was a designation for Rome. 

Angel of Running Streams—Nahaliel (q.v.). 

Angel of the Sabbath—named Sabbath in 
Jewish (rabbinic) writings, where he is repre¬ 
sented as one of the great hierarchs in Heaven. 
“The angel named Sabbath who sat on a throne 
of glory and the chiefs of all the angels of all the 
heavens and the abysses danced and rejoiced 
before him.” [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews 1,84.] 

Angel of Sagittarius—the angel of the sign 
of Sagittarius in the zodiac is Ayil or Sizajasel. 
According to Rabbi Chomer (Levi, Transcendental 
Magic), the 2 governing spirits of the sign are 
Vhnori and Saritaiel (Saritiel). In Heywood, The 
Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, the ruler of Sagit¬ 
tarius is Adnachiel. 

Angel of Salvation—Haurvatat, who is one 
of the amesha spentas (archangels) in Zoroastrian¬ 
ism. In noncanonical lore (Enoch and Baruch 
apocrypha), the angel of salvation is Uriel. 
[Rf Graves and Patai, Hebrew Myths, p. 103.] 

Angel of Sanctification—equated with the 
angel of glory and the angel of the presence. Chief 
among the angels of sanctification are Phanuel, 
Suricl, Metatron, Michael, Zagzagael. Like the 
angels of the presence, the angels of sanctification 


Angel of the Sanctuary—Sar ha-Kodesh. 
Also identified as Michael, Metatron, Yefefiah. 

Angel of Saturday—Cassiel, Machatan, Uriel. 
In the Talismans of Paracelsus, the angel of Satur¬ 
day is Orifiel. [Rf. Christian, The History and 
Practice of Magic I, 318.] 

Angel of Saturn—Orifiel, Kafziel, Michael, 
Maion, Orifel, Mael, Zaphiel, Schebtaiel. In the 
works of Zanchy, Agrippa, and Trithemius the 
angel of the planet Saturn is Zapkiel. Agrippa also 
lists Orifiel. In Longfellow, The Golden Legend (1st 
edition, 1851), the angel governing Saturn is 
Anachiel. In later editions Longfellow substituted 
Orifel for Anachiel. [Rf. Camfield, A Theological 
Discourse ofAngeb.] 

Angel of Scandal—Zahun, according to 
Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 502. In Apollonius 
of Tyana, The Nuctemeron, Zahun is cited as one 
of the genii of the 1st hour. 

Angel of Science—Raphael, who is also the 
angel of knowledge. 

Angel of Scorpio—Sosol. According to Rabbi 
Chomer, quoted in Levi, Transcendental Magic, the 
2 governing spirits of Scorpio are Riehol and 
Saissaeiel (Sartziel). 

Angel of the Sea—Rahab. He is so called in 
Scripture and Talmud. Rahab was destroyed 
twice—once for refusing to divide the upper and 
lower waters at the time of Creation, and again 
for trying to save from drowning the Egyptian 
hosts in pursuit of the fleeing Hebrews across the 
Red (more correctly Reed) Sea. [See Tamiel; 
Angel of the Deep.] 

Angels of the (Four) Seasons—Farias (Win¬ 
ter); Telvi (Spring); Casmaran (Summer); An- 
darcel (Autumn). In medieval Hebrew texts the 
angels of the 4 seasons are Malkiel, Helemmelek, 
Melejal, and Narel. [Rf. “Angels,” in Interpreter’s 
Dictionary of the Bible.] 



Angels of the Second Heaven—2 are usually 
cited: Raphael and Zachariel. But since it was in 
the 2nd Heaven that Moses encountered the angel 
Nuriel “with his retinue of 50 myriads of angels” 
(Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews II, 306). Nuriel 
might be added to the rulers of this Heaven. 

Angel of September—Uriel or Zuriel. The 
ruler of the month of Tishri (September-October) 
is Pahadron. However, if September is equated 
with the Hebrew month of Eloul, the angel is 
Elogium. In ancient Persian lore, the angel of 
September was Miher (Mihr). 

Angels of Service—according to Rabbi Akiba 
the angels of service are “the fowl of heaven” 
(Cf. Psalm 104). The Zohar speaks of these angels 
as having 6 wings. 

Angels of the Seven Days—Michael, Gabriel, 
Samael, Raphael, Sachiel, Anael, and Cassiel. 
According to Barrett, The Magus II (plate facing 
p. 105), the rulership is as follows, with the sigil 
of each angel reproduced in the Barrett book: 
Michael, lord of Sunday; Gabriel, lord of Mon¬ 
day; Samael, lord of Tuesday ; Raphael, lord of 
Wednesday; Sachiel, lord of Thursday; Anael, 
lord of Friday; Cassiel, lord of Saturday. 

Angels of the Seven Heavens—the ruling 
princes of the 7 Heavens are: Gabriel, 1st Heaven; 
Raphael, Zachariel, Galizur, 2nd Heaven; Jabniel, 
Rabacyel, Dalquiel, 3rd Heaven; Michael, 4th 
Heaven; Samael, Gadriel, 5th Heaven; Zachiel, 
Zebul, Sandalphon, Sabath, 6th Heaven; Cassiel 
(Kafziel) 7th Heaven. According to hechaloth 
lore, while some of the rulers reside in their 
respective Heavens, they are also found in other 
Heavens as guardians of the great halls. In Jewish 
legend, for example, Samael resides in the 7th 
Heaven (where, it is said, he is a prisoner). 

Angel of the Seven Last Plagues—in Reve¬ 
lation 15-17 there are 7 angels of the 7 last plagues 
“to whom are given 7 golden vials full of the wrath 
of God.” The angels are not named. 

Angel of Showers [Zaa’fiel] 

Angel of Silence [Shateiel, Duma(h)] 


.. .Angels of the Seven Days [43] 

Angel of the Sirocco [Sikiel] 

Angel of the Sixth Heaven—Zachiel, Zebul, 
' Sabath, Sandalphon. “Here dwells the Guardian 
Angel of heaven and earth,” according to the 
Muslims. The ruling prince of the 6th Heaven is 
Bodiel [Rf. Hechaloth Zoterathi ]. 

Angel of the Sky [Sahaqiel] 

Angel of Sleep—the unnamed angel who 
deprived King Ahasuerus of sleep in the Esther 
episode. [Rf Ozar Midrashim I, p. 56.] 

Angel over Small Birds [Tubiel] 

Angels of Snow—Shalgiel, Michael. The angels 
of snow, unnamed, are spoken of in the apocry¬ 
phal Revelation of John. 

Angel of Solitudes—Cassiel, who is also the 
Angel of Tears (as is Sandalphon). 

Angel of Song—Radueriel (Vretil), who is also 
choirmaster of the muses. In Koranic lore, the 
angel of song is Israfel or Uriel. In rabbinic lore, 
the angel is Shemiel (Shemael, Shammiel) or 
Metatron. The last named is called “Master of 
Heavenly Song.” 

Angels Over Sorceries—“the wizard Aod 
of the priests of Midian used the angels set over 
sorceries to make the sun shine at night,” according 
to The Biblical Antiquities of Philo. [Cf fallen angels, 
who make known secret arts to mankind, as 
related in Enoch /.] 

Angel of the Sorrows of Death [Paraqlitos] 

Angel of the Souls of Men [Remiel (Jeremiel)] 

Angel of the South [Kerkoutha, Cedar, Ra¬ 
phael] 

Angel of the Southwest [Naoutha] 

Angel of the Spheres [Salatheel (Sealtiel); 
Jehudiel] 

Angels of the Spring—in occult lore, there 
are 4: Amatiel, Caracasa, Core, Commissoros. 
The head of the sign of Spring is Spugliguel. The 
ruling angel is Milkiel. 

Angel of the Star of Love f Anael | 



ANGEL: STARS / VENGEANCE 


[44] 

Angel of the Stars [Kakabel, Kohabiel, 
Kochabiel, Kokbiel] 

Angel of Sterility [ Akriel] 

Angel of Storm [Zakkiel, Zaamael] 

Angel of Strength [Zeruch (Zeruel, Cerviel)] 

Angel of Summer—Gargatel; Gaviel; Tariel. 
The head of the sign of summer is Tubiel. 

Angels of the Summer Equinox—in this 
group there are 9 or more angels, with Oranir 
serving as chief. All are effective as amulets 
against the evil eye. For the names of 9 of these 
angels, see Appendix. 

Angels of the Sun—in the cabala and occult 
lore, the angels of the sun include an array of 
hierarchs: Arithiel, Galgaliel, Gazardia (spelt 
variously), Korshid-Metatron, Michael, Och, Ra¬ 
phael, Uriel, Zerachiel, etc. The Zohar (Exodus, 
188a) speaks of “the angel appointed to rule and 
guide the sun,” declaring that at dawn this angel 
“steps forth with the holy letters of the supernal 
blessed Name inscribed upon his brow, and in the 
power of those letters opens all the windows of 
Heaven.” In ancient Persian lore, the angel of the 
disk of the sun was Chur (q.v.). 

Angel of Sunday—Michael (1st hour); Anael 
(2nd hour); Raphael (3rd hour); Gabriel (4th 
hour); Cassiel (5th hour); Sachiel (6th hour); 
Samael (7th hour); Michael (8th hour); Anael (9th 
hour); Raphael (10th hour); Gabriel (11th hour); 
Cassiel (12th hour). It will be observed that 
Michael, Anael, Raphael, Cassiel and Gabriel do 
double duty on the Sabbath day. [Rf. Shah, 
Occultism, pp. 55-56.] 

Angel of the Sun’s Rays [Schachlil] 

Angel of the Supreme Mysteries [Raziel] 

Angel of Sweet-Smelling Herbs [Arias] 

Angel of the Sword—the chief angel of the 
sword is usually given as Soqed Hezi (variously 
spelt). But there are numerous other angels so 
designated, as in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Angel over Tame Beasts [Behemiel] 


Angel over Tartarus (Hades)—Uriel; also the 
eponymous chief Tartaruchi. 

Angel of Taurus—in ceremonial magic, the 
chief angel of this zodiacal sign (the Bull) is Tual, 
otherwise Asmodel. According to Rabbi Chomer, 
quoted by Levi in Transcendental Magic, the 
governing spirits of Taurus are Bagdal and 
Araziel. 

Angel of Tears—Sandalphon and Cassiel 
(qq.v.). In Islamic lore, the Angel of Tears (not 
named) dwells in the 4th Heaven. 

Angels of Terror—these angels are equated 
with the angels of quaking. They are the strongest 
among the hierarchs and surround the throne of 
glory. In Jewish mysticism, Pahadron is the chief 
angel of terror. He governs the month of Tishri 
(September-October). 

Angel of the Testament—John the Baptist, 
according to Salkeld in A Treatise of Angels (1613), 
quoting Malachi 3:1: “and the angel of the testa¬ 
ment whom you desire,” etc. This would apply 
to Christ, says Lactantius in Schneweis, Angeb 
and Demons According to Lactantius. The passage 
in Malachi is also translated as “messenger” of the 
covenant. [Cf. Matthew 2:10: “Behold, I send 
my messenger before thy face, which shall pre¬ 
pare thy way for thee.”] In the view of Regamey 
(What Is an Angel?) the foregoing would denote 
that “Christ is to proclaim himself the angel of the 
testament and to cause John the Baptist to be 
recognized as the messenger” merely. 

Angels of the Third Heaven—among the 
principal rulers here are Jabniel, Rabacyel, Dal- 
quiel, Baradiel, and Shaphiel. It was in the 3rd 
Heaven that Moses encountered an angel “so tall, 
it would take a human 500 years to climb to his 
height; he had 70,000 heads, each head as many 
mouths, each mouth as many tongues, etc. 
Mohammed also saw such an angel in Heaven, but 
neither in Talmud nor in the Koran is he named. 
A good guess would be Erelim, eponymous head 
of the order of erelim; or Raziel, sometimes 
credited with being chief of the order. The term 
erelim derives from Isaiah 33:7. In de Abano, The 



Heptameron, the angels of the 3rd Heaven include 
Milliel, Ucirmuel, Nelapa, Jerescue, and Babel.. 
Some sources place the erelim in the 4th Heaven. 

Angels of the Throne—the Hebrew equiva¬ 
lent of the order of thrones is arelim or ophanim, 
according to The Book of the Angel Raziel: “there 
were seven who stand before the throne.” How¬ 
ever, according to a Jewish legend, there were 
(or are) 70. Among the chiefs of the order the 
following may be mentioned: Orifiel, Ophaniel 
(eponymous head of the ophanim), Raziel, 
Zabkiel, Jophiel, Ambriel, Tychagar, Barael, 
Quelamia, Paschar, Boel, Raum, Murmur. A 
number of these hierarchs are no longer found in 
Heaven and are to be numbered among the fallen 
angels in Hell. In the Dionysian scheme, the 
thrones as an order are placed 3rd in the 1st triad 
of the celestial hierarchy. Their dominant charac¬ 
teristic or virtue is steadfastness. 

Angel of Thunder—Ra'miel, and/or Uriel. 
The latter also serves as the angel of fire and light¬ 
ning. In Assyro-Babylonian mythology, the god 
of thunder was Adad; see picturization in Lar- 
ousse Encyclopedia of Mythology, p. 59. Another 
Babylonian god of thunder was Rimmon. 

Angels of Thursday—Sachiel, Cashel, and 
Assasiel. In Paracelsus, Talismans, the angel of 
Thursday is Zachariel. [Rf Christian, The History 
and Practice of Magic 1,318.] 

Angel of Time—so called but not otherwise 
named in the Tarot (Tarot card No. 14). The angel 
of time “stands between earth and heaven, 
clothed in a white robe, with wings of flame and 
a golden halo around his head . . . one foot on 
land, the other on the sea, behind him the sun 
rising ... on his brow the sign of eternity and life: 
the circle.” In the hermetic hierarchy, says 
Christian, The History and Practice of Magic, the 
genius of time is Rempha. 

Angel of the Torah [Yefefiah; Iofiel (or 
Yofiel); Zagzageal; Metatron] 

Angel of Torment [Aftemelouchos] 

Angel of Treasures [Parasiel] 


.. .Angels of the Sun [ 45 ] 

Angel of the Treasures of the Dead [Remiel 

(i.e., Jeremiel)] 

Angel Over Trees [Maktiel] 

Angel of Trembling [Pahadron ; also Angel of 
Quaking or Terror] 

Angels of the Triplicities—in ceremonial 
magic, the angels who rule the zodiacal triplicities 
are: Michael (over the fiery triplicity); Raphael 
(over the airy triplicity); Gabriel (over the watery 
triplicity); and Uriel (over the earthy triplicity). 

Angels of the Triune God—Meacheul, Leba- 
tei, Ketuel. [Rf Barrett, The Magus-, The Sixth 
and Seventh Books of Moses (pp. 127-130).] 

Angel of Truth—Amitiel; Michael; Gabriel. 
In Jewish legend, the angel of truth (unnamed) 
opposed the creation of man when God first 
broached the idea; for this opposition he was 
burned, along with the angel of peace (who also 
opposed the idea) and the hosts under them. 
Since Gabriel and Michael escaped being burned, 
it must have been Amitiel who was reduced to a 
cinder. In Muslim lore, Gabriel is the spirit of 
truth. 

Angel of Tuesday—Samael; Satael; Amabiel; 
Friagne; Carmax; Arragon; and Hyniel. 

Angel of Twilight [Aftiel] 

Angel of Vegetables—Sealiah and Sofiel, who 
are also the angels over fruit. 

Angels of Vengeance—the 12 angels of ven¬ 
geance were among the 1st formed at Creation, 
although, according to Catholic doctrine, all 
angels were formed at one and the same time. 
Only 6 of these angels of vengeance are known by 
name—Satanel, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, 
and Nathanel (Zathael). Now, since the angels of 
the presence seem to be interchangeable (in Jewish 
lore) with the angels of vengeance, and since 12 
of the former are known by name, 6 of these may 
be “taken over” and included in the listing of the 
vengeances—Suriel, Jehoel, Zagzagel, Akatriel, 
Metatron, and Yefefiah. The French painter 
Prud’hon (1758-1823) did a head of Vengeance in 



[ 46 ] ANGEL: VENUS / ANGROMAINYUS 


his painting “Divine Vengeance and Justice Pur¬ 
suing Crime,” which hangs in the Louvre. The 
head suggests that Prud’hon had the angel Uriel 
in mind. 

Angel of (the planet) Venus—Anael (Han- 
iel), Hasdiel, Eurabatres, Raphael, Hagiel, and 
Noguel. 

Angel of Victory—Bahram, or Var (Adar) 
Bahram, who is a yazata in Parsi lore. The Dabistan 
and The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran associate the 
angel of victory with the ascent of the soul of man. 

Angel of Vindication—Douma(h) or Duma, 
who is also the angel of silence and the angel of 
the stillness of death. With Uzziel (Rahab), 
Douma was the governing sar (i.e., angel prince) 
ofEgypt. [Rf. Waite, The Holy Kabbalah.] 

Angel of Virgo (Virgin)—Voil or Voel. 
According to Rabbi Chomer in Levi, Trans¬ 
cendental Magic, the ruling spirits of this zodiacal 
sign are Iadara and Schaltiel. 

Angels of (the order of) Virtues—more than 
a score of the angels of this order are named in 
G. Davidson’s article, “The Celestial Virtues.” 
Among the ruling princes of the order are Ariel, 
Barbiel, Haniel (Anael), Peliel, Nathanael, Atuniel. 

Angel of Voyages—Susabo, who is one of the 
presiding genii of the 6th hour, in Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Angel of War —Michael, Gabriel, and Gadriel. 
In the cabala there is Phaleg, called “the war lord” 
by Cornelius Agrippa. 

Angel of Water (waters of the earth)—Tharsis 
or Tharsus; also Arariel, Talliud, Phul, Michael, 
Anafiel (all to be found in occult lore). In Persian 
lore, the angel of water is Harudha. 

Angel of the Waters—in his cabalistic works, 
Cornelius Agrippa calls Phul (one of the 7 supreme 
spirits ruling the 196 provinces of Heaven) “the 
supreme lord of the waters.” In Revelation 16:5, 
he is referred to but unnamed: “And I heard the 
angel of the waters say,” etc. [See Arariel.] 

Angel of Water Insects [Shakziel] 


Angel of Weakness—Amaliel, who is also one 
of the angels of punishment. [Rf. Schwab, 
Vocabulaire de I'Angelologie, suppl.] 

Angel of Wednesday [Raphael; Miel: Sera- 
phiel] 

Angel of the West—Gabriel, who is called 
“the guardian of the west.” [Rf. Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique.] 

Angel of the Wheel of the Moon—Ofaniel, 
among others. [Rf. Enoch.] 

Angel of the Wheel of the Sun [Galgaliel] 

Angel of the Whirlwind—Ra’shiel or Zavael, 
according to 3 Enoch. [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews I, 140.] 

Angel of the Wild Beasts—Mtniel, Jehiel 
(Hayyel). [Rf M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses ; 
“Angelology,” in Jeurish Encyclopedia.] 

Angel Over Wild Fowl and Creeping 
Things [Trgiaob] 

Angel of the Wilderness—in Jewish cabala, 
and according to Levi, Transcendental Magic, the 
angel of the wilderness is the planet Saturn. The 
angel Orifiel has also been named a ruling spirit 
of the wilderness. 

Angel of the Wind—in Revelation 7:1, there 
is mention of 4 angels of the wind. In occult works 
(M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses), in The Book of 
Jubilees, and in 3 Enoch, the following are named as 
angelic rulers: Moriel, Ruhiel, Rujiel, Ben Nez, 
and the celestial Ephemerae. In his poem “Sandal- 
phon” Longfellow sings of the angels of wind 
and of fire that “chant only one hymn and ex¬ 
pire.” Durer engraved the 4 angels in control of 
the winds (see reproduction on p. 310, from 
Regamey’s Anges ). The cherubim were regarded 
as personifications of the wind. [Rf. Psalms 18:10.] 

Angel of Winter—Amabael, Cetarari. The 
head of the sign of winter is Attaris (Altarib). 
[Rf De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal-, de Abano, 
The Heptameroir, The Book of Jubilees.] 

Angel of Wisdom—Zagzagel; also Metatron 



(when Metatron goes under the name of Sasnigiel); 
also Dina (when Dina goes under the name of 
Yefefiah or Yofiel). According to legend, Zag- 
zagel was ordered by God to carry Moses to a 
place where myriads of scholars congregated, all 
of them occupied with expounding the Torah. 
[Rf, Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mystic¬ 
ism, and Talmudic Tradition .] 

Angel of the Womb [Armisael] 

Angels of Women’s Paradise—there were 9 
of these female angels; they were once the 
mothers, wives, or daughters of the Hebrew patri¬ 
archs, and they occupied a place apart in one of 
the Heavens. Philo “allegorises away the wives of 
the Jewish patriarchs into the several Virtues” (see 
Philo, About Cherubim, chap. 13). [Rf. Conybeare, 
Myth, Magic, and Morals, p. 199.] 

Angel (or Prince) of the World—Satan (see 
Pauline Epistles), Michael, Jehoel, Metatron, or 
Sar ha-Olam (which literally means, in Hebrew, 
prince of the world). Mammon is also described 
as “holding the throne of this world.” [Rf the 
Talmud; Bamberger, Fallen Angels, p. 58.] 

Angels at the World’s End—according to 
the Revelation of Esdras and as revealed to Esdras 
himself, the angels who will govern or rule “at the 
end of the world” are 9 in number: Michael, 
Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, *Gabuthelon, *Beburos, 
*Zebuleon, *Aker, *Arphugitonos. Of these 9, 
the 5 preceded by an asterisk are found nowhere 
else in apocryphal or apocalyptic lore [Rf Ante- 
Nicene Fathers Library VIII, 573], See entry “Five 
Angels Who Lead the Souls of Men to Judgment.” 

Angels of Wrath—Hemah, Af, Mzpopiasaiel, 
Ezrael. In the Revelation of Moses, the Lawgiver, 
during his visit to Paradise, encountered the angels 
of anger and wrath in the 7th Heaven and found 
them composed “wholly of fire.” [Rf The Zohar 
I; M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses-, Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews ; Apocalypse of Peter.] In the 
Midrash Tehillim, the angel of wrath is Kezef. 

Angels of the Wrath of God—there are (or 
were) 7 angels of the wrath of God, as mentioned 
but not named in Revelation. 


... The Angel Year [47] 

Angel of Yahweh—angel of the Lord, i.e., 
God Himself. Wherever the expression occurs in 
the Old Testament, it is a periphrasis. The earliest 
versions of the Old Testament had, in the opinion 
of later scribes, too many direct interventions of 
God in human affairs; the use of “angel of Yah¬ 
weh” or “angel of the Lord” was by way of 
reducing His earthly appearances and the carrying 
out of His commands through the agency of 
angelic intermediaries. [Rf. Grant, Gnosticism and 
Early Christianity.] 

Angel-Year—the angel-year, according to Cor¬ 
nelius Agrippa and other occultists, is either 145 
years or 365 years. 

Angel of Yetzirah—Sammael or Satan. [Rf. 
Fuller, The Secret Wisdom of the Qabalah.] The 
word yetzirah is Hebrew for formation. In the 
cabala, the world consisted of 4 great divisions, of 
which yetzirah was one. 

Angels of the Zodiac—Malahidael (over 
Aries), Asmodel (over Taurus), Ambriel (over 
Gemini), Manuel or Muriel (over Cancer), 
Verchiel (over Leo), Hamaliel (over Virgo), 
Zuriel (over Libra), Barchiel (over Scorpio), 
Advachiel or Adnachiel (over Sagittarius), Ham- 
ael (over Capricorn), Cambiel (over Aquarius), 
Barchiel (over Pisces). [Rjl Barrett, The Magus II.] 
The overall ruler of the zodiac is Masleh ( q.v .). 
Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy 
III, gives additional governing angels: Acrabiel, 
Betuliel, Chesetiel, Dagymiel, Daliel, Geminiel, 
Masniel, Sartamiel, Teletiel, Tomimiel. 

Angerecton (Angrecton)—in the Grimorium 
Verum, a great angel, invoked in magical rites, 
specifically in the invocation at fumigation. He is 
mentioned also in Waite, The Book of Ceremonial 
Magic. 

Angromainyus—an early form of Ahriman, 
the Zoroastrian equivalent of the Judaeo-Christian 
Satan, although he is not a fallen angel and is not 
subject to the overlordship of God. Angromainyus 
was God’s opposite and opponent from the be¬ 
ginning (in Persian lore). In the Zendavesta, 
Angromainyus, pregnant with death, leaps from 



[48] ANIEL I AQUACHAI 

Heaven in the form of a serpent—a form in which 
he is not infrequently represented. He tries to de¬ 
ceive Zoroaster (Zarathustra) and to cause the 
latter to rebel against Ahura Mazda (the Persian 
equivalent of the sovereign power), but fails. 
[Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian and 
Mohammedan Literature.] 

Aniel (Haniel)—one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316.] 

Anihi’el —in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, 
one of the angel princes whom God appointed 
to the sword. 

Animastic (the Animated)—an order of angels, 
“blessed souls which, by the Hebrews, is called 
issim, that is, nobles, lords and princes,” according 
to Voltaire in his “Of Angels, Genii and Devils.” 
Also, a presiding angel of the order referred to as 
“the soul of the Messiah, Merattron, soul of the 
world.” Animastic is, in addition, referred to as the 
ruling or guardian angel of Moses. [Rf. Barrett, 
The Magus 1,38.] 

Animated, The [Animastic] 

Aniquel (Anituel)—one of the 7 great princes 
of the spirits, represented in the form of a serpent 
of paradise. He serves Aniquelis (or Antiquelis). 
In a Vatican Faustian manual [Rf. Butler, Ritual 
Magic ] Aniquel—spelled also Aniquiel—is one of 
the 7 grand dukes of the infernal regions. See also 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, p. 111. 

Anitor —a high holy angel of God, invoked in 
magical rites after proper investiture by the invo- 
cant. [Rf. Waite, The Greater Key of Solomon; 
Grimorium Verum ; The Book of Black Magic and of 
Pacts.] 

Anituel [Aniquel] 

Anixiei —one of the 28 angels governing the 28 
mansions of the moon. For the names of all 28 
angels, see Appendix. 

Aniyel [Anafiel] 

Anmael (Chnum)—one of the leaders of the 
fallen angels, sometimes identified with Semyaza, 


for Anmael, like Semyaza, makes a bargain with a 
mortal woman (Istahar) in connection with the 
revelation of the Explicit Name (of God). [Rf. 
Jung, Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christian and 
Mohammedan Literature; and popular legends in 
Talmudic lore, poetic fiction, etc.] 

Annael —alternate spelling (as used by H.D. in 
her poem “Sagesse”) for Aniel or Anael (q.v.). 

Annauel —one of the 72 angels bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae. For a list of all 72 
names, see Appendix. 

Anointed Cherub —the Prince of Tyre is so 
called in Ezekiel 28:14. 

Anpiel (see Anfiel)—in rabbinic lore, an angel 
in charge of the protection of birds. He resides in 
the 6th Heaven, where he is a supervising chief of 
70 gates. With 70 crowns, he (Anpiel) crowns all 
prayers that ascend to Heaven from the earth, 
and then transmits the prayers to the 7th Heaven 
for additional sanctification. [Rf. The Zohar; 
Spence, An Encyclopaedia of Occultism.] In Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews I, 138, Anpiel conveyed 
Enoch to Heaven. 

Anshe Shem (“men of name”)—in magical 
incantations, the fallen angels are addressed by this 
term (Anshe Shem) although it should be re¬ 
stricted to apply to 2 angels only: Azza and Azzael. 
[Rf. The Zohar; Bamberger, Fallen Angels.] 

Ansiel (“the constrainer”)—an angel invoked in 
magical rites. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] 

Antichrist —usually Beliar or Belier (q.v.); a 
term applied also to Nero. For illustration, see 
Grillot, A Pictorial Anthology of Witchcraft, Magic 
and Alchemy, p. 48. 

Antiel —an angel’s name found inscribed on an 
oriental Hebrew charm for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Antiquelis [Aniquel] 

Anunna —in Akkadian theology, the anunna 
are “angels who are almost always terrestrial 
spirits.” [Rf Lenormant, Chaldean Magic.] 



Anush—one of 3 ministering angels (the other 2 
being Aebel and Shetel) whom God appointed to 
serve Adam. The celestial trio “roasted meat” 
for our first parent and even “cooled his wine”— 
according to Yalkut Reubeni. [Rf. The Book of 
Adam and Eve.] 

Apar or Aparsiel—in M. Gaster, Wisdom of 
the Chaldeans, an angel in service to Sadqiel, 
ruler of the 5th day. 

Apharoph (Apholph, Afarof)—an angel 
equated with Raphael and believed to be “the 
only true name of God.” [Rf The Testament of 
Solomon; Pistis Sophia; M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses.] 

Aphiriza [Alphariza] 

Aphredon—in gnosticism, a great celestial 
entity dwelling in the Pleroma with his 12 Just 
Ones. He is a ruler of the Indivisible. 

Apollion (Appolyon, Apollyon)—the Greek 
form for the Hebrew Abaddon, meaning “de¬ 
stroyer.” In Revelation 9:11 Apollion is the angel 
of the bottomless pit. In Revelation 20:1 he 
“laid hold of the dragon, that old serpent, which 
is the Devil, and Satan, and bound him a thousand 
years.” According to the foregoing, Apollion is a 
holy (good) angel, servant and messenger of God; 
but in occult and, generally, in noncanonical 
writings, he is evil—as in the last-century The 
Biblical Antiquities of Philo and the 3rd-century 
The Acts of Thomas. The term also applied to the 
abode of evil spirits (Hell). In Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s 
Progress Apollion is the devil. Bunyan thus de¬ 
scribes him: “clothed with scales like a fish and 
wings like a dragon, feet like a bear, and out of his 
belly came fire and smoke.” He is so pictured by a 
17th-century artist, the sketch reproduced in an 
early edition of Pilgrim’s Progress. The exegete 
Volter identifies Apollion with Ahriman, the 
Persian devil. [Rf. Charles, Critical Commentary 
on the Revelation of St. fohn, p. 247.] In Barrett, 
The Magus, where Apollion is pictured in color, 
he is distinct from Abaddon (also pictured in 
color). The 2 are denominated “vessels of ini¬ 
quity” (i.c., fallen angels or demons). Diirer did an 


.. .Aniguel, a grand duke of the inferno [49] 

engraving showing the “Angel with the Key to 
the Abyss,” reproduced on p. 3. 

Apostate Angel—Satan. So named by Gregory 
the Great in his Moralia on Job, where he says: 
“Forasmuch then, as mankind is brought to the 
light of Repentance by the coming of the Re¬ 
deemer, but the Apostate Angel is not recalled by 
any hope of pardon,” etc. It was Gregory’s view 
that man was created to replace the fallen legions 
of Satan. 

Apparitions—according to Robert Fludd, 
Utriusque cosmi majoris et minoris historia, appari¬ 
tions are one of 3 primary hierarchies (each again 
subdivided into 3 secondary hierarchies). [See 
Acclamations; Voices.] 

Apragsin (Apragsih)—a divine messenger ap¬ 
pointed by God to the sword, as listed in M. Gas¬ 
ter, The Sword of Moses. Apragsin is also known as 
Assi Asisih. 

Apsinthus [Wormwood] 

Apsu—in Babylonian mythology, Apsu is a 
female (?) angel of the abyss; “father” of the 
Babylonian gods as well as “wife” of Tamat. Apsu 
is finally slain by his (her) son Ea. [Rf Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic; Mackenzie, Myths of Babylonia 
and Assyria.] 

Apudiel—one of the 7 underworld planetary 
rulers, called Electors by Cornelius Agrippa. The 
demon Ganael serves under the joint overlordship 
of Apudiel and Camael. [Rf. Conybearc, The 
Testament of Solomon.] 

Aputel—an invocation angel mentioned in 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon; also the 
name that a priest bore on his breast when entering 
the holy of holies. The name was reputed to have 
had the virtue, when pronounced, of reviving the 
dead ; when engraved on vessels of gold or brass, 
it loosened every form of evil. 

Aqrab—in Arabic mythology, an angel used 
for conjuring. [Rf Shah, Occultism, Its Theory and 
Practice.] 

Aquachai (or Aqua)—a holy name—one of 



ARABONAS / ARCHANGELS 


[50] 

the nomina barbara —used in Solomonic conjura¬ 
tions to command demons. [Rf. Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Arabonas—a spirit invoked in prayer by the 
Master of the Art, in Solomonic rites [Rf. Grim- 
orium Verum\ Waite, The Book of Black Magic and 
of Pacts.] 

Araboth—the 7th Heaven, where the major 
experiences of Enoch occurred. Also the dwelling 
place of God. Here, in Araboth, dwell the sera¬ 
phim, ofanim, and the angels of love, fear, grace, 
and dread. [Rf 3 Enoch', Muller, History of Jewish 
Mysticism ; Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews.] 

Araciel [Araqiel] 

Arad—an Indo-Persian angel who protects 
religion and science; he is mentioned in Hyde, 
Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum. 

Araebel—an angel of the 6th hour, serving 
under Samil. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Arael (Ariel)—“one of the spirits which the 
rabbis of the Talmud made prince over the people 
of the birds,” according to Malchus, The Ancient’s 
Book of Magic, p. 115. 

Arafiel—one of the great angelic princes re¬ 
presenting “the divine strength, majesty, and 
power.” [Rf. 3 Enoch or the Hebrew Book of Enoch.] 

Arakiba (Arakab, Aristiqifa, Artaqifa)—an evil 
(fallen) angel who brought sin to earth—as cited 
in Enoch I, where Arakiba is designated one of the 
“chiefs of ten” of the apostate troops. 

Arakiel [Araqiel] 

Aralim [Erelim] 

Aramaiti (Armaiti)—one of the 6 amesha 
spentas ( q.v.), representing holy harmony. [Rf. 
Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism.] 

Araphiel (“neck of God”) one of the guardians 
of the 2nd hall in the 7th Heaven. “When Ara¬ 
phiel H’, the prince, sees Asrulyu, the prince, he 
removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face,” in obeisance. [3 Enoch, 18.] 

Araqael [Araqiel] 


Araqiel (Araquiel, Arakiel, Araciel, Arqael, 
Saraquael, Arkiel, Arkas)—one of the 200 fallen 
angels mentioned in Enoch I. Araqiel taught 
human beings the signs of the earth. However, 
in the Sibylline Oracles (see fn. in Charles, The 
Book of Enoch, 8:3) Araqiel does not seem to be a 
fallen angel. He is, indeed, one of the 5 angels who 
lead the souls of men to judgment, the other 4 
angels being Ramiel, Uriel, Samiel, Aziel. The 
name Araqiel denotes one who exercises dominion 
over the earth. 

Arariel (Azareel, Uzziel?)—curer of stupidity 
and one of the 7 angels with dominion over the 
earth. Arariel is specifically an angel who presides 
over the waters of the earth (according to the 
Talmudists). He is invoked by fishermen so that 
they may, with luck, catch big fish [R/l Spence, 
An Encyclopaedia of Occultism ; Universal Jewish 
Encyclopedia', Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism]. 

Ararita (Araritha)—a name inscribed on a cabal¬ 
istic sigil in connection with Solomonic conjura¬ 
tions and employed to command demons; if the 
name is inscribed on a gold plate, the invocant is 
assured he will not die a sudden death. Ararita 
is considered to be the “verbum inenerrabile” (the 
ineffable word or name) of God. [Rf. Barrett, 
The Magus II; Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon.] 

Arasbarasbiel—an angelic guard of the 6th 
Heaven, as listed in Ozar Midrashim I, 116. 

Arasek—a form of Nisroc (q.v.) mentioned by 
Josephus. [Rf. Hayley (ed.), The Poetical Works of 
John Milton.] 

Arathiel—a chief angel of the 1st hour of the 
night, serving under Gamiel. [Rf Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Arathron (Aratron)—1st of the Olympian 
spirits governing the planet Saturn; he rules 49 
of the 196 Olympic Provinces. Arathron’s sigil 
is pictured on p. 22 of The Secret Grimoire of 
Turiel. [Rf. the Arbatel of Magic, and Girardius’ 
arcanic book (1730.)] Arathron teaches alchemy, 
magic, and medicine, and is able to make a person 
invisible. He can also cause barren women to 
become fertile. 



Arauchia— an angel’s name found inscribed in 
Hebrew characters on the 3rd pentacle of the 
planet Saturn. [Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Araxiel —in Enoch I, Araxiel is mentioned as 
one of the fallen angels. 

Arayekael —one of the many angel princes 
appointed by God to the sword. [Rf M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses.] 

Araziel (Arazjal, Arazyal, Atriel, Esdreel, 
Sahariel, Seriel, Sariel, etc.,—“my moon is God”) 
—an angel who sinned when he descended to 
earth to unite with mortal women. Araziel 
governed, with Bagdal, the sign of the Bull 
(Taurus). [Rf Enoch I; Levi, Transcendental Magic, 
Prince of Darkness.] 

Arbatel —a “revealing” angel, mentioned in 
the Arbatel of Magic. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Arbgdor —in The Book of the Angel Raziel 
(Sefer Raziel), an angel that governs one of the 
months. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition, p. 99.] 

Arbiel —an angel serving Anael, ruler of the 6th 
day. [Rf. M. Gaster, Wisdom of the Chaldeans.] 

Arcade (fictional)—in Anatole France’s Revolt 
of the Angels, a guardian angel, otherwise known as 
Abdiel (q.v.). 

Arcan —king of the angels of the air, ruler of 
Monday. Arcan’s ministers are Bilet, Missabu. 
Abuhaza. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Archan —an angel who exercised dominion 
over the lower rays of the moon. May be the same 
as Arcan. [Rf. Heywood, The Hierarchy of the 
Blessed Angels.] 

Archana —an angel’s name found inscribed 
in Hebrew characters on the 5th pentacle of the 
planet Saturn. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Archangel of the Covenant —a term applied 
to Michael in the Coptic Apocalypse of Paul. 

Archangel Ruin’d —Satan is so called by 
Milton in Paradise Lost I, 593. 


...Arariel, cures stupidity [51] 

Archangels —the term archangel applies gen¬ 
etically to all angels above the grade of (the order 
of) angels; it also serves to designate a specific 
rank of angels in the celestial hierarchy. In the 
pseudo-Dionysian scheme of 9 orders or choirs, 
the order of archangel is placed 8th—that is, next 
to the last in rank, immediately above the order 
of angels. This is a bit confusing, since the 
greatest angels are referred to as archangels, as in the 
Old Testament, where Daniel calls Michael “one 
of the chief princes,” which is taken to mean one 
of the archangels. In the New Testament the term 
archangels occurs only twice: in I Thessalonians 
and in Jude. In the latter only, however, is Michael 
specifically designated an archangel. In Revelation 
8:2, John refers to the “seven angels who stand 
before God,” and this is commonly interpreted to 
mean the 7 archangels. The Book of Enoch (Enoch I) 
names the 7: Uriel, Raguel, Michael, Seraqael, 
Gabriel, Haniel, Raphael. Later Judaism gives 
Phanuel as an alternate for Uriel. Other lists in 
apocrypha and pseudepigrapha give, as variants, 
such angels as Barachiel, Jehudiel, Sealtiel, Ori- 
phiel, Zadkiel, and Anael (Haniel). The archangels, 
according to the Testament of Levi, “minister and 
make propitiation to the Lord for the sins of 
ignorance and of the righteous.” The ruling 
prince of the order is usually given as Raphael or 
Michael. The Koran recognizes 4 archangels but 
names only 2: Gabriel (Jibril), who is the angel of 
revelation, and Michael, the warrior angel who 
fights the battle of the faithful. The 2 unnamed 
angels are Azrael, angel of death; and Israfel, 
angel of music, who will sound the trumpet (one 
of 3 or 4 trumpets) on the Day of Judgment. 
The earliest source for the names of the archangels 
is traced to Al-Barceloni, a writer of mystic 
works in the post-Talmudic period, who related 
them to the planets. In other writings “we meet 
with the conception of 12 archangels connected 
with the signs of the zodiac.” [Rf. The Book of the 
Angel Raziel 52a, 61a; Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews V, 24.] For the names of the 12 and their 
zodiacal signs, see Appendix. The cabala cites 10 
archangels (actually 9) and places them in the 
world of Briah (2nd of the 4 created worlds), thus: 
Methratton, Ratziel Tzaphqiel, Tzadqiel, Kham- 



ARCHANGELS OF SEFIROTH / AREL 


[52] 

ael, Mikhale, Haniel, Raphael, Gabriel, Methrat- 
ton. It will be noted the Methrattin, i.e., Metatron, 
appears twice, heading and concluding the list of 
10—or rather 9. [R/l Mathers, The Kabbalah Un¬ 
veiled.] “The archangels,” says Dionysius in his 
Mystical Theology and the Celestial Hierarchy, “are 
the messengers bearing divine decrees.” 

Archangels of the 10 Sefiroth—Mathers, 
The Kabbalah Unveiled, lists the archangels of the 
Sefiroth as follows: 1. Methattron, for Kether 
(crown); 2. Ratziel, for Chokmah (wisdom); 
3. Tzaphqiel, for Binah (understanding); 4. Tzad- 
qiel, for Chesed (mercy); 5. Khamael, for Ge- 
burah (strength or fortitude); 6. Mikhael, for 
Tiphereth (beauty); 7. Haniel, for Netzach 
(victory); 8. Raphael, for Hod (splendor); 
9. Gabriel, for Yesod (foundation); 10. Methattron 
or the Shekinah, for Malkuth (kingdom). 

Archarzel—an angel invoked in ritual magic 
by the Master of the Arts. [Rf. Grimorium Verum.] 

Archer—a governing spirit of Aquarius. Archer 
shares this post with Ssakmakiel. [Rf. Levi, 
Transcendental Magic.] 

Archistratege (Arhistratig—“chief of hosts”) 
—when counseling Enoch, God call Michael “my 
intercessor, my archistratege” ( Enoch I, 33:11). 
The same title is given Michael (Mihail) in the 
Roumanian text of The Apocalypse of Abraham. 
In this apocalypse, the tears that Michael, “herald 
of death,” sheds over the coming demise of Abra¬ 
ham, “fall into a basin and turn into precious 
jewels.” The story is found also in Ginzberg, 
The Legends ofthe Jews 1,300. 

Archons (“rulers”)—angels set over nations 
and identified or equated with aeons. Shamshiel 
or Shemuiel is “the great archon, mediator be¬ 
tween the prayers of Israel and the princes of the 
7th Heaven” [Rf. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish 
Mysticism]. In occultism the archons are primor¬ 
dial planetary spirits. In Manicheanism they were 
the “Sons of Dark who swallowed the bright 
elements of Primal Man.” Scholem uses “archon” 
interchangeably with “great angel.” In Major 
Trends he writes that “archons and angels storm 


against the traveler in his ascent [or descent] to the 
Merkabah.” The Papyri Graecae Magicae names 5 
of the archons: Uriel, Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, 
Shamuil. In the Ophitic (gnostic) system, 7 
archons are designated: Jaldabaoth, Jao, Sabaoth, 
Adonaios, Astanphaios, Ailoaios, Oraios. In other 
lists other angels appear as archons: Katspiel, 
Erathaol, Domiel, etc. [Rf. Danielou, The Angels 
and Their Mission-, Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics; Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism.] 

Arciciah—an angel of earth, cited in Schwab, 
Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie. 

Ardarel—in occult lore, the angel of fire. Cf. 
Gabriel, Nathanel, etc. [Rf. Papus, Trait'e fiUmen- 
taire de Science Occulte.] 

Ardefiel or Ardesiel—one of the 28 angels 
ruling the 28 mansions of the moon. [Rf. Barrett, 
The Magus.] 

Ardibehist—in ancient Persian religion, the 
angel of April and one of the amesha spentas. 
Ardibehist governed the 3rd day of the month. 
[Rf The Dabistan, pp. 35,136.] 

Ardors—a term used in Paradise Lost V, 249 
as an order of angels, among whom Milton 
counts Raphael. In de Vigny’s poem “Eloa,” 
ardors is also spoken of as an order in the celestial 
hierarchy. 

Ardouisur (Arduisher)—in Zoroastrianism, 
Ardouisur is a female ized (i.e., cherub). Among 
the attributes of this cherub is making females 
prolific and giving them easy childbirth, and even 
supplying them with breast milk. [Rf. The 
Dabistan, p. 167.] Her title is “giver of living 
water,” says King in The Gnostics and Their Re¬ 
mains, p. 106. 

Ardour (Ardur)—an angel ruling the month 
of Tammuz (June-July), according to Schwab, 
Vocabulaire de I’Angdlologie. 

Arehanah—the name of an angel inscribed on 
the 3rd pentacle of the planet Saturn. [Rf. Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon .] 

Arel—an angel of fire. The name Arel is found 
inscribed on the 7th pentacle of the sun. In 




Angels at the Tomb of Christ by Edouard Manet. Reproduced from Regamey, Attges. 


[54] ARELLIM / ASAL1AH 

M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, Arel is an angel 
invoked in ritual magic. 

Arel(l)im [Erelim] 

Arfiel—another name for the angel Raphael. 
In Pirke Hechaloth, Arfiel is an angelic guard 
stationed in the 2nd Heaven. [Rf. Schwab, 
Vocabulaire del’ Angelologie, supp.] 

Argeniton—an angel mentioned in Hyde, 
Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum. 

Arghiel—an angel invoked in magical rites. 
[R/i Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] 

Arhistratig [Archistratege] 

Arhum Hii (Rhum)—in Mandaean lore, one 
of the malki (uthri , angels) of the North Star. 

Aria s—an angel who rules over sweet-smelling 
herbs. In occultism, Arias is regarded as a demon 
and is one of the 12 marquises of the infernal 
empire. [Rf. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Ariel (Arael, Ariael, meaning “lion of God”)— 
the name of an angel in the apocryphal Ezra-, 
also in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, the 
Grand Grimoire, and other tracts of magic, where 
he is pictured as lion-headed. Cornelius Agrippa 
says: “Ariel is the name of an angel, sometimes 
also of a demon, and of a city, whence called 
Ariopolis, where the idol is worshipped.” In 
Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, 
Ariel ranks as one of 7 princes who rule the waters 
and is “Earth’s great Lord.” Jewish mystics used 
Ariel as a poetic name for Jerusalem. In the Bible 
the name denotes, variously, a man, a city (Isaiah 
29), and an altar. In occult writings Ariel is the 
“3rd archon of the winds.” Mention is also made 
of Ariel as an angel who assists Raphael in the 
cure of disease. [Rf. M. Gaster, Wisdom of the 
Chaldeans.] In the Coptic Pistis Sophia, Ariel is in 
charge of punishment in the lower world, corres¬ 
ponding with Ur of the Mandaeans (q.v.). In 
The Testament of Solomon, he controls demons. 
In gnostic lore generally he is a ruler of winds and 
equated with Ialdabaoth as an older name for this 
god. In practical cabala he is regarded as originally 
of the order of virtues. According to John Dee, 


astrologer royal in Queen Elizabeth’s day, Ariel 
is a conglomerate of Anaeland Uriel. In The Temp¬ 
est, Shakespeare casts Ariel as a sprite. To Milton 
he is a rebel angel, overcome by the seraph 
Abdiel in the first day of fighting in Heaven. The 
poet Shelley referred to himself as Ariel, and Andre 
Maurois is the author of a life of Shelley called 
Ariel. Sayce (“Athenaeum,” October 1886) sees a 
connection between Ariel and the arelim (erelim), 
the valiant ones spoken of in Isaiah 33:7, an order 
of angels equated with the order of thrones. 
[Rf. Texts of the Saviour ; Butler, Ritual Magic, 
Bonner, Studies in Magical Amulets.] 

Ariman [Ahriman] 

Arioc (Ariukh, Oriockh)—in Jewish legend, a 
guardian angel of the ancestors or offspring of 
Enoch, appointed by God to preserve the Enoch 
writings. In Genesis, Arioc is the name of an 
executioner. [See Arioch.] 

Arioch (“fierce lion”)—a demon of vengeance, 
a follower of Satan, a fallen angel (as in Paradise 
Lost VI, where he is overthrown by the angel 
Abdiel during the war in Heaven). In Nash, 
Pierce Penniless, reference is made to “the great 
Arioch that is termed the spirit of revenge.” [Rf. 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie; De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal, 1863 ed., where Arioch is 
pictured as the bat-winged demon of vengeance; 
The Ancient’s Book of Magic.] 

Ariukh [Oriockh] 

.Arkhas—from the invisible depths God sum¬ 
mons Arkhas “firm and heavy and very red” 
and commands this primordial spirit to be 
divided. And when Arkhas divided bimself, “the 
world came forth, very dark and great, bringing 
the creation of all things below.” This account of 
the formation (not the creation) of the earth is 
found in Enoch II, 26. 

Armaita (Aramaiti, Armaiti)—in Persian myth¬ 
ology, one of the 6 or 7 amesha spentas or arch¬ 
angels. She is the spirit of truth, wisdom, and 
goodness who became incarnate and visited the 
earth “to help the good.” [Rf. Grundriss der 
iranischen Philologie III; Forlong, Encyclopedia of 



Religions; Redfield, Gods IA Dictionary of the Deities 
of All Lands] 

Armaros (Armers, Pharmaros, Abaros, Are- 
aros)—one of the fallen angels as listed in Enoch I. 
Armaros taught “the resolving of enchantments.” 
According to R. H. Charles, the term Armaros 
may be a corruption of Araros. 

Armas—an angel invoked in magical rites at 
the close of the Sabbath. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 102.] 

Armasa (“the great lord”)—an angel in 
Aramaic incantations, cited in Montgomery, 
Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur. 

Artnaziel (Armisael?)—a gnostic entity men¬ 
tioned in The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, 
p. 198. 

Armen (Ramiel? Arakiel? Baraqel?)—one of 
the fallen angels listed in Enoch I, 69. 

Armers (see Armaros)—the name occurs in 
Mark Van Doren’s poem “The Prophet Enoch,” 
where Armers is included among the fallen angels. 

Armesi—an angel of the 10th hour of the day, 
serving under the suzerainty of the angel Oriel. 
[Rf Waite, The Lemegeton, p. 68.] 

Armesiel—in Waite, The Lemegeton, p. 69, an 
angel of the 4th hour of the night, serving under 
Jefischa. 

Armiel—an angel officer of the 11th hour of 
the night, serving under Dardariel. 

Armies—a term for one of the celestial orders, 
as used by Milton in Paradise Lost. [Rf West, 
Milton and the Angels, p. 135.] 

Armimas (Armimimas)—an angel invoked in 
magical rites at the close of the Sabbath. Cf 
Hermes or Ormuzd. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition, p. 100.] 

Armisael—angel of the womb. In Talmud it 
is recommended that, to ease a confinement, one 
should recit6 Psalm 20 nine times, but if this does 
not prove efficacious, then one should try the 
following invocation: “I conjure you, Armisael, 


. ..Armisael, invoked at childbirth [55] 

angel who governs the womb, that you help this 
woman and the child in her body.” [Rf Trachten¬ 
berg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 202.] 

Armogen [Harmozei] 

Armon—one of the angels of the 2nd chora or 
altitude invoked in magic prayer, as set forth in 
The Almadel of Solomon. 

Arphugitonos—one of the 9 angels who will 
rule “at the end of the world,” according to the 
Revelation of Esdras. [Rf The Ante-Nicene Fathers 
8, 573.] For the names of the other 8 angels, see 
Angels at the End of the World. 

Arsyalalyur—an angel sent to Enoch with a 
special message from God; also to Lantech's son 
Noah to warn him of the impending flood, 
according to The Book of Adam and Eve. The name 
is a corruption or amalgamation of Israel and 
Uriel. [Rf Enoch I, 10 (Dillman’s text).] 

Artakifa—an archangel mentioned in Enoch 
lore. 

Aruru—in Sumerian mythology, a female 
messenger of the gods who created man from clay. 
She was the mother of the hero Gilgamesh, 

Arvial (Avial)—one of the angels guarding 
the 4th Heaven. Cited in Ozar Midrashim I, 116. 

Arzal (Arzel)—one of the 4 angels of the east 
who are “glorious and benevolent angels” in¬ 
voked when the invocant wishes to partake of the 
secret wisdom of the Creator. See Clavicula 
Salomonis. 

Asac(h) —an angel invoked in magical prayer. 
[Rf Grimorium Verum] 

Asacro (Asarca)—in black magic, an angel 
invoked in prayer and conjuration rites. 

Asael (“whom God made”)—an angel under 
Semyaza who cohabited with the daughters of 
men; hence, a fallen angel. [See Azazel.] 

Asaliah—in the cabala, an angel of the order 
of virtues, under the ethnarchy of Raphael. He 
has dominion over justice. In The Magus he is one 
of the 72 angels bearing the mystical name of God 



[56] ASAMKIS / AS MODEUS 

Shemhamphorae. His sigil is shown in Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique, p. 281. 

Asamkis—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah ), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Asaph (Asaf)—leader, at night, of hosts of 
angels in the chanting of hymns to God—-just as 
the angel Heman leads the hosts in morning 
chants, and Jeduthun leads in evening chants. [Rf. 
The Zohar (Kedoshim).] Psalms 50 and 73-83 are 
ascribed to Asaph. In Jewish legend, Asaph was 
the father of medicine. Nahmanides in his Torat 
ha-Adam refers to “the Jew Asaf” and his book on 
healing. 

Asarca [Asacro] 

Asariel (“whom God has bound,” i.e., by an 
oath)—one of the 28 angels ruling over the 28 
mansions of the moon. 

Asasiah—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Asasiel—angel of Thursday, who shares his 
rule with Sachiel and Cassiel. Asasiel is also one of 
the presiding spirits of the planet Jupiter. [Rf. de 
Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, The Magus II; 
The Secret Grimoire of Turiel .] 

Asath (Asach)—an angel invoked in Solomonic 
magical rites. [Rf Grimorium Verum .] 

Asbeel (“deserter from God”)—in Enoch I, 
Asbeel is included among the fallen angels. “He 
imparted to the holy sons of God evil counsel and 
led them astray through the daughters of men.” 

Asbogah [Azbugay YHWH] 

Ascobai—in Solomonic magical operations, an 
angel summoned in exorcisms of Wax. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon .] 

Asderel (Asredel, Asradel Shariel)—the name is 
a corruption of Sahariel. Asderel is an evil archangel 
who taught the course of the moon. [Rf Charles, 
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament .] 

Asentacer—corresponding angel for the angel 
Lelahel. 


Aseu—corresponding angel for the angel 
Anauel. 

Asfa’el (“God adds”)—in Enoch I and Enoch II, 
Asfa’el is a luminary of one of the months and 
“head of a thousand.” Charles in The Book of 
Enoch refers to Asfa’el as a “chiliarch who has to 
do with the intercalary day under one of the 4 
leaders.” Asfa’el is said to be an inversion of 
Hilujaseph or Joseph-el. 

Ashael X—an invocation angel, mentioned in 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Ashamdon—variant for Shamdan (q. v.). [Rf 
Bamberger, Fallen Angels, p. 171.] 

Asha Vahishta—in Zoroastrian lore, one of 
the 6 amesha spentas ( q.v .). An archangel of 
righteousness. [Rf. Grundriss der iranischen Philo- 
logie III.] 

Ashkanizkael—in hechaloth lore (Ma’asseh 
Merkabah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Ashmedai (Ashmodai, Asmodee, Asmadai, 
Asmodeus, Chammaday, Sydonay, etc.)—in rab¬ 
binic lore, a messenger of God, hence an angel. 
However, being an opponent of Solomon and 
ruler of the south, with 66 legions of spirits under 
him, he is usually regarded as an evil spirit him¬ 
self, some occult sources going so far as to identify 
him with the serpent who seduced Eve in the 
garden of Eden. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon .] Good or evil, angel cr demon, he is 
not considered harmful; he has been characterized 
as a cherub, “prince of sheddim,” and as “the 
great philosopher.” [Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels in 
Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan Literature; 
Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism .] 

Ashmodiel—in occultism, a zodiacal angel 
governing the sign of Taurus. [Rf. Jobes, Diction¬ 
ary of Mythology Folklore and Symbols.] 

Ashraud—“a prince over all the angels and 
Caesars,” according to Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon. 

Ashriel (Azrael, Azriel, Azariel—“vow of 
God”)—one of the 7 angels with dominion over 



the earth. He is the angel who separates the soul 
from the body at death. In the cabala, he is 
invoked as a curer of stupidity. See writings of 
Moses Botarel. 

Ashrulyu (Ashrulyai, Asrulyu—“who causes 
to dwell”)—a great angelic prince, one of the 20 
names of the godhead, residing in the 1st Heaven. 
He is president of the institute of learning and one 
of the sarim (princes) of the Torah. See Yefefiah. 
[Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Ashu [Sirushi] 

Asiel (“created of God”)—in Esdras II, an 
apocryphal work, Asiel is one of 5 “men” (i.e., 
angels) appointed by God to transcribe the 204 
books dictated by Ezra. The other 4 “men” were 
Dabria (Ecanus), Selemia, Selecucia, and Sarea 
(Sarga). Of the books, 70 were to be delivered or 
made available only to the wise among men; the 
rest of the books were for use by the general 
public. In The Testament of Solomon Asiel is a fiend 
who detects thieves and can reveal hidden treasure. 
He figures in a talisman against sudden death 
reproduced in Grillot, A Pictorial Anthology of 
Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy, p. 342. 

Asimon (Atimon)—an angel listed in Malache 
Ely on (Angels on High), where reference is made 
to The Zohar. 

Asimor—in hechaloth lore, Asimor is one of 
7 angelic princes of power, the other 6 being 
Kalmiya, Boel, Psachar, Gabriel, Sandalphon, and 
Uzziel. [Rf Margouliath, Malache Elyon, p. 17.] 

Asiyah [Assiah] 

Asmadai—one of the 2 “potent thrones,” as 
cited in Milton’s Paradise Lost VI, 365. Uriel and 
Raphael succeed in vanquishing Asmadai (along 
with Adramalec), 2 powers, says Milton, “to be 
less than Gods/Disdain’d.” (See Asmoday.) 

Asmodal—an angel dealt with in Solomonic 
Wax exorcisms. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Asmoday (Ashmeday, Asmodius, Sydoney)—a 
fallen angel “who has wings and flies about, and 


...Asmoday, makes men invisible [57] 

has knowledge of the future,” according to Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 377. Asmoday teaches 
mathematics and can make men invisible. He 
“giveth the ring of Vertues” and governs 72 
legions of infernal spirits. When invoked, he 
manifests as a creature with 3 heads (bull, ram, 
man). Asmoday is a character in John Dry den’s 
dramatic poem, The State of Innocence. A variant 
spelling of the name is Hasmoday, who is one of 
the demons of the moon. [Rf. De Plancy, Diction- 
naire Infernal; Butler, Ritual Magic; Waite, The 
Lemegeton; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Asmodee (see Ashmedai)—a French form for 
Asmodeus and (according to De Plancy) identical 
with Sammael or Satan. 

Asmodel—in ceremonial magic, the angel with 
dominion over the month of April. He is also (as 
cited in Camfield, A Theological Discourse of 
Angels) ruler of the zodiacal sign of Taurus. (See 
Tual, Hamabiel.) Formerly, Asmodel was one of 
the chiefs of the order of cherubim. He is now a 
demon of punishment (as recorded in the Coptic 
gnostic Pistis Sophia). The cabala includes him 
among the 10 evil sefiroth (q.v.). [Rf Barrett, The 
Magus; De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal; Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Asmodeus (“creature ofjudgment”)—the name 
is derived from ashma daeva (see Asmoday, 
Chammaday). Asmodeus is a Persian rather than a 
Jewish devil; however, incorporated into Jewish 
lore, he is there regarded as an evil spirit. Accord¬ 
ing to Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions, Asmo¬ 
deus is “the talmudic Ashmedai, a demon borrowed 
from the Zend Aeshmadeva,” a “raging fiend” 
(The Book of Tohit 3:8). It was Ashmadai (Ash¬ 
medai), says Forlong, who made Noah drunk, 
and who, in Tobit, slew the 7 bridegrooms of the 
young Sarah, and who, overcome by the angel 
Raphael, was finally “banished to upper Egypt. 
In demonology, Asmodeus in Hell is controller of 
all gaming houses. Wierus the demonographer 
says Asmodeus must be invoked only when the 
invocant is bareheaded, otherwise the demon will 
trick him. Barrett, The Magus II, pictures As¬ 
modeus in color as one of the “Vessels of Wrath.” 



ASRADEL I ASTROMPSUCHOS 


[58] 

In Le Sage’s romance The Devil on Two Sticks 
Asmodeus is the main character. In James Branch 
Cabell’s The Devil’s Own Dear Son, Asmodeus is 
the son of Adam’s first wife Lilith by Samael. 
However, in The Book of the Sacred Magic of 
Ahra-Melin the Mage, we find this report: “Some 
rabbins say that Asmodeus was the child of the 
incest ofTubal-Cain and his sister Naamah; others 
say he was the demon of impurity.” Jewish lore 
charges Asmodeus with being the father-in-law 
of the demon Bar Shalmon [Rf. Jewish Encyclo¬ 
pedia, p. 510], In Solomonic legends, Asmodeus 
also goes by the name of Saturn, Marcolf or 
Morolf. He is credited with being the inventor of 
carousels, music, dancing, drama, “and all the new 
French fashions.” [Rf. Michaelis, Admirable History 
of the Possession and Conversion of a Penitent Woman ; 
Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts ; 
Malleus Malefcarum (p. 30); Voltaire, “Of Angels, 
Genii, and Devils.”] 

Asradel [Asderel] 

Asrael—an angel in a 4-act opera of that name 
composed by Alberto Franchetti, with libretto by 
Fontana. Based on the old Flemish legend, Asrael 
falls in love with another angel called Nefta 
(female), loses her, and finally is reunited with her 
in Heaven. The opera had its first American 
performance in 1890 at the Metropolitan in New 
York. 

Asrafil—in Arabic lore, the angel of the last 
judgment. A “terrible angel,” says De Plancy, 
who includes Asrafil in his Dictionnaire Infernal 
(ed. 1863) as a demon and pictures him as such. 
Often mistaken for Azrael, angel of death. 

Asriel X (or Asrael X—“vow of God”)—chief 
of the 63 angel-guardians of the 7 Heavens. In 
hechaloth lore, Asriel X is an invocation angel. 
[Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses; “Angel” in 
New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia.] 

Asron—one of numerous guards of the gates 
of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Assad—in Arabic lore, an angel invoked in 
conjuring rites. [Rf Shah, Occultism, p. 152.] 


Assafsisiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Assarel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 4th 
heavenly hall. 

Asser Criel—an unutterable name (of a spirit) 
engraven on the breastplate of Moses and Aaron, 
according to the cabala. Whoever, it is said, wears 
the breastplate so engraved will not die a sudden 
death. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Assi Asisih—a messenger of the Lord’s sword 
sent to man. [Rf. The Sword of Moses, p. 30.] 

Assiah (Asiyah)—in cabalistic cosmology, one 
of the lowest of the 4 worlds, “the world of 
making,” or the world of action, the world of 
Oliphoth, that is, the world of shells or demons. 
It is the abode of Sammael, prince of darkness. 
[Rf. Fuller, The Secret Wisdom of the Qabalah .] 

Assiel—angel of healing, as cited in The Book 
of the Angel Raziel and in Schwab, Vocabutaire de 
I’Angelologie, suppl. [Cf Raphael.] 

Assimonem—in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, p. 45, the Assimonem are angels invoked 
in Solomonic conjurations to command demons 
to confer on the invocant the gift of invisibility. 

Astachoth (Astrachios, Astroschio)—an angel 
invoked in the exorcism of water. [Rf Grimorium 
Verum; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Astad—in ancient Persian lore, the angel of the 
26th day of each month. Astad was found at the 
64th gate (of the 100 gates) of Paradise. [Rf. The 
Dabistan, p. 166.] 

Astagna (Astrgna)—as listed in Barrett, The 
Magus, an angel resident in the 5th Heaven. He 
rules on Tuesday. When invoking this angel the 
invocant must face west. 

Astaniel—one of the chief angel-princes 
appointed by God to the sword. 

Astanphaeus (Astaphaeus, Astaphai, Asta- 
phaios)—in gnostic lore, one of the 7 elohim 



(angels) of the presence. In the Ophitic system, he 
is a Hebdomad—one of the 7 potentates or 
archons engendered by the god Ildabaoth “in his 
own image.” He is also lord of the 3rd gate 
“leading to the aeon of the archons” (according to 
Origen in Contra Celsum, who claims the name 
derives from the art of magic). Astanphaeus is 
likewise declared to be one of the 7 sons of Sydik 
(Melchisedec). On the other hand, the name is said 
to be a variant form of Satan. In Phoenician 
theogony, Astanphaeus is a primordial power. 
C. W. King, The Gnostics and Their Remains (pp. 
214-215), declares Astanphaeus to be “the Jewish 
angel of the planet Mercury” and of Magian 
origin. King reproduces a gnostic gem (Plate VI) 
with the name of Astanphaeus inscribed on it. [R/] 
“Gnosticism” in Catholic Encyclopedia ; Grant, 
Gnosticism and Early Christianity .] 

Astaribo—a name for Lilith in medieval magic. 

Astaroth (Asteroth)—once a seraph, Astaroth 
is now, according to Waite, The Lemegeton, a 
great duke in the infernal regions. There he “dis¬ 
courses willingly on the fall [of the angels] but 
pretends that he himself was exempt from their 
lapse” (see Wierus, Pseudo-Monarchia). “In the 
Greek language,” says Barrett in The Magus I, 
“Astaroth is called Diabolus.” When Astaroth is 
invoked, he manifests as “a beautiful angel astride 
a dragon and carrying a viper in his right hand.” 
His sigil is shown in Waite, The Book of Black 
Magic and of Pacts. Before Astaroth fell, he was 
(declares the Admirable History of the Possession and 
Conversion of a Penitent Woman) a prince of the 
order of thrones. Spence, An Encyclopaedia of 
Occultism, maintains, to the contrary, that he 
belonged to the order of seraphim. Voltaire finds 
that Astaroth was an ancient god of Syria. 
According to the Grimorium Verum, Astaroth has 
set up residence in America. “In the English 
tradition,” says De Plancy, Astaroth was “one of 
the 7 princes of Hell who visited Faust.” 

Astarte (Ashteroth, Ashtoreth, Ishtar-Venus, 
etc.)—chief female deity of the ancient Phoeni¬ 
cians, Syrians, Carthaginians. Astarte was a 
Syrian moon goddess of fertility. As Ashteroth 


.Astaroth, an angel who resides in America [59] 

she was worshipped by the Jews in times when 
idolatry was prevalent in Palestine: “Ashtoreth, 
the abomination of the Zidonians” (II Kings, 
23:13), the Zidonians being the Phoenicians. 
Jeremiah called Ashtoreth the “queen of heaven.” 
The Greeks borrowed their Aphrodite from 
Astarte. Finally, Astarte shows up, in occult lore, 
as the demon for the month of April. In Paradise 
Lost (I, 438), Astarte is a fallen angel, equated with 
Astoreth. [Rf. Redfield, Gods/A Dictionary of the 
Deities of All Lands; De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal IV, 138; and near-Eastern mythologies.] 

Astel—a spirit operating on the planet Saturn. 
[Rf. The Secret Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Asteraoth—one of the 7 great planetary rulers; 
an angel who was able to overcome the demoness 
called Powers (one of the 7 demonesses summoned 
by King Solomon, according to legend). [Rf. 3 
Enoch; Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon.] 

Astiro—the corresponding angel for Mehiel 
(q.v.). 

Astm (surname Kunya X)—one of the 14 con¬ 
juring angels mentioned in M. Gaster, The Sword 
of Moses. Astm is also one of the ineffable names 
of God. 

Astoreth—in Paradise Lost I, 438, Astoreth is a 
fallen angel. She is equated with Astarte. 

Astrachios ( see Astachoth)—in Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon, Astrachios is called 
Herachio. He is an angel invoked in the exorcism 
of the water. [Rf. Grimorium Verum.] 

Astrael Iao Sabao—also known simply as 
Istrael or Astrael. He is an angel whose name is 
found inscribed on magical amulets. [Rf. Scholem, 
Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Tal¬ 
mudic Tradition; Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon .] 

Astrompsuchos (Etrempsuchos, also Stremp- 
suchos)—in the Bodleian Bruce Papyrus, Astromp¬ 
suchos is a celestial guardian of one of the 7 
Heavens. Hippolytus gives the name as one of the 
powers worshipped by the Peratae. [Rf. Legge, 
Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity I, 107 fn.] 



[ 60 ] ASTRGNA / AUTHORITIES 


Astrgna [Astagna] 

Astrocon—an angel of the 8th hour of the 
night, serving under Narcoriel. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.) 

Astroniel—an angel of the 9th hour of the day, 
serving under Vadriel. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Asuras or Ahuras—angels in Aryan lore; in 
Hindu lore, esoterically, the azuras became evil 
spirits and lower gods who waged war eternally 
with the great deities (the suryas); they were once 
gods of the Secret Wisdom, and may be compared 
to the fallen angels of Christian doctrine. [A/ 
Hunter, History of India, chap. 4; Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic, p. 77.] 

Ataf—an evil angel who is invoked to over¬ 
come an enemy, as recorded in M. Gaster, The 
Sword of Moses. He is effective in separating a 
husband from his wife. 

Ata’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel invoked 
in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A Dictionary of 
Islam, “Angels.”] 

Ataliel (Atliel)—one of the 28 angels who 
rule over the 28 Mansions of the Moon. [Rf. The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Ataphiel—an angel who supports heaven with 
3 fingers. [Rf. Barattiel in 3 Enoch.] 

Atar (“fire” in Zend and Sanskrit)—a Zoro- 
astrian genius of fire and chief of the celestial 
beings called Yazatas (q.v.). [Rf Redfield, GodsjA 
Dictionary of the Deities of All Lands.] 

Atarculph—according to Voltaire in his “Of 
Angels, Genii, and Devils,” Atarculph was one of 
the leaders of the fallen angels as listed in Enoch. 

Atarniel (see Atrugiel). 

Atarph—corresponding angel for Hahaiah 
(q.V.). 

Atatiyah—a secret name for Michael or 
Metatron. [Rf. Visions of Ezekiel] Scholem, Jewish 
Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradi¬ 
tion', Sefer ha-Heshek.] 


Atbah—in gnosticism, a secret name for the 
dekas, who are great archons. [Rf Lesser Hecha- 
loth.] 

Atbah Ah—lord of hosts, invoked by the angel 
Akatriel. See hechaloth text, Oxford MS., referred 
to in Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah 
Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition. 

Atel—in de Abano, The Heptameron, an angel of 
the 4th Heaven, an angel of the air ruling on 
Lord’s Day, invoked from the east. 

Atembui—corresponding angel for Mumiah 

(q.v.). 

Aterchinis—an angel of an hour, and corres¬ 
ponding angel for Teiazel (q.v.). [R/ Ambelain, 
La Kabhale Pratique.] “H. D.” mentions Aterchinis 
in her poem “Sagesse.” 

Aterestin—a most holy name (of an angel or 
of God) invoked in the discovery of hidden 
treasure. [Rf. Waite, The Book of Black Magic and 
of Pacts.] 

Athamas—an angel invoked in the conjuration 
of Ink and Colors. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon.] 

Athanatos—a conjuring spirit of the planet 
Mercury; a name of God used in the discovery of 
hidden treasure; in the cabala, a spirit invoked in 
the general citation of Moses, Aaron, and Solomon. 
[Rf. Scot, Discoverie of Witchcraft.] 

Atheniel—one of the 28 angels governing the 
28 Mansions of the Moon. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus.] 

Athoth—in gnosticism, one of the 12 powers 
engendered by Iadalbaoth (q.v.). 

Atiel—one of the chief angel-princes of the 
Sword; mentioned in Malache Elyon as equated 
with A’hiel. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Atliel [Ataliel] 

Atmon—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Atriel [Araziel] 



Atropatos—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Atrugiel (Atrigiel, Atamiel, Tagriel, Atrug- 
niel)—a guardian angel of the 7th heavenly hall. 
(See Kafziel.) Atrugiel is one of the names of 
Metatron. 

Atrugniel [Atrugiel] 

Atsaftsaf and Atshatsah—in hechaloth lore 
(Maasseh Merkabah), angelic guards of the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Atsiluth (or Atziluth)—in cabalistic cosmo¬ 
gony, the world of emanation, i.e., highest of the 
4 worlds, the residence of God and the superior 
angels. 

Attarib (or Attaris)—one of the 4 angels of 
winter and head of the sign of winter. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus ; De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal.] 

At-Taum (“the twin”)—in Manicheanism, the 
angel from whom Mani received revelations; he 
is identified with the Holy Ghost in Christian 
doctrine. [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of Egyptian 
Gnostics.] 

Atuesuel—in the cabala, one of the 8 angels of 
omnipotence. He is invoked “to smoke out the 
monsters of hell” in the special citation of Levia¬ 
thans, as set forth in The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses. 

Atufiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Atuniel (“furnace”)—an angel of fire in 
rabbinic angelology; also, one of the angels 
belonging to the order of virtues. Atuniel is to be 
compared with Nathanel (q.v.). [Rf Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews VI.] 

Aub—an angel’s name found inscribed on the 
3rd pentacle of the moon. [Rf Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon, p. 81.] When Aub is 
invoked, versicle 13 from Psalm 40 should be 
recited: “Be pleased, O Lord, to deliver me.” 


...Aupiel, tallest angel in Heaven [61] 

Auel (or Amet)—an angel of the sun invoked 
by cabalists in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Aufiel (Auphiel)—an angel with dominion over 
birds. [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] 

Aufhiel [Ofniel] 

Auphanim [Ofanim] 

Aupiel (Anafiel)—a variant spelling, considered 
the correct one, for Anafiel, the great angel who 
bore Enoch to Heaven when the antediluvian 
patriarch was still in the flesh. Aupiel is the tallest 
angel in Heaven, exceeding Metatron (the next 
tallest) by many hundred parasangs. In Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews 1,138, where the translation 
of Enoch to Heaven by Aupiel is recounted, he is 
called “the angel Anoiel.” 

Auriel (Oriel; Hebrew for Uriel, “light of 
God”)—one of the 72 angels of the 72 quinaries 
of the degrees of the zodiac, invoked in the 
conjuration of the Sword. [Rf. Runes, Wisdom of 
the Kabbala.] 

Aurkhi Be-Ram El—an angel who had sexual 
relations with mortal women before the Flood, 
according to the story in Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
I’Aitgelologie. Probably the same as the fallen angel 
Ramiel in Enoch lore. 

Ausiul (Ausiel)—an angel with dominion over 
Aquarius (water carrier). Ausiul is invoked in 
ceremonial magic rites. [Rf. Waite, The Leme- 
geton.] 

Authorities—alternate term for powers or 
virtues, or a distinct order of angels (pre-Diony- 
sian) and not the equivalent of powers or virtues. 
In the Constitution of the Apostles (liturgy of the 
Mass called Clementina) and in John of Damascus, 
the orders powers ( dunamis) and authorities 
(exousia) are considered 2 distinct orders. Enumer¬ 
ating the 9 Dionysian orders in Exposition of the 
Orthodox Faith (De Fide Orthodoxa) John of 
Damascus gives powers as 5th and authorities 
(virtues) as 6th in the sequence. In the Testament 
of Levi the authorities dwell in the 4th Heaven, 



[62] AUTOGENES / AZAZEL 

where the thrones dwell also. [Rf. Caird, Principal¬ 
ities and Powers; Dionysius, Celestial Hierarchy ; also 
Appendix, “The Orders of the Celestial Hier¬ 
archy.”] 

Autogenes—in gnostic lore, Autogenes is an 
aeon around whom stand 4 great luminaries: 
Harniozel (Armogen), Daveithe, Oroiael (Uriel?), 
Eleleth. [Rf. Apocryphon of John ; Grant, Gnosticism 
and Early Christianity, p. 43.] 

Autopator—one of the 3 powers established 
by the Virgin (Pistis Sophia?) of the lower world 
and entrusted with the hidden things reserved for 
the perfect. [Rf The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics.] 

Auza (Azza, Oza)—a son of the elohim (a son 
of God), one of the fallen angels who had carnal 
knowledge of the daughters of men—an incident 
touched on in Genesis 6. [Rf. Mathers, The 
Kabbalah Unveiled, p. 249.] 

Auzael [Azazel, Auza] 

Auzhaya (Avzhia)—a prince of the divine 
countenance ; one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron ( q.v .). [Rf. hechaloth text (Oxford MS.) 
mentioned in Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Mer- 
kabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition, p. 53.] 

Avagbag—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Avahel—a prince of angels residing in the 3rd 
Heaven. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Avartiel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Avatar—in Vedic lore, the avatar was the 
human or animal incarnation of a deity. There 
were 10 of these angelic beings, associated chiefly 
with the 1st avatar, Vishnu. The other 9 are 
usually listed as Kurmavatar (the tortoise avatar); 
Barah (the bear avatar); Narsinha (man-lion 
avatar and lord of heroism); Vamana (dwarf 


avatar and lord of reason); Paras u Rama (Para- 
suram) or Chirangivah the immortal; Ram Avatar 
(Rama or Ramachandra); Krisn Avatar (Krishna); 
Budh Avatar (Buddha); Kalki Avatar. All these 
are past, except Kalki the 10th avatar, who will 
appear in the form of a white horse with wings 
and come at the end of the 4 ages to destroy the 
earth. [Rf The Dabistan, pp. 180-183.] 

Avenging Angels—the 1st angels created by 
God, also known as the angels of destruction. The 
chief dwells in the 5th Heaven, according to 
Jewish legend. Traditionally there were 12 
avenging angels. [See Angels of Vengeance.] 

Avial—an angelic guard stationed before one 
of the halls (palaces) of the 7 Heavens. Avial is 
named in the Pirke Hechaloth. 

Avirzahe’e—a beloved but fearsome angel- 
prince guardian stationed at the gate leading to 
the 6th Heaven—according to the scholar 
Nachunyabenha-Kane. [Rf Margouliath, Malache 
Elyon.] 

Avitue—one of the 18 names of Lilith in 
rabbinic lore. [Rf. Hanauer, Folk-Lore of the Holy 
Land, p. 325.] 

Avniel—one of the chief angel-princes ap¬ 
pointed by God to the Sword. [Rf. M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses XI.] 

Avriel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Avtsangosh—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Avzhia [Auzhaya] 

Awar (El Awar)—one of the sons ofEblis (q.v.) ; 
called the demon of lubricity. 

Awel, Awitel, Awoth—angels invoked in 
cabalistic conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Axineton—an angelic entity; by pronouncing 
his name God created the world. (Rf. Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 33.] 



Ayar Ziva [Ram Khastra] 

Ayib—a spirit of the planet Venus whose name 
is found inscribed on the 4th pentacle of that 
planet. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 
p. 73.] 

Ayil—angel of Sagittarius. In ceremonial magic 
the angel is Sizajasel. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition, p. 251.] 

Ayscher—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, a ministering angel summoned up by 
cabalists in magical operations. 

Aza [Azza] 

Azael (Asiel, “whom God strengthens”)—one 
of 2 fallen angels (Aza is the other) who cohabited 
with Naamah, Lamech’s daughter, and sired the 
sedim, Assyrian guardian spirits. [Rf The Zohar.] 
Azael, it is reported, is chained in a desert where 
he will remain until the day of judgment. [Rf De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal .] In Midrash Petirat 
Mosheh, Azael is mentioned as one of 2 angels 
(the other being Ouza) who came down from 
Heaven and was corrupted. Cornelius Agrippa, in 
his Occult Philosophy, lists 4 evil angels as the 
opposites of the 4 holy rulers of the elements; 
among the evil ones Azael is included. Schwab 
in his Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie identifies Sham- 
hazai (Semyaza) with Azael (Aziel), guardian of 
hidden treasures. 

Azaf [Asaph] 

Azar (Azur)—angel of November in ancient 
Persian theogony. Azar governed the 9th day of 
the month. [Rf. Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum 
Persarum .] 

Azaradel—in The Book of Enoch (Enoch I) 
Azaradel is one of the fallen angels who taught 
men the motions of the moon. 

Azarel—an angel whose name is found in¬ 
scribed on the 5th pentacle of the moon. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Azargushtasp/Azarkhurdad—two of the 

amesha spentas (Zoroastrian archangels) who are 
regarded “closest to the just God,” in ancient 


...Azariel, governs the waters of the earth [63] 

Persian religious lore. [R/. Shea and Troyer, The 
Dahistan, p. 136.] 

Azariah or Azarias (“whom God helps”)—a 
name that the archangel Raphael assumes in The 
Book of Tobit. Later in the tale, Raphael reveals his 
true identity as “one of the 7 angels who stand by 
and enter before the glory of the Lord.” 

Azariel—in Talmud, Azariel is the angel 
governing the waters of the earth. In occult lore 
he is listed among the 28 angels governing the 28 
mansions of the moon. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus', 
De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal .] 

Azazel (Azael, Hazazel, “God strengthens”)— 
in Enoch I, Azazel is one of the chiefs of the 200 
fallen angels (Revelation speaks of one-third of the 
heavenly host being involved in the fall). Azazel 
“taught men to fashion swords and shields” while 
women learned from him “finery and the art of 
beautifying the eyelids.” He is the scapegoat in 
rabbinic literature, Targum, and in Leviticus 
16:8, although in the latter he is not actually 
named. In The Zohar (Vayeze 153a) the rider on 
the serpent is symbolized by “the evil Azazel.” 
Here he is said to be chief of the order of bene elim 
(otherwise ischim, lower angels, “men-spirits”). 
Irenaeus calls Azazel “that fallen and yet mighty 
angel.” In The Apocalypse of Abraham he is “lord 
of hell, seducer of mankind,” and here his aspect, 
when revealed in its true form, shows him to be 
a demon with 7 serpent heads, 14 faces, and 12 
wings. Jewish legend speaks of Azazel as the angel 
who refused to bow down before Adam (in the 
Koran the angel is Eblis or Iblis) when the 1st 
human was presented to God to the assembled 
hierarchs in Heaven. For such refusal, Azazel was 
thenceforth dubbed “the accursed Satan.” [Rf. 
Bamberger, Fallen Angels, p. 278.] According to 
the legend in Islamic lore, when God commanded 
the angels to worship Adam, Azazel refused, con¬ 
tending “Why should a son of fire [i.e., an angel] 
fall down before a son of clay [i.e., a mortal]?” 
Whereupon God cast Azazel out of Heaven and 
changed his name to Eblis. Milton in Paradise 
Lost I, 534 describes Azazel as “a cherub tall,” but 
also as a fallen angel and Satan’s standard bearer. 



[64] AZAZIEL / AZZAEL 

Originally, according to Maurice Bouisson in 
Magic; Its History and Principal Rites, Azazel was 
an ancient Semitic god of the flocks who was later 
degraded to the level of a demon. [Rf. Trevor 
Ling, The Significance of Satan in New Testament 
Demonology.] Bamberger in Fallen Angels inclines 
to the notion that the first star which fell (star 
here having the meaning of angel) was Azazel. 

Azaziel—another name for the seraph Semy- 
aza. In Byron’s poem “Heaven and Earth, a 
Mystery” the legend is told of a pious maiden 
named Anah, granddaughter of Cain, who tempts 
Azaziel to reveal to her the Explicit Name. In the 
poem, Azaziel carries Anah off, at the time of the 
flood, to a planet other than the earth. 

Azbogah [Azbuga YHWH] 

Azbuga YHWH (‘ ‘strength”)—one of the 8 
great angel princes of the throne of judgment and 
of a rank superior to that of Metatron (q.v.). 
“Originally,” says Gershom Scholem, “Asbogah 
was a secret name of God in his highest sphere.” 
His chief duty, it appears, was to clothe with 
righteousness the new arrivals in Heaven—those, 
that is, who were deemed worthy. A late Hebrew 
charm contains Asbogah’s name as one to be 
invoked for the “healing of all illness and all hurt 
and all evil spirit.” [Rf. Thompson, Semitic Magic, 
p. 161; Enoch; and the lesser hechaloth tracts 
mentioned by Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Mer- 
kahah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition .] 

Azdai—an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf. 
Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouabir .] 

Azer—angel of elemental fire; also the name 
of Zoroaster’s father. [Rf. The Ancient’s Book of 
Magic.] 

Azfiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 1st of the 7 
heavenly halls. 

Azibeel—one of the 200 angels who, according 
to Enoch I, descended from Heaven to cohabit with 
the daughters of men, an incident touched on in 
Genesis 6. Azibeel thereupon became a fallen angel. 


Aziel [Azael] 

Aziziel—an angel in Syriac incantation rites. 
In The Book of Protection, Aziziel is grouped with 
Michael, Harshiel, Prukiel, and other “spellbind¬ 
ing angels.” 

Azkariel—a corruption of Ak(h)raziel (q.v.). 
[R/! II Petirat Mosheh, pp. 376-377; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews VI, 147.] 

Azkeel—one of the leaders of the 200 fallen 
angels, in the Enoch listings, who descended from 
Heaven to cohabit with the daughters of men, an 
incident touched on in Genesis 6. 

Azliel X—an invocation angel, one of 14; also 
one of the ineffable names of God. [Rf. M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses.] 

Azrael (Azrail, Ashriel, Azriel, Azaril, Gabriel, 
etc.—“whom God helps”)—in Hebrew and 
Islamic lore, the angel of death, stationed in the 
3rd Heaven. To the Moslems, Azrael is another 
form of Raphael. In their tradition, he has “70,000 
feet and 4,000 wings, while his body is provided 
with as many eyes and tongues as there are men 
in the world.” [Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of 
Religion and Ethics IV, 617.] In Arabic tradition, 
Azrael is “forever writing in a large book and 
forever erasing what he writes; what he writes is 
the birth of a man, what he erases is the name of 
the man at death.” When Michael, Gabriel, and 
Israfel failed to provide 7 handfuls of earth for the 
creation of Adam, the 4th angel on this mission, 
Azrael, succeeded; and because of this feat he was 
appointed to separate body from soul. [Cf. 
Murdad, the angelus mortis in ancient Persian lore.] 
Oriental legend has it that Azrael accomplishes his 
mission (i.e., bringing death first and separation 
afterward) by holding an apple from the Tree of 
Life to the nostril of the dying person. In Jewish 
mysticism, Azrael is the embodiment of evil. In 
The Book of Protection he is one of 3 holy angels 
(the other 2 being Gabriel and Michael) invoked 
in Syriac charms. He is the angel of death in 
Longfellow’s poem “The Spanish Jew’s Tale” and, 
in the popular edition of The Complete Poetical 
Works of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, he is 



pictorially represented with King Solomon enter¬ 
taining a “rajah of Hindostan.” 

Azra’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Azriel—a chief angel supervisor referred to as 
“Azriel the Ancient,” sometimes as “Mahniel” 
(meaning mighty camp), as in The Zohar (Exodus 
202a). Here he commands 60 myriads of legions 
of spirits and is stationed on the northern side of 
Heaven, where he receives prayers. In Ozar 
Midrashim I, 85, Azriel is one of the chief angels 
of destruction. His name is found inscribed on 
oriental charms ( kameoth) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Azur [Azar] 

Azza (Shem-yaza, “the strong”)—a fallen angel 
who is, according to rabbinic tradition, suspended 
between Heaven and earth (along with Azzael) 
as punishment for having had carnal knowledge 
of mortal women. Azza (Shemyaza, meaning “the 
name Azza”) is said to be constantly falling, with 
one eye shut, the other open, so that he can see 
his plight and suffer the more. There is another 
explanation for Azza’s expulsion from Heaven: 
it is that he objected to the high rank given Enoch 
when the latter was transformed from a mortal 
into the angel Metatron ( see Iblis or Eblis). In 


... Azrael, an angel with 70,000 feet [65] 

Solomonic lore the story is that Azza was the 
angel who revealed to the Jewish king the heavenly 
arcana, thus making Solomon the wisest man on 
earth. In Talmud, the sedim (Assyrian guardian 
spirits) are said to have been “begotten by Azza 
and Azael on the body of the evil Naamah, 
daughter of Lantech, before the Flood.” [Rf. 
Thompson, Semitic Magic, pp. 44- 45.] In his 
introduction to 3 Enoch, Odeberg remarks that, of 
the 2 groups of angels headed by Metatron, one 
group (the angels of justice) was under the ruler- 
ship of Azza. At that time, evidently, Azza was 
not yet fallen. 

Azzael (see Azza)—while Azza and Azzael, in 
some sources, are referred to as 2 distinct, separate 
angels, they seem to be one and the same in other 
sources. Variant spellings are Assiel, Azazel, 
Azzazel, etc. In the early part of 3 Enoch, Azzael 
is represented as one of 3 ministering angels (Uzza 
and Azza being the other 2), inhabitants of the 
7th Heaven; later, however, he is represented as 
a fallen angel and ranked with Azza as one of the 
maskim (q.v.). For cohabiting with the daughters 
of men, he was punished (with Uzza) by having 
his nose pierced. He taught witchcraft, by the art 
of which man can cause (or did cause at one time) 
the sun, moon and stars to descend from the sky, 
so as to make them closer objects of worship. [Rf. 
The Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba\ Bamberger, Fallen 
Angels (p. 127); the Midrash Petirat Mosheh.] 





The Angel of the Lord, Balaam’s Ass, and 
Balaam (Numbers 22), by Rembrandt. Repro¬ 
duced from R£gamey, Anges. 



Baabiel—in the cabala, an angel serving in the 
1st Heaven. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Baal Davar—a term for the adversary (ha- 
sat an) used by chasidic Jews of the 18th century. 
[Rf. Bamberger, Fallen Angels.] 

Baal-Peor [Belphegor] 

Babel (Babiel)—in de Abano, The Heptameron, 
one of the messengers of the planet Jupiter. He is 
variously cited as an angel of Wednesday and/or 
Friday, and is to be invoked only when the 
invocant faces south or west. In the cabala 
generally, Babel is a resident of the 3rd Heaven. 

Babhne’a—in Babylonian terracotta devil 
traps, a mighty angel whose name is inscribed in 
Hebrew characters and invoked for protection 
against evil. [Rf. Budge, Amulets and Talismans, 

p. 288.] 

Bachanoe (or Bachanael)—in occultism, an 
angel of the 1st Heaven and a ruler of Monday. 

Bachiel (Baciel)—one of the angels of the air 


serving in the 4th Heaven and invoked from the 
east. Bachiel is also identified as one of the spirits 
of the planet Saturn. In the Ozar Midrashim II, 
316 he is one of the angelic guards of the West 
Wind. 

Bachliel—one of the angelic guards of the 
South Wind. 

Badariel (Batarjal)—one of the 200 fallen angels. 
[Rf Enoch I, 69:2.] 

Badpatiel—an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental Hebrew charm ( kamea ) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Bae—in The Testament of Solomon, an angel 
summoned for the exorcising of demons. 

Bael (Baal—“lord” or “master”)—in The 
Zohar, Bael is equated with the archangel Raphael. 
However, in the grimoires, and in Wierus, 
Pseudo-Monarchia, he is a great king of the under¬ 
world serving in the eastern division of Hell and 
attended by 60 or 70 legions of devils. He mani¬ 
fests, when invoked, as a creature with 3 heads 
(toad, man, cat). 


67 



[68] BA-EN-KEKON / BARAQIJAL 

Ba-En-Kekon (Bainkhookh)—an aeon-angel Bagnael—one of the numerous angelic guards 

mentioned in Pistis Sophia gnosticism and referred of the gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 


to as “the soul of darkness.” He derives from the 
Egyptian Book of the Dead. 

Bagdal—in Levi, Transcendental Magic, a genius 
who, with Araziel, governs the sign of the Bull 
(Taurus) in the zodiac. 

Bagdial (fictional)—a corpulent angel in charge 
of issuing cards to recent arrivals in the lower 
Heavens, these cards entitling the holders of them 
to new “bodies.” Bagdial is an invention of Isaac 
Bashevis Singer and occurs in the latter’s short 
story “The Warehouse,” Cavalier (January 1966). 

Baglis—a genius of measure and balance, 
according to Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron. Baglis may be invoked only in the 2nd 
hour of the day. 

The Black Angel. In Mohammedan lore he is 
either Nakir or Monker. Here he is shown with 
features of a rackhasa (a Hindu evil spirit). Left, 
two lesser evil spirits. From Mohammed al Sudi’s 
Treatise on Astrology and Divination, reproduced 
from Laronsse Encyclopedia of Mythology. 


II, 316.] 

Bahaliel—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Bahman [Barman] 

Bahrain [Barman] 

Baijel—in the cabala, Baijel is an angel serving 
in the 5th Heaven. [Rf. The Sixth attd Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Bainkhookh [Ba-En-Kekon] 

Baktamael—one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozdr 
Midrashim II, 316.] 

Balam (Balan)—formerly an angel of the order 
of dominations; now, in hell, a “terrible and 
powerful king, with 3 heads (bull, ram, man) and 
the tail of a serpent.” He rides naked astride a 
bear (see picturization in De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal, 1863 ed.). He commands 40 legions of 
infernal spirits. [Rf Grand Grimoire .] 

Balay—in de Abano, The Heptameron and in 
Barrett, The Magus, a Monday angel resident in 
the 1st Heaven. An invocant must face north 
when invoking Balay. 


Balberith (Berith, Beal, Elberith, Baalberith)— 
an ex-prince of the order of cherubim. Now in 
Hell, Balberith is a grand pontiff and master of 
ceremonies. He is usually the one to countersign 
or notarize the signatures on the pacts entered 
into between mortals and the devil. He is called 


“scriptor” and is so noted on documents executed 
in the underworld. In The Encyclopedia of Witch¬ 
craft and Demonology, Balberith appears to be the 


demon who possessed the body of Sister Madeleine 
at Aix-en-Provence, and who revealed to her the 


names of other devils. [Rf Michaelis, Admirable 
History of the Possession and Conversion of a Penitent 
Woman ; De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal (ed. 1863), 
where, as Berith, he is pictured with a crown on 
his head and astride a horse.] 



.. .Baltazard, invoked for procuring a lady’s garter [69] 


Baldach —an angel called on in ritual magic, as 
cited in Waite, The Greater Key of Solomon. 

Balhiel [Baliel] 

Balidet—a Saturday angel of the air, minister¬ 
ing to Maymon ( q.v .). 

Baliel (Balhiel)—a Monday angel ( Cf. Balay) 
invoked from the north. Said to reside either in 
the 1st or 2nd Heaven. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] In Ozar Midrashim II, 316, as 
Balhiel, he is one of numerous guards of the gates 
of the South Wind. 

Balkin—in ritual magic, a beneficent master 
spirit, lord and king of the northern mountains. 
His aide is Luridan, a domestic spirit. [Rf. Scot, 
Discoverie of Witchcraft-, Butler, Ritual Magic.] 

Ballaton—an angel appearing on the external 
circle of the pentagram of Solomon figured in 
Waite, The Lemegeton. 

Baltazard—a spirit invoked in Solomonic 
magic for procuring a lady’s garter. [Rf. Grimorium 
Verum.] 

Balthial (Balthiel)—in 3 Enoch, one of the 7 
planetary angels, and the only angel who is able 
to overcome or thwart the machinations of the 
evil genius of jealousy. [Rf. The Testament of 
Solomon.] 

Banech—one of the angels of the 7 planets 
invoked in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Baniel—an inferior spirit summoned in Solo¬ 
monic magical rites. [Rf Grimorium Verum ; Shah, 
The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Baraborat—in occult lore, a spirit of the planet 
Mercury. He is a Wednesday angel, resident either 
in the 2nd or 3rd Heaven, and invoked from the 
east. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Baracata—a spirit invoked in prayer by the 
Master of the Art in Solomonic conjurations. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.] 


Barach—an angel of the Seal, used for conjur¬ 
ing. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Barachiel [Barakiel] 

Baradiel (Yurkemo, Yurkei, Yurkemoi)—one 
of the 7 great archangels, a prince of the 3rd 
Heaven, where Baradiel shares rulership with the 
angel Shaphiel. Baradiel also exercises dominion 
over hail, with Nuriel and others. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Barael—in Jewish mysticism, one of the 7 
exalted throne angels resident in the 1st Heaven. 
He helps “execute the commands of the poten¬ 
tates,” according to The Book of the Angel Raziel. 
[R/l Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III; de Abano, Elementia Magica.] 

Barah—the “boar avatar,” one of the 10 
incarnations of divinity in Vedic lore. . [See 
Avatar.] 

Barakiel (Barachiel, Barbiel, Barchiel, Barkiel, 
Baraqiel, etc.—“lightning of God”)—one of the 
7 archangels, one of the 4 ruling seraphim, angel 
of the month of February, and prince of the 2nd 
Heaven as well as of the order of confessors. 
Barakiel has dominion over lightning and is also 
one of the chief angels of the 1st and 4th altitudes 
or chora in the Almadel of Solomon. In addition, 
he is a ruler of the planet Jupiter and the zodiacal 
sign of Scorpio (as cited by Camfield in A Theo¬ 
logical Discourse of Angels) and Pisces. With the 
angels Uriel and Rubiel, Barakiel is invoked to 
bring success in games of chance, according to 
De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal. [R/ Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews 1,140.] 

Barakon—an angel invoked in Solomonic con¬ 
juring rites. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Baraqel (Barakiel)—one of the fallen angels in 
the Enoch listings. 

Baraqijal—as noted in The Book of Jubilees, one 
of the watchers (grigori) who united with the 
daughters of men, an incident touched on in 
Genesis 6. Baraqijal, now a demon and inhabiting 
the nether realms, is a teacher of astrology. In 
Enoch I he is described as a leader (one of the 



[70] BAR AT TI EL / BATSRAN 

“chiefs of ten”) of a troop of fallen angels. [Cf. 
Barakiel, of which Baraqijal may be merely a 
variant.] 

Barattiel—in 3 Enoch 18:6, when Tagas {q.v.) 
sees Barattiel “the great angelic prince of 3 
fingers” (with which, it seems, he is able to hold 
up the highest Heaven), he, Tagas, “removes the 
crown of glory from his head and falls on his 
face.” [See Ataphiel, which may be another form 
for Barattiel.] 

Barbatos—an angel formerly of the order of 
virtues. “This fact,” reports Spence in An Encyclo¬ 
paedia of Occultism, “was proved after infinite 
research.” In Hell, where Barbatos now dwells, 
he is a great duke, ruling over 30 legions of 
spirits. He “giveth understanding of the song of 
birds, knows the past and can foretell the future.” 
He may be invoked in magical rites, and he will 
appear gladly, but only when the sun is in the sign 
of Sagittarius. For Barbatos’ sigil, see Wierus, 
Pseudo-Monarchia', Waite, The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts (p. 108); and The Lemegeton. 

Barbelo—a great archon (female) “perfect in 
glory and next in rank to the Father-of-All.” She 
is the consort of Cosmocrator {q.v.). [.R/! the 
gnostic Gospel of Mary and the Apocryphon of 
John.] In the Texts of the Saviour, Barbelo is 
the daughter of Pistis Sophia, procreator of the 
superior angels. 

Barbiel (Barbuel, Baruel)—once a prince of the 
order of virtues and of the order of archangels. 
He is the angel of the month of October and one 
of the 28 angels of the 28 mansions of the moon. 

In Barrett, The Magus, Barbiel is equated with 
Barakiel (which would make Barbiel ruler also of 
the month of February). In the underworld, 
Barbiel serves as one of the 7 Electors, under the 
suzerainty of Zaphiel. 

Barchiel [Barakiel] 

Barcus—in Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron, Barcus is a genius (i.e., angel) of quintes¬ 
sence; he is also one of the genii of the 5th hour. 

Bardiel (Barchiel, Baradiel)—in Jewish legend, 


the angel of hail, along with Nuriel, the twin 
kadishin (quadisin), and others. 

Baresches or Bareschas (“beginning”)—in 
the grimoires, a great angel invoked to procure 
the woman desired by the invocant. 

Barginiel—governing angel of the 7th hour of 
the day. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton .] 

Bariel—ruling angel of the 11th hour of the 
day; also, angel of the 4th pentacle of the planet 
Jupiter. [Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 
p. 64.] 

Barinian—supreme beings, “exalted angels” in 
ancient Persian lore. They are also called Huristar. 
[Rf. The Dahistan.] 

Barkaial [Baraqijal] 

Barkeil—an angel in Mandaean tradition. 
[Rf. Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites Coupes de 
Khouabir .] 

Barkiel (Barakiel)—in Ozar Midrashim II, 316, 
one of numerous angelic guards of the gates of 
the East Wind. 

Barku {see Rimmon) 

Barman (Bahman, Bahram)—in ancient Per¬ 
sian cosmology, a great mihr (angel) placed over 
all the animals on earth except man. Barman was 
also chief of 30 angels appointed to preside over 
the 30 days of the month. [Rf Hyde, Historia 
Religionis Veterum Persarum .] In The Dabistan, 
Barman is one of the amesha spentas, “the first 
intelligence, the first angel... from whom other 
spirits or angels proceed.” He is “the mightiest 
of the angels whom the Muhammedans call 
Jabriel” (Gabriel). He was the angel of January 
and governor of the 2nd day of the month. 
Barman is usually pictured in an image of red 
stone, in human form, on his head a red crown. 
Omar Khayyam in the Rubaiyat sings of “Bah¬ 
ram, the great Hunter.” 

Barpharanges (Sesenges - Barharanges) — in 
gnosticism, Barpharanges is one of the powers in 
charge of the spring of the waters of life (i.e., 
heavenly baptism). His name appears in Coptic 



magical texts. Cf. Raphael, angel of baptismal 
water. [R/l Bruce Codex ; Doresse, The Secret Books 
of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Barsabel (Barzabel)—in The Magus, one of the 
angels governing the planet Mars. His cabalistic 
number is 325. 

Bartyabel—according to Paracelsus in his 
doctrine of Talismans, Bartyabel is a spirit of 
Mars, serving the angel Graphiel, who is the pre¬ 
siding intelligence of the planet. [Rf. Christian, 
The History and Practice of Magic 1,318.] 

Bartzachiah (Barzachia)—found inscribed as 
an angel’s name on the 1st pentacle of the planet 
Mars, along with the names of Ithuriel, Madiniel, 
andEschiel, all these angels’ names being set down 
in Hebrew characters. [R/l Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Baruch (“blessed”)—chief guardian angel of 
the Tree of Life, according to the Apocalypse of 
Baruch. [Cf Raphael, who is also credited with 
being the guardian angel of the Tree of Life.] 
In the Baruch Apocalypse, Baruch journeys 
through 5 Heavens, in the 1st 3 of which he sees 
“evil-looking monsters.” In an early Ophitic 
(gnostic) system, Baruch was one of 3 angels sent 
forth by Elohim (God) “to succor the spirit in 
man.” In witchcraft lore Baruch is one of 7 devils 
who possessed the body of Sister Seraphica of 
Loudon. [Rf Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten, 
P-196.] 

Baruchiachel—in 3 Enoch, one of the 7 great 
planetary rulers; and the only angel able to rout 
the female demon named Strife [Rf The Testa¬ 
ment of Solomon]. 

Bary&’il—in Islamic apocalyptic writings, an 
angel encountered by the sufi Abu Yazid in the 
7th Heaven. Baryd’il is found to be “of the tall¬ 
ness of the distance of a journey of 500 years.” 
[Cf equally fantastic heights of angels as measured 
in parasangs in ancient Persian lore.] He is head of 
innumerable ranks of fellow dwellers on high. As 
in the case of offers in the lower Heavens (by the 
angel Liwidh in the 2nd and by the angel Nayi’il 
in the 4th), Baryd’il offers the sufi “a kingdom 


...Baruch, guardian angel of the Tree of Life [71] 

such as no tongue can describe,” but the offer or 
bribe is resisted, Abu Yazid remaining throughout 
his mir’aj (heavenly ascent) singleminded in his 
devotion to God. [Rf. Nicholson, “An Early 
Arabic Version,” etc.] 

Basasael (Basasaeyal)—in Enoch I, an evil arch¬ 
angel. 

Bashmallin (Hashmallim)—an order of angels 
equated with the dominations. 

Baskabas—a variant reading for Kasbak, one 
of the secret names of the angel Metatron. 

Basus—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkahah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 4th heavenly hall. 

Bataliel—one of the rulers of the 12 signs of the 
zodiac. 

Batarel (Batariel, Badariel, Batrael, Batarjal, 
Metarel)—one of the 200 fallen angels in the Enoch 
listings. He may be invoked in ceremonial magic 
rites. The name Batariel appears in Talisman 4 
of the Sage of the Pyramids. [See reproduction in 
Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, p. 95.] 

Batarjal [Batarel] 

Bathor—in white magic, one of the 7 olym¬ 
pian spirits, known as Electors or Stewards of 
Heaven. 

Bat(h) Qol (Bath Kol—“heavenly voice” or 
“daughter of the voice”)—a holy guardian angel 
said to have visited in his cell the 2nd-century 
sage, Simeon ben Yohai, reputed author of The 
Zohar. Bat Qol is held by many rabbis to be a 
form of divine pronouncement in the latter days 
when prophecy had ceased. She (for Bat Qol is 
female) is symbolized as a dove and may be com¬ 
pared, with the manifestation in this form, to the 
Holy Ghost in New Testament theophany. [Rf 
Pirke Ahoth\ The Zohar ; Newman and Spitz, The 
Talmudic Anthology, Fuller, Secret Wisdom of the 
Qabalah .] In a Syriac charm invocation (as re¬ 
corded in The Book of Protection), Bat Qol is re¬ 
ferred to as “the Voice which called out to Cain 
the murderer, ‘Where is thy brother Abel?’ ” 

Batsran—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 



[72] BAT ZUGE / BELIAL 

Bat Zuge —a term for the evil Lilith (q.v.) when 
she is regarded as the 10th of the 10 unholy 
sefiroth or divine emanations issuing from the left 
side of God. [Rf. The Zohar, suppl.] 

Bazathiel—one of the angelic guards of the 1st 
Heaven. [Cf. Hechaloth Rahbati .] 

Bazazath (Raphael-Bazazath)—an archangel 
residing in the 2nd Heaven. In The Testament of 
Solomon and in magical tracts generally, Bazazath 
(or Bazazarath) is reported to have put to flight, 
among other feats, a winged dragon (female) by 
the name of Obizuth. 

Baz Baziah—a Talmudic angel invoked to cure 
cutaneous disorders. [Rf. Talmud Shabbath, fol. 67.] 

Bazkiel—an angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf Ozar Midrashim 1,116.] 

Baztiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard of the 1st heavenly hall. 

Bealphares—although characterized as a de¬ 
mon in Wierus, Pseudo-Monarchia, Bealphares is 
also declared to be “the noblest carrier that ever 
did serve any man upon the earth.” He must 
therefore be called a benign spirit. Moreover, he 
is not listed as a demon in the rather exhaustive 
Dictionnaire Infernal or other registers of under¬ 
world hierarchs. 

Bearechet—an angel of the Seal, cited in The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Beasts of the Field—in The Zohar and in 
cabalistic works generally, “beasts of the field” 
is often a designation for the higher angels. 

Beatiel—an angel serving in the 4th Heaven. 
[Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Beatrice (Portinari)—the Beatrice of Dante’s 
La Vita Nuova and The Divine Comedy (particularly 
the Paradiso ). Dante sees his beloved in Paradise 
as an angel; she leads him to the Empyrean, which 
is one of the abodes of God. 

Beburos—one of the 9 angels who will rule 
“at the end of the world,” according to Revelation 


of Esdras. [R/! The Ante-Nicene Fathers Library 8, 
573.] For the names of the other 8 angels, see 
Angels at the End of the World. 

Bedaliel —an angel invoked to command or 
exorcise demons, as cited in goetic tracts. [Rf 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Bedrimulael [Abedumabal] 

Beelzebub (Belzebud, Belzaboul, Beelzeboul, 
Baalsebul, etc. “god of flies”)—originally a 
Syrian god, Beelzebub is in II Kings 1:3, a god 
of Ekron in Philistia. In the cabala, he is chief of 
the 9 evil hierarchies of the underworld. In 
Matthew 10:25, Mark 3:22, and Luke 40:15, 
Beelzebub is chief of the demons, “prince of the 
devils” (as in Matthew 12:24), but he is to be 
distinguished from Satan (just as he is in all 
magic, medieval or otherwise). [Rf. Legge, 
Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity 9, 108.] In the 
Gospel of Nicodemus, Christ, during his 3 days in 
Hell, gives Beelzebub dominion over the under¬ 
world in gratitude for permitting him (Christ), 
over Satan’s objections, to take Adam and the 
other “saints in prison” to Heaven. A popular 
title of Beelzebub was “lord of flies.” Another of 
his titles was “lord of chaos,” as given in the gnos¬ 
tic writings of Valentinus. Dante identifies 
Beelzebub with Satan, but Milton in Paradise Lost 
1,79, ranks Beelzebub “next to Satan in power and 
crime;” in I, 157 Satan addresses Beelzebub as a 
“fallen cherub.” In Hayley’s edition of the 
Poetical Works of John Milton (London, 1794), 
there is an illustration showing “Satan conferring 
with Belzebuth.” In Gurdjieff’s All and Everything, 
Beelzebub’s Tales to His Grandson, the hero is 
Beelzebub. 

Behemiel (Hariel, Hashmal)—an angel with 
dominion over tame beasts. Behemiel is chief of 
the order of hashmallim, an order equated with 
that of the cherubim. 

Behemoth —a male chaos-monster (whale, 
crocodile, hippopotamus) created on the 5th day 
and closely associated with the female Leviathan. 
[Rf. Apocalypse of Baruch, 29.] Also identified 
with Rahab, primordial angel of the sea, and with 



...Beelzebub, chief of demons and prince of devils [73] 

Belhar [Bemael] 

the North Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Beliael —like Beli, an angelic guard of the gates 
of the North Wind. 

Belial (Beliar or Berial)—in Jacobus de Teramo, 
Das Buck Beliel, this great fallen angel, often 
equated with Satan, is pictured presenting his 
credentials to Solomon; also as dancing before the 
Hebrew king. Paul, in II Corinthians 6:15, asks 
“What concord hath Christ with Belial?” Here, 
clearly, Paul regards Belial as chief of demons, or 
as Satan. In Paradise Lost I, 490-492, “Belial came 
last; than whom a Spirit more lewd/Fell not from 
Heav’n, or more gross to love/Vice it self.” 
Later, in Paradise Lost II, 110-112, Milton speaks 
of Belial thus: “A fairer person lost not Heav’n; 
he seemed/For dignity compos’d and high ex¬ 
ploit;” but hastens to add: “all was false and hol¬ 
low.” “Possibly an old name for Sheol,” says 
Barton in “Origin of the Names of Angels and 
Demons.” In The Toilers of the Sea, Victor Hugo, 
drawing on occult sources, speaks of Belial as 
Hell’s ambassador to Turkey. [Cf. Mastema.] As 
in the case of Bileth, it was “only after infinite 
the angel of death. In Roman Catholic theology, research,” reports Spence, An Encyclopaedia of 
Behemoth is the principal of darkness, although 
Job’s (40:19) “he is the chief of the ways of God” 
points in an opposite direction. See picturization 
of Behemoth, in the form of an elephant with 
bear’s feet, in Seligmann, The History of Magic, 
and Blake’s engraving “Behemoth and Levia¬ 
than.” 

Beleth (Bileth, Bilet, Byleth)—once of the 
order of powers—an order to which he hopes to 
return—Beleth is a fallen angel in Hell where he 
rules 85 legions of demons. He is a king, rides a 
pale horse, and is announced by a blare of trum¬ 
pets. His sigil is shown in Waite, The Book of 
Black Magic and of Pacts, p. 169, and in The Leme- 
geton. That Beleth was formerly of the order of 
powers “was proved after infinite research,” 
reports Spence in An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, 
p. 119. 


Belial dancing before King Solomon, from 
Das Buck Belial by Jacobus de Teramo. Repro¬ 
duced from Grillot, Picture Museum of Sorcery, 
Magic and Alchemy. 



Beli —one of the angelic guards of the gates of 



William Blake’s “Behemoth,” an illustration 
for his Book of Job. 




[74] BELIAR / BIGTHA 

Occultism (p. 119), that Belial was “proved to 
have been formerly of the order of virtues.” 

Beliar (“worthless”)—interchangeable, in most 
sources, with Beliel. Beliar is mentioned in Deu¬ 
teronomy, Judges, and I Samuel, always as evil, its 
symbol or personification. In apocryphal writings 
Beliar is the prince of darkness, supreme adversary 
of God. In The Martyrdom of Isaiah he is the angel 
of lawlessness. In The Gospel of Bartholomew, 
Bartholomew asks Beliar to tell who he is, and 
Beliar answers: “At first I was called Satanel, 
which is interpreted a messenger of God, but 
when I rejected the image of God my name was 
calld Satanas, that is, an angel that keepeth Hell 
(Tartarus).... I was formed the first angel... 
Michael second, Gabriel third, Uriel fourth, 
Raphael fifth, Nathanael sixth.... These are the 
angels of vengeance that were first formed.” 
[Rf James, The Apocryphal New Testament, p. 175.] 
In Waite, The Lemegeton, Beliar is said to have 
been created “next after Lucifer.” As a fallen 
angel Beliar boasts that he “fell first among the 
worthier sort.” Milton calls him a “false-titled 
son of God.” According to the Schoolmen, 
Beliar was once partly of the order of angels and 
partly of the order of virtues. However, Glasson, 
Greek Influence in Jewish Eschatology, argues that 
Beliar was never an angel and compares him with 
Ahriman, chief devil in Persian mythology, who 
was “independent of God and God’s opposite 
equal.” [See Ahriman.] The tradition that Beliar 
is Hell’s primate is carried on in the work of two 
modern writers, Thomas Mann and Aldous 
Huxley, both of whom regard Beliar as the exem¬ 
plar and epitome of evil. 

Belphegor or Belfagor or Baal-Peor (“lord 
of opening” or “lord Baal of Mt. Phegor”)—a 
Moabite god of licentiousness who was once, 
according to cabalists, an angel of the order of 
principalities. In Hell, Belphegor is the demon of 
discoveries and ingenious inventions. When 
invoked, he appears in the form of a young 
woman. Rufinus and Jerome identify Belphegor 
with Priapus (see Numbers 25:1-3). De Plancy 
Dictiounaire Infernal indicates that certain digni¬ 
taries of the infernal empire served as special 


envoys or ambassadors to the nations of the earth, 
and that Belphegor was accredited to France. 
Victor Hugo in The Toilers of the Sea confirms De 
Plancy’s accreditation of Belphegor to Paris. 
[Rf. Jonson, The Devil Is an Ass; Wilson, 
Belphegor or the Marriage of the Devil (1691).] 
According to Milton, Belphegor is a variant for 
Nisroc ( Paradise Lost VI, 447), whom he lists as 
“of Principalities the prime.” Masters, Eros and 
Evil, suggests that Belphegor is the counterpart 
of the Hindu Rutrem, who is usually represented 
with an erect phallus. See picturization of The 
Demon Belphegor in Grillot, A Pictorial Anthology 
of Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy, p. 132. 

Belsal—an angel of the 1st hour of the night 
under the rulership of Gamiel. [R/. Waite, The 
Lemegeton .] 

Bel-se-buth [Beelzebub] 

Belzeboub (Beelzebub)—Dante identifies him 
with Satan. 

Belzebuth (Beezebuth)—prince of seraphim, 
so titled by M. Garinet, History of Magic in France. 
In the view of De Plancy ( Dictionnaire Infernal III 
and IV) Belzebuth is not an angel but a demon, 
and the evil genius who governs the month of 
July (the opposite number to the angel Verchiel, 
q.v.). 

Benad Hasche (“daughters of God”)—female 
angels worshipped by Arabs. [Rf. Preface to 
Moore, The Loves of the Angels.] 

Ben Ani—a name written in Heaven in the 
characters (tongue) of angels and invoked to 
command demons. [R/] Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon, p. 33.] 

Bencul—one of the 9 holy angels invoked in 
cabalistic rites in the general citation of Moses. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, p. 72.] 

Bene Elim (b’ne elohim, “sons of God”)— 
angels or archangels who unceasingly sing the 
praises of God; they belong to the 10th subdivi¬ 
sion of the order of thrones, according to The 
Zohar and de Mirville, Pneumatologie. Chief of 
the order is Azazel. In The Zohar, the chief of the 



order is Hofniel. The bene elim of Genesis 6:2 are 
sometimes equated with the order of ischim 
(q.v.). Theologians often translate the term as 
meaning sons of man rather than sons of God— 
to avoid attributing to angels the sin of sexual 
involvement with mortals. 

Bene ha-Elohim (lit., “children of God”)— 
angels, same as bene elim (above). According to 
Rabbi Simeon ben Johai, those who translate 
ha-Elohim as “sons of God” are in error and should 
be cursed [Rf. Bamberger, Fallen Angels]. In 
Targum of Onkelos and Jonathan, the title given to 
the bene ha-Elohim is “Sons of the Chiefs.” 

Beniel—an angel invoked to command demons 
for conferring the gift of invisibility. [Rf. Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 45.] 

Benign Angel—in Midrash Aggada Exodus, the 
Benign Angel is Uriel; in The Zohar I, 93b, it is 
Gabriel. The Benign Angel was sent down to 
attack or slay Moses for neglecting to observe the 
covenant of circumcision with regard to the Law¬ 
giver’s son. Zipporah (Moses’ wife) saved the day 
by performing the rite (Exodus 4:25). 

Ben Nez (“hawk”)—a name for the angel 
Rubiel or Ruhiel. Ben Nez exercises dominion 
over the wind. According to tradition (Talmud 
Baba Bathra, 25a), he “holds back the South Wind 
with his pinions lest the world be consumed.” 
Ben Nez is referred to as a mountain as well as an 
angel. [Rf Budge, Amulets and Talismans ; Ginz- 
berg, The Legends of the Jews 1,12 and V, 47.] 

Beodonos—in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, an angel invoked in the conjuration of 
the Reed. 

Beratiel—one of the ruling angels of the 12th 
hour of the day. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Berekeel (“my blessing is God”)—an angel of 
the seasons in Enoch lore ( Enoch I, 82:17). 

Berial [Belial] 

Berith [Balberith] 

Berka’el—in Enoch lore, Berka’el is a leading 
spirit of 3 months of the year, serving under 
Melkejal ( q.v .). 


.. .Beliar, supreme adversary of God [75] 

Bernael—in Falasha lore, the angel of darkness; 
when he is identified or equated with Beliel, he is 
an angel of evil. 

Beshter—the name of Michael in ancient 
Persian lore. He was regarded as providing 
sustenance for mankind, which would equate him 
with Metatron (q.v.). [Rf. Sale, The Koran, 
“Preliminary Discourse,” p. 51.] 

Bethor—one of the 7 supreme angels ruling 
the 196 provinces in which Heaven is divided. 
Bethor rules 42 Olympic regions and commands 
kings, princes, dukes, etc., and “governs all things 
that are ascribed to (the planet) Jupiter.” To do 
Bethor’s bidding there are, in addition, 29,000 
legions of spirits. [Rf. Cornelius Agrippa, Three 
Books of Occult Philosophy, where the sigil of this 
angel is shown; Budge, Amulets and Talismans, 
where the sigil is reproduced.] 

Bethuael (“house or man of God”)—one of 
the 28 angels governing the 28 mansions of the 
moon. 

Bethuel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Betuliel—one of the governing angels of the 
zodiac. [Rf Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy, III.] 

Bezaliel—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the North Wind. [Rf. Ozar Mid- 
rashim, 316.] 

Bezrial—one of the angelic guards of the 3rd 
Heaven, as reported in the Pirke Hechaloth. 

Bhaga —in Vedic lore, one of 7 (or 12) celestial 
deities, analogous to Judaeo-Christian angels. 
[See Adityas.] 

Bibiyah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Bifiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard of the 6th heavenly hall. 

Bigtha (Biztha)—in Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews, one of the 7 angels of confusion: also one 



[76] BILETH / BYLETH 

of the 2 pressers of the winepress. In the house of 
Ahasuerus, Bigtha is an angel of destruction. 

Bileth [Beleth] 

Binah (“understanding”)—the 3rd sefira (q.v.). 
In The Book of Concealed Mystery, Binah is called 
“the sea.” [Rf. Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Biqa (in Amharic, “good person”)—the ori¬ 
ginal name of the angel Kasbeel (q.v.). After 
Kasbeel’s fall (he sinned by turning away from 
God the moment he was created), he was re¬ 
named Kazbeel, “he who lies to God.” 

Bird of God—a term used by Dante to denote 
an angel. 

Bizbul (meaning, “in Zebul”)—a secret name 
of Metatron, according to Rabbi Inyanei bar 
Sisson. [Rf The Visions of Ezekiel.] 

Black Angel—in Mohammedan demonology 
one comes across 2 black angels, named Monker 
and Nakir (q.v.). Another black angel, unnamed, 
is pictured in the Treatise on Astrology and Divina¬ 
tion of Mohammed al-Sudi. This angel with the 
features of a rackhasa is shown with 2 other 
malevolent spirits in Larousse Encyclopedia of 
Mythology and reproduced on p. 68. 

Blaef—in occult lore, a Friday angel of the air, 
ministering to Sarabotes and subject to the West 
Wind. [Rf de Claremont, The Ancient’s Book of 
Magic.] 

Blautel—an angel invoked in necromancy. 
[Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Bludon—one of the 7 Electors (underworld 
planetary spirits or rulers) in Cornelius Agrippa’s 
listing. Bludon replaces Ganael in the planetary 
rulers cited by Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon. 

Bne Seraphim—in practical cabala, the angel 
governing the planet Mercury. In talismanic 
magic he is the intelligence of the planet Venus. 
[Rf Barrett, The Magus II, 147.] 

Boamiel—one of the 6 angels placed over the 
4 parts of Heaven, according to The Book of the 


Angel Raziel. The other 5 angels are Scamijm, 
Gabriel, Adrael, Dohel, Madiel. [Rf The Sixth 
and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Bodiel—ruling prince of the 6th Heaven, 
according to Hechaloth Zoterathi, quoted in 3 
Enoch 17. The ruling angels usually designated 
are Sabath, Sandalphon, Zachiel, and Zebul. 

Boel (“God is in him”—Boul, Booel, Bohel, 
Dohel)—one of 7 exalted throne angels resident 
in the 1st Heaven. Boel holds the 4 keys to the 
4 comers of the earth; by means of these keys all 
the angelic hosts are able to enter the Garden of 
Eden—when, that is, Boel unlocks the gates and 
the 2 guardian cherubim permit entry. [Rf. The 
Zohar (Exodus 133b).] According to Barrett, The 
Magus, Boel resides not in the 1st Heaven but in 
the 7th. The star (more correctly the planet) he 
governs is Saturn. [Rf. de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron; The Book of the Angel Raziel; The Book of 
Hechaloth ; Ozar Midrashim.] 

Briel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
For the names of all 70, see Appendix. 

Brieus—an angel who, it is said, is alone able to 
overcome the designs and machinations of the 
demon Rabdos. [Rf. Conybeare, The Testament 
of Solomon; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Bualu—one of the 8 angels of omnipotence 
employed in conjuring rites. Among the others 
of this group are Atuesuel, Ebuhuel, Tabatlu, 
Tulatu, Labusi, Ublisi. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses, p. 85.] The cabalistic instructions 
for conjuring these angels specify that they “must 
be called 3 times from the 4 comers of the world 
with a clear and powerful voice and when the 
name of each is pronounced 3 times, then 3 
sounds must be uttered by the horn.” 

Buchuel —an angelic name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Buddha [Budh Avatar] 

Budh Avatar (Buddha)—the 9th of the 10 
avatars in Vedic lore. [See Avatar.] 





Buhair—in Mandaean lore, one of the 10 
uthri (angels) that accompany the sun on its daily 
course. 

Bull—in Zoroastrian mythology, the source of 
all light; he was created by Ormazd and de¬ 
stroyed by Ahriman. Out of Bull’s scattered seed, 
according to legend, sprang the first man and 
woman. 

Burc(h)at—in the cabala, an angel of the air 
serving in the 4th Heaven; he governs on Lord’s 
Day (Sunday) and is invoked from the west. 
He is one of the messengers of the sun. [Rf. de 
Abano, The Heptamerotr, Barrett, The Magus ; 
Malchus, The Secret Grimoire ofTuriel .] 

Bur khan—in Manicheanism, an incarnate 


...Butator, genius or spirit of calculations [77] 

messenger “of the God of Light to man.” Zoro¬ 
aster is spoken of in Manichean lore as a burkhan. 
[Rf. Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity II.] 

Busasejal—according to Enoch I, one of a troop 
of fallen angels. 

Busthariel—an angelic name found inscribed 
on an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Butator (or Butatar)—the genius or spirit of 
calculations. Butator serves in the 3rd hour of the 
day and may be invoked in ritual magic rites, as 
certified by Apollonius of Tyana in The Nucte- 
meron. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 503.] 

Byleth [Beleth] 




A seraph by CavaUini. Detail from the Last 
Judgment (Rome, 1280). Reproduced from 
R6gamey, Anges. 



Cabiel—one of the 28 angels ruling over the 28 
mansions of the moon. 

Cabriel (Cabrael, Kabriel)—an angel with 
dominion over the sign of Aquarius. He is one of 
6 angels placed over the 4 parts of Heaven. 
[Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel; Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] 

Cadat—“a most pure angel” invoked in Solo¬ 
monic magic. [Rf Grimorium Verum.] 

Cadulech—a most holy angel of God invoked 
in the conjuration of the Sword. [Rf. Grimorium 
Verum.] 

Cael—-an angel representing, or exercising 
dominion over, the sign of Cancer in the zodiac. 
[Rf Waite, TheLemegeton.] 

Cafon [Zephon] 

Cahet(h)el—one of the 8 seraphim; he rules 
over agricultural products and is one of the 72 
angels bearing the name of God Shemhamphorae. 
In the cabala generally he is often invoked to 
increase or improve crops. His corresponding 


angel is Asicat. Cahethel’s sigil will be found in 
Ambelain, La Kahbale Pratique, p. 260. 

Cahor—genius of deception. In Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron, Cahor is described as a 
genius of the 3rd hour. 

Caila—an angel invoked in Solomonic magic 
in the Uriel conjuration. Caila is “one of the 4 
words God spoke with his mouth to his servant 
Moses,” according to the grimoires. The other 3 
words were Josta, Agla, and Ablati. [Rf. Gri¬ 
morium Verum.] 

Caim (Caym, Camio)—once of the order of 
angels, Caim is now in Hell, a great president. 
He manifests in the form of a thrush. As many as 
30 legions of infernal spirits attend him. His seal 
is figured in Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of 
Pacts, p. 182. Luther had a famous encounter with 
Caim, according to De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal where (in the 1863 ed.) Caim is pictured as 
a belted bird. 

Caldulech (Caldurech)—“a most pure angel,” 
invoked in ceremonial magic rites. [Rf. Shah, The 
Secret Lore of Magic.] 


79 



CALIEL I CARETAKING ANGELS 


[80] 

Caliel [Calliel] 

Calizantin—a “good angel” invoked in con¬ 
juring rites. [Rf. VerusJesuitarum Libellus.] 

Calliel (Caliel)—one of the throne angels 
serving in the 2nd Heaven, invoked to bring 
prompt help against adversity. Calliel is one of the 
72 angels bearing the name of God Shemham- 
phorae. His corresponding angel is Tersatosoa (or 
Tepisatosoa). For Calliel’s sigil, see Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique, p. 267. 

Caluel (Calvel)—a Wednesday angel residing 
in the 2nd or 3rd Heaven and invoked from the 
south. Since his corresponding angel is Tersa¬ 
tosoa, Caluel may be a variant for Calliel ( q.v.). 

Calvel [Caluel] 

Calzas—a Tuesday angel serving in the 5 th 
Heaven. Calzas must be invoked from the east. 
[R/1 de Abano, The Heptamerorr, Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Camael (Camicl, Camiul, Chamuel, Kemuel, 
Khamael, Camniel, Cancel—“he who sees God”) 
—chief of the order of powers and one of the 
sefiroth. In occult lore, Camael is of the nether 
regions and ranks as a Count Palatine. When 
invoked, he appears in the guise of a leopard 
crouched on a rock. In the cabala, Camael 
(Khamael, Kemuel) is one of the 10 (actually 9) 
archangels of the Briatic world. “It is a name,” 
says Eliphas Levi in The History of Magic, “which 
personifies divine justice.” In a footnote to Levi’s 
book, Waite, the editor, in chapter 10, notes that, 
in Druid mythology, Camael was the god of war. 
This bears out the frequent citation of Camael in 
occultism as the ruler of the planet Mars and as 
among the governing angels of the 7 planets. 
[Rf. Complete Book of Fortune, p. 514, for picturiza- 
tion of “the Talisman of the Angels,” where the 
name Camael occurs.] In The Magus, Camael 
is one of “seven angels which stand in the presence 
of God.” For the legend that Moses destroyed 
this great angel for trying to prevent the Lawgiver 
from receiving the Torah at the hand of God, see 
Kemuel. Another legend speaks of Camael 
(Kemuel) being in charge of 12,000 angels of 


destruction. [Rf The Legends of the Jews III.] 
In Clement, Angels in Art, Chamuel is the angel 
who wrestled with Jacob; also the angel (usually 
identified as Gabriel) who appeared to Jesus 
during his agony in the Garden of Gethsemane 
to strengthen Him. 

Carnal (Hebrew, “to desire God”)—the name 
of one of the archangels in the cabala. [Rf the 
Book of The Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage.] 

Camaysar—in occultism, the angel “of the 
marriage of contraries.” He is a genius of the 5th 
hour. [R/i Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron.] 

Cambiel—according to Trithemius, the ruler 
of the zodiacal sign of Aquarius, and an angel of the 
9th hour. 

Cambill—an angel of the 8th hour of the night, 
serving under Narcorial. [Rf. Waite, The Leme- 
geton.] 

Cameron—angel of the 12th hour of the day, 
serving under Beratiel. He is also regarded as a 
demon; as such he serves in the conjuration of 
Beelzebuth, as well as in the conjuration of Asta- 
roth. [Rf. Magia Naturalis et Innaturalis ; Butler, 
Ritual Magic; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Camio [Cairn] 

Camael [Camael] 

Caneloas—“a most holy angel” invoked in 
magical operations, as noted in Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon. 

Capabile—one of 3 angel messengers of the 
Sun. [Rf. Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Turiel] 

Capabili—an angel of the 4th Heaven ruling 
on the Lord’s Day and invoked from the west. 

Caphriel—in occultism, “a strong and power¬ 
ful angel,” chief ruler of the 7th day (Sabbath). 
He is invoked in the conjuration of Saturn (the 
planet). [Rf Barrett, The Magus II; de Claremont, 
The Ancient’s Book of Magic.] 

Capitiel—one of the angels of the 4th chora or 
altitude invoked in magical prayer, as set forth in 
The Almadel of Solomon. 



[ 81 ] 



Angel head, 15th century. From the great rose window in north transept of St. Ouens, Rouen. 
Reproduced from Lawrence B. Saint, Stained Glass of the Middle Ages in England and France. London: 
A. and C. Black, Ltd., 1925. 


Captains of Fear [Angels of Dread] 

Captain of the Host of the Lord—in Joshua 
5, the man (i.e., angel) whom Joshua beheld 
standing over against him with drawn sword 
and who revealed himself as “the captain of the 
host of the Lord.” He is usually identified as 
Michael. 

Caracasa—in occult lore, an angel of the Spring 
along with the angels Core, Amatiel, and Co- 
missoros. 

Caramel—in Mosaic mystic lore, an angel 
serving in the 3rd Heaven. [R/. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Carcas—one of the 7 angels of confusion. In the 
legend relating to Ahasuerus, Carcas is the 
“knocker.” [Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews IV, 375.] 


Cardiel—in ceremonial magic, an angel in¬ 
voked in special rites, as in the conjuration of the 
Sword. 

Cardinal Virtues—there are 4 cardinal virtues: 
justice, prudence, temperance, fortitude. The 
theological virtues are faith, hope, and charity. 
These were often personalized as angels and so 
represented, as in the case of fortitude, in the 
roundels of Lucca della Robbia in the chapel of 
Cardinal of Portugal, in the Church of San Mini- 
ato al Monte in Florence and reproduced on p. 114 . 

Caretaking Angels—Temeluch ( q.v .) and 
others. “Infants of untimely birth are delivered 
over to Care-taking Angels,” according to 
Clement of Alexandria, Prophetic Eclogues, 48. 
Methodius in his Convivia, II, 6 adds that these 
angels serve also the offspring of adultery. 


[82] CARMAX / CHAIROUM 

Carmax—in occultism, a ministering angel to 
Samax, ruler of the Tuesday angels of the air. 
[Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron.] Serving with 
Carmax are 2 other angels: Ismoli and Paffran. 
[Rf. Shah, Occultism, Its Theory and Practice, p. 50.] 

Carmel—an angel serving in the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Carnivean (Camiveau)—an ex-prince of the 
order of powers (see Carreau). Carnivean is now 
a demon, invoked in the litanies of the Witches’ 
Sabbaths. [Rf. Michaelis, Admirable History of the 
Possession and Conversion of a Penitent Woman.] 

Carreau (Carnivean)—an ex-prince of the 
order of powers. In Garinet, History of Magic in 
France, Carreau was one of the devils who pos¬ 
sessed the body of Sister Seraphica of Loudun; 
in the absence of Baruch (another devil so named), 
Carreau guarded a drop of water that bewitched 
the sister’s stomach (sic). 

Carsiol—an angel of the 2nd hour, serving 
under Anael. [Rf. Waite, TheLemegeton, p. 67.] 

Casmaron—in occult science (as in Papus, 
Traite Tlementaire de Science Occulte), an angel of 
the air. 

Casmiros—an angel of the 11th hour of the 
night, serving under Dardariel. 

Cass Cassiah—an angel invoked for the curing 
of cutaneous disorders. [Rf. Talmud Shabbath, fol. 
67.] 

Cassiel (Casiel, Casziel, Kafziel)—the angel of 
solitudes and tears who “shews forth the unity of 
the eternal kingdom.” Cassiel is one of the rulers 
of the planet Saturn, also a ruling prince of the 
7th Heaven and one of the scrim (princes) of 
the order of powers. Sometimes he appears as the 
angel of temperance. Barrett in The Magus speaks 
of Cassiel as one of the 3 angels of Saturday, 
serving with Machatan and Uriel. In the Book of 
Spirits as well as in The Magus, the sigil of Cassiel 
is given, along with his signature. In the latter 
work Cassiel Macoton (so named) is pictured in 
the form of a bearded jinn, astride a dragon. In 
Grillot, Picture Museum of Sorcery, Magic and Al- 



The angel Cassiel, ruler of Saturday, astride a 

dragon. Reproduced from Francis Barrett, The 

Magus. 

chemy (p. 113), there is a reproduction of a page 
from the Book of Spirits giving the conjuration of 
Cassiel. 

Cassiel Macoton—according to Barrett, The 
Magus II, Cassiel and Macoton are 2 separate 
angels, both doing duty on Saturday. 

Castiel—a Thursday angel mentioned in 
occult lore. 

Casujoiah—an angel with dominion over the 
sign of Capricorn. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Catroije—in the cabala, an angel serving in the 
2nd Heaven. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Causub—a serpent-charming angel. In Apol¬ 
lonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron, Causub is one 



of the genii of the 7th hour. [R/ Levi, Transcen¬ 
dental Magic.] 

Caym [Cairn] 

Cazardia—a corruption of Gazardiel (q.v.). 
[Rf. Regamey, What Is An Angel?] 

Cedar—in The Gospel of Bartholomew (Latin 
version, James, The Apocryphal New Testament) 
Cedar is cited as an angel governing the south. In 
other versions he is called Kerkoutha (q.v.). 

Cedrion—an angel invoked in the conjuration 
of the Reed, and governing the south. [R/] Waite, 
The Lemegeton.] 

Celestial Hierarchy—based on interpretations 
of Scriptural passages and as enumerated by St. 
Ambrose, pseudo-Dionysius, Pope Gregory, and 
others, the orders or choirs of the celestial hier¬ 
archy range from 7 to 10 or 11 in number; they 
were finally fixed at 9 in triple triads thus: 
seraphim, cherubim, thrones; dominations (or 
dominions), powers, virtues; principalities (or 
princedoms), archangels, angels. The 2nd triad 
is sometimes given as dominions, virtues, powers. 
Variants include orders called hosts, aeons, inno¬ 
cents, confessors, lordships, authorities, warriors, 
etc. In Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, con¬ 
jurations are prescribed for “ten choirs of the 
Holy Angels,” to wit:(l) chaioth ha-Qadesh; (2) 
auphanim; (3) aralim; (4) chashmalim; (5) sera¬ 
phim; (6) malachim; (7) elohim; (8) beni elohim; 
(9) kerubim; (10) ishim; these are the 10 mentioned 
by Maimonides in his Mishna Thora. The Berith 
Menucha offers a slightly different list of 10: 
arellim, ishim, bene elohim, mal’achim, chash- 
mallim, tarshishim, shina’nim, kerubim, ophan- 
nim, seraphim. [Rf Charles, The Book of the 
Secrets of Enoch (Enoch II), Chap. 20, fn.] After 
Aquinas “blessed” the Dionysian scheme of 9 
choirs in their triple triads, the Church adhered 
to it. Early Protestants, however, not only dis¬ 
puted it but also rejected it. Some occult works 
such as Barrett, The Magus, added a 4th triad, 
making 12 orders. It will be recalled that Dante 
in his Paradiso, canto 28, calls Pope Gregory to 
account for “dissenting” from the Dionysian 


...Cassiel, a sometime angel of temperance [83] 

setup. [Rf. Sefer Yetzirah', Waite, The Holy 
Kabbalah, pp. 255-256.] For variant lists by various 
authorities, see Appendix. 

Celestial Pilot, The—in his poem “The 
Celestial Pilot,” Longfellow calls the ferryman of 
souls “the bird of God.” The poem derives from 
Dante’s Pilot Angel in Purgatorio II. 

Cendrion—in the grimoires, “a holy angel of 
God” invoked in cabalistic rites. 

Cernaiul—the name of an angel of the 7th 
sefiroth (Netzach). [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Cerviel (Cervihel, Zeruel)—chief of the order 
of principalities, a post shared with Haniel, Nisroc, 
and others. Cerviel is the preceptor angel of David. 
“And God sent Cervihel, the Angel that is over 
strength, to help David slay Goliath,” is the refer¬ 
ence in The Biblical Antiquities of Philo, p. 234. [Rf 
Barrett, The Magus.] 

Cetarari (Ctariri, Crarari)—one of the 4 angels 
of winter. [Rf De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Chabalym—a seraph or cherub invoked in 
cabalistic magic rites. 

Chabril—an angel of the 2nd hour of the night, 
under Farris. 

Chachmal (Chachmiel)—one of the 70 child¬ 
bed amulet angels mentioned in The Book of the 
Angel Raziel. For the list of 70, see Appendix. 

Chachmiel [Chachmal] 

Chadakiel [Hadakiel] 

Chafriel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Chahoel—in the cabala, one of the 72 angels 
ruling the 72 quinaries of the degrees of the zodiac. 

Chaigidiel—in the world of Asaiah, the averse 
(opposite or left) sefira corresponding to Choch- 
ma (wisdom) in the Briatic world. [Rf Waite, 
The Holy Kabbalah, p. 256.] 

Chairoum—in The Gospel of Bartholomew, p. 
176, the angel of the north. [See Alfatha and 
Gabriel, both ofwhom are in the same way certified 



[84] CHAJOTH / CHERUB 

as angels governing the north.] Chairoum is de¬ 
scribed as holding in his hand “a rod of fire, and 
restraineth the superfluity of moisture that the 
earth be not overmuch wet.” 

Chajoth [Hayyoth] 

Chalkatoura—one of the 9 angels that “run 
together throughout the heavenly and earthly 
places,” according to The Gospel of Bartholomew. 

Chalkydri (Kalkydra)—archangels of the flying 
elements of the sun. Mentioned in Enoch II, 
where they are linked with the phoenixes and 
placed amidst cherubim and seraphim. The 
chalkydri are 12-winged. At the rising of the sun 
they burst into song. Their habitat is the 4th 
Heaven. In gnostic lore, they are demonic. In 
Charles’ Introduction to Enoch II, the chalkydri 
are described as “monstrous serpents with the 
heads of crocodiles” and as “natural products of 
the Egyptian imagination.” 

Chamuel (“he who seeks God”—Kamuel, 
Haniel, Simiel, etc.)—one of the 7 archangels and 
chief of the order of dominations; also, with 
Nisroc and others, chief of the order of powers. 
Chamuel, like Gabriel, is the angel of Gethsemane: 
he strengthened Jesus with the assurance of resur¬ 
rection. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus ; Enoch 7; R. L. 
Gales, “The Christian Lore of Angels,” National 
Review, September 1910.] 

Chamyel—one of 15 throne angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. See Appen¬ 
dix. 

Chaniel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels 
mentioned in The Book of the Angel Raziel and in 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 255. In Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316, Chaniel is one of the angelic 
guards of the gates of the East Wind. 

Chantare—in occult lore, the corresponding 
angel ofHahael (q.v.). 

Charavah [Charbiel] 

Charbiei (Charavah—“dryness”)—an angel ap¬ 
pointed to “draw together and dry up all the 
waters of the earth.” It was Charbiel who dried up 
the waters after the Flood. [Rf Genesis 8:13.] He 


is mentioned in the Baraita de Ma'ase Bereshith 
and in The Book of the Angel Raziel, ch. 11. 

Charby—angel of the 5th hour serving under 
Abasdarhon. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Charciel (Charsiel)—in de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron, an angel resident in the 4th Heaven. He 
rules on Lord’s Day (Sunday) and is invoked from 
the south. 

Chardiel—in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel of 
the 2nd hour of the day, serving under Anael. 

Chardros—an angel of the 11th hour of the day, 
serving under Bariel. 

Chariots—the angelic hosts, as in Psalms 68:17: 
“The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even 
thousands of angels; the Lord is among them, as in 
Sinai, in the holy place.” 

Chariots of God—the holy wheels (ophanim). 
Milton identified this class of angels with the 
cherubim and seraphim; they were so grouped by 
the Talmudists. Scholem, The Zohar, declares that 
the patriarchs were made “a holy chariot of God.” 

Charis (“grace”)—in gnosticism, one of the 
great luminaries emanated from the divine will. 

Charman—an angel of the 11th hour of the 
night, serving under Dardariel. 

Charmeas—an angel of the 1st hour of the day, 
serving under Samael. 

Charms—an angel of the 9th hour of the day, 
serving under Vadriel. 

Charnij—an angel of the 10th hour of the day, 
serving under Oriel. 

Charouth—one of the 9 angels that “run to¬ 
gether throughout the heavenly and earthly 
places.” [See Chalkatoura.] 

Charpon—a ruling angel of the 1st hour of the 
day, serving under Samael. 

Charsiel [Charciel] 

Charuch—an angel of the 6th hour of the day, 
serving under Samil. 



Chasan—in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, an angel of the air; his name is inscribed 
on the 7th pentacle of the sun. 

Chasdiel—in apocalyptic lore, a name for 
Metatron “when Metatron does kindness to the 
world.” [Rf. 3 Enoch 43.] 

Chaskiel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
For the names of the 70, see Appendix. 

Chasmal [Hashmal] 

Chasmodai—according to Paracelsus in his 
doctrine of Talismans, Chasmodai is the spirit of 
the moon, of which “planet” it is said that the 
governing intelligence is Malach Be. [R/". Christ¬ 
ian, The History and Practice of Magic I.] 

Chassiel—one of the intelligences of the sun, 
as recorded in The Secret Grimoire of Turiel, p. 33. 

Chastiser, The—Kolazonta, the destroying 
angel, so named in the incident involving Aaron, 
described in Reider, The Book of Wisdom 18:2. 

Chaumel—one of the 72 angels ruling the 72 
quinaries of the degrees of the zodiac. [Rf Runes, 
The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Chavakiah—in Barrett, The Magus II, one of 
the 72 angels bearing the name of God Shcmham- 
phorae. 

Chaya—-sing, for Hayyoth (q.v.). 

Chaylim—in 3 Enoch, the chaylim are “armies 
of angels ruled over and led by Chayyliel.” 

Chaylon—a cherub or seraph invoked in ritual 
magic. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Chayo—a throne angel invoked in magical 
conjurations. One of 15 such angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. See Appen¬ 
dix for the names of all 15. 

Chayoh [Hayyoth] 

Chayyliel H’ (Chayyiel, Hayyiel, Hayyal, 
Haileal—“army”)—ruling prince of the chayyoth 
or hayyoth (q.v.). Before Chayyliel “all the chil¬ 
dren of heaven do tremble.” It is said further of 


...Charbiel, dried the waters of the Flood [85] 

this great Merkabah angel that, if he is ever so 
minded, he can “swallow the whole earth in one 
moment in a mouthful.” When the ministering 
angels fail to chant the trisagion at the right time, 
Chayyliel flogs them with lashes of fire. [R/ 
3 Enoch 20.] 

Chayyoth [Hayyoth] 

Chebo—one of the 72 angels ruling the 72 
quinaries of the zodiac. 

Chedustaniel (Chedusitanick)—a Friday an¬ 
gel resident in the 3rd Heaven, invoked from the 
east. Chedustaniel is also one of the angelic spirits 
of the planet Jupiter. [Rf. de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron ; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Chemos—equated with Peor and Nisroc. To 
Milton in Paradise Lost I, 312, 406, Chemos is a 
fallen angel. 

Cheratiel—an angel of the 6th hour of the 
night, serving under Zaazonash. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Cheriour—a “terrible angel,” charged with 
punishment of crime and the pursuit of criminals, 
according to De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal. 

Chermes—angel of the 9th hour of the night, 
serving under Nacoriel. [R/. Waite, The Leme¬ 
geton.] 

Chermiel—a Friday angel of the 3rd Heaven 
invoked from the south. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus 
II; de Abano, The Heptameron.] 

Cherub (sing, for cherubim)—in the cabala. 
Cherub is one of the angels of the air. As Kerub 
hels the angel “who was made the Guardian of the 
Terrestrial Paradise, with a Sword of Flame.” 
[Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 34.] 
“The 1st angel who sinned is called, not a seraph, 
but a cherub,” says Aquinas in his Summa, vol. 1, 
7th art., reply objection 1. In The Zohar, Cherub 
is chief of the order of cherubim. In Ezekiel 
(28:14-15) God recalls to the Prince of Tyre that 
he was the “anointed cherub” and was perfect in 
his ways “till iniquity was found” in him. 



[86] CHERUBIEL / CHIVA 

Cherubiel (Kerubiel)—eponymous chief of 
the order of the cherubim. [See Gabriel, who is 
also regarded as chief of the order.] 

Cherubim (Kerubim)—in name as well as in 
concept, the cherubim are Assyrian or Akkadian 
in origin. The word, in Akkadian, is karibu and 
means “one who prays” or “one who intercedes,” 
although Dionysius declared the word to mean 
knowledge. In ancient Assyrian art, the cherubim 
were pictured as huge, winged creatures with 
leonine or human faces, bodies of bulls or sphinxes, 
eagles, etc. They were usually placed at entrances 
to palaces or temples as guardian spirits. In early 
Canaanitish lore, the cherubim were not conceived 
of as angels. [Cf view of Theodorus, Bishop of 
Heracleaa, who declared “these cherubims not to 
be any Angelicall powers, but rather some horrible 
visions of Beasts, which might terrifie Adam from 

Cherubs. Italian (Neapolitan, late 18th century). 

Collection of Loretta Hines Howard. From The 

Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, December 

1965. 



the entrance of paradise”—from Salkeld, A 
Treatise of Angels.] It was only later that the 
cherubim began to be regarded as heavenly 
spirits. To Philo (“On the Cherubim”) they 
symbolized God’s highest and chiefest potencies, 
sovereignty, and goodness. They are the 1st angels 
to be mentioned (and to be construed as angels) in 
the Old Testament (Genesis 3:22). They guarded 
with flaming sword the Tree of Life and Eden, 
hence their designation as the “flame of whirling 
swords.” In Exodus 25:18 we find 2 cherubim 
“of gold,” one on either side of the Ark (see 
picturization in Schaff, A Dictionary of the Bible). 
[Cf. “cherubim of glory shadowing the mercy 
seat” in Hebrews 9:5.] In Ezekiel (10:14) 4 cheru¬ 
bim, each with 4 faces and 4 wings, appear at the 
river Chebar where the Hebrew prophet glimpses 
them. In I Kings 6:23, the 2 cherubim in Solo¬ 
mon’s temple are carved out of olive wood. In 
rabbinic and occult lore, the cherubim are pre¬ 
vailingly thought of as charioteers of God, bearers 
of His throne, and personifications of the winds. 
In Revelation (4:8) they are living creatures who 
render unceasing praise to their Maker. Here St. 
John refers to them as beasts (holy, divine beasts), 
6 -winged and “full of eyes within.” John of Dam¬ 
ascus in his Exposition of the Orthodox Faith also 
speaks of the cherubim as “many-eyed.” In 
Talmud the cherubim are equated with the order 
ophanim (wheels or chariots) or the order hay- 
yoth (holy beasts) and are said to reside in the 6th 
or 7th Heaven. In the Dionysian scheme, the cheru¬ 
bim rank 2nd in the 9-choir hierarchy and are 
guardians of the fixed stars. Chief rulers, as listed 
in most occult works, include Ophaniel, Rikbiel, 
Cherubiel, Raphael, Gabriel, Zophiel, and—before 
his fall—Satan, who was, as Parente says in The 
Angels, “the supreme angel in the choir of cheru¬ 
bim.” In the early traditions of Muslim lore it is 
claimed that the cherubim were formed from the 
tears Michael shed over the sins of the faithful. 
[Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 
IV, 616, “Demons and Spirits (Muslim).”] In 
secular lore the cherubim have been called “black 
cherubim" (Dante), “young-eyed cherubim” 
(Shakespeare), “helmed cherubim” (Milton). Blake 
describes Satan as the “covering cherub” and turns 



[ 87 ] 



French baroque musical cherubim. Altarpiece at Champagny in Savoy. From Horizon, Novem¬ 
ber 1960. 


the Ezekiel vision of the 4 creatures into his own 
Four Zoas. The latter sound the 4 trumpets 
heralding the apocalypse. As angels of light, glory, 
and keepers of the celestial records, the cherubim 
excel in knowledge. [Rf. Lindsay, Kerubim in 
Semitic Religion and Art.\ The notion of winged, 
multiple-headed beasts serving as guardians of 
temples and palaces must have been general in 
many near-Eastern countries, for in addition to 
appearing in Assyrian-Chaldean-Babylonian art 
and writings (where the authors of Isaiah and Eze¬ 
kiel doubtlessly first came upon them), they ap¬ 
pear, as already noted, in Canaanitish lore (with 
which the Israelites were, of course, familiar, 
and which influenced or colored the accounts in 
Genesis and other Old Testament books). An 
ivory from the collection of a king of Megiddo, 
circa 1200 b.c.e., reproduced on p. 45 of the 
Westminster Historical Atlas to the Bible, shows a 
Canaanite ruler seated on a throne, “supported by 
winged lions with human heads.” These, say the 
editors of the Atlas, “are the imaginary, composite 
beings which the Israelites called cherubim.” As 
winged beasts with human heads, 2 cherubim are 
shown supporting the throne of Hiram, king of 
ancient Byblos (see reproduction, p. 132, vol. 


A-D of Interpreter’s Dictionary of the Bible). Among 
works of more modern times, Rubens’ “Apothe¬ 
osis of James I” (hanging in the banqueting hall 
of Whitehall in London and filling the long side 
panels) shows a procession of cherubs. 

Chesed (“mercy,” “goodness”)—the 4th sefira. 

Chesetial—one of the governing angels of the 
zodiac. [Rf. Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III.] 

Chieftains—in the cabala, a term designating 
the celestial prince-guardians assigned to various 
nations of the earth. There were 70 of these tute¬ 
lary spirits, according to The Zohar. 

Children of Heaven—in Enoch I, the children 
of Heaven are “the sons of the holy angels who 
fell and violated women.” The reference is to 
Genesis 6:2. 

Chirangiyah [Parasurama] 

Chismael—a spirit of Jupiter, of which planet 
Zophiel is the presiding intelligence, according to 
Paracelsus in his doctrine of Talismans. [Rf. 
Christian, The History and Practice of Magic I.] 

Chiva [Hayyoth] 




[88] CHNUM I CTARARI 

Chnum [see Anmael). 

Chobaliel—according to Voltaire in his “Of 
Angels, Genii, and Devils,” Chobaliel is one of the 
fallen angels in the Enoch listings. 

Choch(k)ma (Hokhmah)—the word in He¬ 
brew has the connotation “wisdom.” Chochma 
is the 2nd of the holy sefiroth (divine emanations) 
and is equated with the personalized angel 
Ratziel (Raziel). According to Mathers, The 
Kahbala Unveiled, Chochma is the 1st of God’s 
creations, the only one of the supernal abstractions 
which seems to have reached actual materializa¬ 
tion or personification. [Rf. Guignebert, The 
Jewish World in the Time of Jesus; Sefer Yetzirah.} 

Chochmael (Hochmael)—in Levi, Transcend¬ 
ental Magic, an angel of the sefiroth invoked in 
conjuration rites. 

Choesed [Hoesediel] 

Chofniel—chief of the angelic order of bene 
elohim (children of God), as listed in the Midrash 
Bereshith Menucha. 

Choriel—angel of the 8th hour of the day, ser¬ 
ving under Oscaebial. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton; 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Chorob—angel of the 10th hour of the day, 
serving under Oriel. 

Cbosniel (“cover”)—in Mosaic incantation 
rites, an angel invoked for the conferring of good 
memory and an open heart. 

Cbrail (Chreil)—an angel in Mandaean lore. 
[Rf Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouabir .] 

Chromme—corresponding angel of Nanael 

Chrymos—an angel of the 5th hour of the 
night, serving under Abasdarhon. 

Chuabotheij—in the cabala, an angel of the 
Seal. 

Chur (Churdad)—in ancient Persian mythol¬ 
ogy, the angel in charge of the disk of the sun. 


[Rf. Clayton, Angelology; Hyde, Historia Religionis 
Veterum Persarum.] 

Chuscha—one of 15 throne angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. For the 
names of all 15, see Appendix. 

Chushiel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim 
II, 317.] 

Chutriel—presiding angel of the Mire of Clay, 
which is 5th of the 7 lodges of Hell (arka). [Rf. 
the writings of the cabalist Joseph ben Abraham 
Gikatilla.] 

Cochabiel (Coahabiath)—spirit of the planet 
Mercury, in cabala; derived from Babylonian 
religious lore. [Rf. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, 
p. 26.] In Mosaic lore, and according to Cornelius 
Agrippa in Three Books of Occult Philosophy III, 
Cochabiel is one of 7 princes “who stand continu¬ 
ally before God and to whom are given the spirit 
names of the planets.” 

Cogediel—one of the 28 angels ruling the 28 
mansions of the moon. 

Cohabiting Glory—a title given the Shekinah 
(q.v.) by Waite, The Secret Doctrine in Israel, in 
designating her as “the guide of man on earth and 
the womanhood which is part of him.” 

Colopatiron—in Apollonius of Tyana, The 
Nuctemeron, a genius (spirit) who sets prisons open; 
also one of the genii of the 9th hour. 

Comadiel—an angel of the 3rd hour of the 
day, serving under Veguaniel. 

Comary—an angel of the 9th hour of the 
night, serving under Nacoriel. 

Comato(s)—in Gollancz, Clavicula Salomonis, 
an angel invoked in the exorcism of Wax. 

Comforter—“the Comforter, which is the 
Holy Ghost, whom the Father will send in my 
name.” [Rf John 14:26; see Holy Ghost.] 

Commissoros—one of the 4 angels of the 
Spring. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, 
The Magus II.] 



Conamas—in occult magical operations, an 
angel invoked in the exorcism of Wax. 

Confessors—one of 12 (sic) orders of the 
Celestial Hierarchy as enumerated in Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. The chief of 
the order of confessors is the angel Barakiel (q.v.). 

Coniel—in the cabala, a Friday angel resident 
in the 3rd Heaven. He is invoked from the west. 
In The Secret Grimoire of Turiel, Coniel is listed 
among the messengers of the planet Jupiter. 

Contemplation—a cherub (so named) in 
Milton’s II Penseroso. 

Cophi—in occult lore, an angel invoked in the 
exorcism of Wax. [Rf Gollancz, Clavicula 
Salomonis .] 

Corabael—a Monday angel residing in the 1st 
Heaven and invoked from the west. [Rf de Abano, 
The Heptameron.] 

Corael—an angel petitioned in magical prayer 
for the fulfillment of the invocant’s desires. Corael 
is invoked along with the angels Setchiel and 
Chedustaniel in The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. 

Corat—a Friday angel of the air resident in the 
3rd Heaven and invoked from the east. 

Core—one of the 4 angels of the Spring. Core 
is mentioned as a governing spirit of this season in 
Barrett, The Magus and de Abano, The Hepta¬ 
meron. 

Coriel—an angel of the 7th hour of the night, 
serving under Mendrion. 

Corinne (fictional)—a female angel (so named) 
in Jonathan Daniels, Clash of Angels. 

Corobael [Corabael] 

Cosel—an angel of the 1st hour of the night, 
serving under Gamiel. [Rf. Waite, The Book of 
Ceremonial Magic, p. 69.] 

Cosmagogi—in the Chaldean cosmological 
scheme, the 3 intellectual angelic guides of the 
universe. [Rf. Aude, Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster.] 


... Crocell, teacher of geometry [89] 

Cosmiel—the genius who accompanied the 
17th-century Jesuit Athanasius Kircher on his 
visits to various planets. Kircher tells of this 
“ecstatic voyage” in his Oedipus Egyptiacus. [Rf 
Christian, The History and Practice of Magic I, 
p. 73.] 

Cosmocrator—in Valentinian gnosticism, 
Cosmocrator is ruler of the material cosmos in the 
guise of Diabolos (the devil). His consort is 
Barbelo (q.v.) and together “they sing praises to 
the Powers of the Light,” which would indicate 
that Cosmocrator is not wholly evil. [Rf. Pistis 
Sophia .] 

Covering Cherub—the covering cherub was, 
according to Blake, “Lucifer in his former glory.” 
[Rf. Blake, Vala.] 

Craoscha [Sraosha] 

Cripon—“a holy angel of God,” invoked in 
magical rites, specifically in the conjuration of the 
Reed. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon ; 
Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Crocell (Crokel, Procel, Pucel, Pocel)—once 
of the order of potestates (i.e., powers), now a 
great duke in Hell commanding 48 legions of 
infernal spirits. Crocell confided to Solomon that 
he expects to return to his former throne (in 
Heaven). Meantime he teaches geometry and the 
liberal arts. May be the same as Procel, in which 
case his sigil is shown in Waite, The Book of 
Ceremonial Magic, p. 211. 

Crociel—an angel of the 7th hour of the day, 
serving under Barginiel. 

Crowned Seraph—the devil, 6-winged, is 
pictured as a crowned seraph in his capacity of 
tempter in Eden. [See reproduction in Wall, 
Devils, p. 42.] According to Fabricius, the Devil 
(Lucifer) could be distinguished from all seraphs 
by his crown, worn by virtue of his office of light- 
bearer. 

Cruciel—an angel of the 3rd hour of the night, 
serving under Sarquamich. 

Ctarari—one of the 2 angels of Winter, the 



[90] CUKBIEL I CYNABAL 

other angel being Amabael. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron .] 

Cukbiel—an angel invoked in Syrian invoca¬ 
tion rites, as described in The Book of Protection 
and in Budge, Amulets and Talismans. Cukbiel 
figures in the “Binding [of] the Tongue of the 
Ruler,” a special binding spell. 

Cuniali—the genius (spirit) of association and 
one of the governing genii of the 8th hour. [Rf. 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron .] 

Cupra—one of the Novensiles ( q.v .). Cupra is 
the personification of light. 


Curaniel—an angel of Monday, resident of 
the 1st Heaven, invoked from the south. 

Cureton—“a holy angel of God” invoked in 
black magical conjurations, as described in the 
grimoires. [Rf. Waite, The Book of Black Magic and 
of Pacts.] 

Curson [Purson] 

Cynabal—a minister-angel serving under Var- 
can (king of the air ruling on the Lord’s Day). 
[Rf. Barrett, The Magus II; de Abano, The 
Heptameron ; and Shah, Occultism , Its Theory and 
Practice.] 











■ t P'n tTr 






> 









Jacob Wrestling with the Angel by Delacroix. 
The angel has been variously identified as Meta- 
tron, Peniel, Sammael. Reproduced from 
Rdgamey, Anges. 



Daath (“knowledge”)—in the cabalistic system 
of divine emanations, Daath combines the 2nd 
and 3rd sefiroth (q.v.). [R/l Runes, The Wisdom of 
the Kabbalah .] 

Dabariel—variant for Radueriel. [Rf. 3 Enoch, 
chap. 27.] 

Dabria—one of the 5 “men” (actually angels) 
who transcribed the 204 (or 94) books dictated by 
Ezra. The other 4 heavenly scribes were Ecanus, 
Sarea, Selemiah (Seleucia), Asiel. [Rf. Revelation 
of Esdras IV.] 

Dabriel—the heavenly scribe, equated with 
Vretil (q.v.). Dabriel is also a Monday angel said 
to reside in the 1st Heaven. He is invoked from the 
north. [Rf de Abano, The Heptameron .] 

Daden—in gnosticism, a great celestial power 
dwelling in the 6th Heaven. [Rf Doresse, The 
Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Daemon (demon)—one of 2 sets of watchers 
or guardian angels, according to Hesiod in his 
Works and Days. Also, “spirits of the men of the 
golden age.” In Greek lore, daemons were 


benevolent spirits, familiars, or angels. Socrates had 
his daemon, an attending spirit. In Mead, Thrice- 
Greatest Hermes, an invocation to Hermes is 
addressed to “the Good Daimon Sire of all things 
good, and nurse of the whole world,” where 
Daimon, as Mead suggests, stands for the “father- 
mother of the universe.” [Rf Glasson, Greek 
Influence in feu/ish Eschatology, p. 69.] 

Daeva (Deva)—in early Persian mythology, the 
daevas were evil spirits created by Ahriman; but 
in Hinduism they were divine and benevolent 
spirits. In theosophy they constitute “one of the 
ranks or orders of spirits who compose the hier¬ 
archy which rules the universe under the deity.” 
[Rf. Spence, An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, p. 121.] 

Daghiel [Dagiel] 

Dagiel (Daghiel, Daiel)—an angel whose 
dominion is over fish. According to Barrett, The 
Magus, Dagiel is invoked in Friday conjuration 
rites. He is addressed, in such rites as “great angel, 
strong and powerful prince,” and is supplicated in 
the name of the “star” Venus. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
fewish Magic and Superstition; The Book of the Sacred 


93 



[94] DAGON I DEGALIM 



Dagon, the national god of the Philistines, com¬ 
monly represented with the body of a fish. A bas 

relief reproduced from Schaff, A Dictionary of the 

Bible. 

Magic of Abra-Melin the Mage\ and de Claremont, 
The Ancient's Book of Magic.] 

Dagon—a fallen angel in Paradise Lost I, 457. 
To the ancient Phoenicians, however, Dagon was 
a national god, represented with the face and hands 
of a man and the body of a fish. 

Dagymiel—a governing angel of the zodiac. 
[Rf. Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III.] 

Dahak [ Ahriman, the Satan of Persia] 

Dahariel (Dariel)—in Pirke Hechaloth, a guard 
of the 1st Heaven, and an angel of the order of 
shinanim (q.v). In Hechaloth Rabbati Dahariel is 
a guard of the 5th Heaven. 

Dahavauron—prince of the face and one of 
the angelic guards of the 3rd Heaven. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim I, 117.] 

Dahaviel (Kahaviel)—one of the 7 guards of 
the 1st Heaven. [Rf. Hechaloth Rabbati.] 

Dahnay—one of the “holy angels of God” 
who, nevertheless, may be invoked in black-magic 
conjurations, as prescribed in the grimoires. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.] 

Dai (Dey)—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 


Moses, an angel of the order of powers. In ancient 
Persian lore, Dai was the angel of December. 

Daiel [Dagiel] 

Daimon [Daemon] 

Daktha—one of 7 shining gods of Vedic 
religion. [See Adityas.] 

Dalkiel—angel of Hell, ruler of Sheol, and 
equated with Rugziel (q.v.). In Baraita de Massachet 
Gehinnom, Dalkiel operates in the 7th compartment 
of the underworld, “punishing 10 nations,” and 
serving under orders of Duma(h), who is the angel 
of the stillness of death. [See writings of Joseph 
Gikatilla ben Abraham (1248-1305).] 

Dalmai(i) (Dalmay, Damlay)—in occultism, 
“a holy angel of God” invoked in the exorcism of 
fire. [Rf. Grimorium Verum ; The Book of Ceremonial 
Magic.] 

Dalquiel—in the cabala, one of the 3 princes 
of the 3rd Heaven, the other 2 being Jabniel and 
Rabacyal. All 3 rule over fire, under the ethnarchy 
of Anahel. Dalquiel’s special aide is the angel 
called Oul (q.v.). 

Damabiah—an angel of the order of angels, 
with dominion over naval construction. Damabiah 
is one of the 72 angels bearing the name of God 
Shemhamphorac. His corresponding angel is 
Ptebiou. For the sigil of Damabiah, see Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique, p. 294. 

Damabiath—an angel of the order of powers, 
invoked in cabalistic rites. He manifests in the 
form of a beautiful mortal via the 5th seal. [Rf. 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Dameal—a Tuesday angel resident in the 5th 
Heaven. He is invoked from the east. [Rf. de 
Abano, The Heptameron ; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Dameb’el—one of the 72 angels ruling the 72 
quinaries of the zodiac, according to Runes, The 
Wisdom of the Kabbalah. 

Damiel—angel of the 5th hour, serving under 
the rulership of Sazquiel; or angel of the 9th hour, 
serving under the rulership of Vadriel. Damiel is 


invoked in the conjuration of the Sword. [ Rf. 
Waite, The Lemegeton; Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon.] 

Damlay [Dalmai] 

Daniel (“God is my judge”)—an angel of the 
order of principalities, according to Waite, The 
Lemegeton. Daniel (as Danjal) is one of a troop of 
fallen angels, listed in Enoch I. In the lower regions 
he exercises authority over lawyers. His sigil is 
reproduced in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 
289. On the other hand, according to Barrett, The 
Magus, Daniel is a high holy angel (one of 72) who 
bears the name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Danjal [Daniel] 

Dara—in Persian mythology, angel of rains and 
rivers. [Rf. The Dabistan, p. 378.] 

Darbiel—an angel of the 10th hour of the day, 
serving under Oriel. [Rf Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Dardael [Dardiel] 

Darda’il—in Arabic lore a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Dardariel—chief ruling angel of the 11th hour 
of the night. 

Dardiel—one of the 3 angels of the Lord’s Day, 
the other 2 angels being Michael and Hurtapel. 
[Rf Barrett, The Magus II; de Abano, The 
Heptameron.] 

Daresiel—an angel of the 1st hour of the day, 
serving under Samael. 

Dargitael—in hechaloth lore (Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah ), an angelic guard of the 5th heavenly hall. 

Dariel [Dahariel] 

Dark Angel, The—the angel-man-God who 
wrestled with Jacob at Peniel, an incident related 
in Genesis 32:30. Variously identified as Michael, 
Metatron, Uriel, or the Lord Himself. According 
to The Zohar (Vayishlah 170a) the angel was 
Samael, “chieftain of Esau.” In Talmudic sources, 
the angel was Michael-Metatron. According to 
Clement of Alexandria, the angel was the Holy 


...the Dark Angel, wrestled Jacob [95] 

Ghost. [Rf. Clement of Alexandria Instructor I, 7, 
and, for Talmudic sources, Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews V, 305.] The subject is illustrated by 
Rembrandt and Dore, among others. 

Darkiel—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the South Wind. [Rf Ozar Mid- 
rashim II, 316.] 

Darmosiel—an angel of the 12th hour of the 
night, serving under Sarindiel. 

Darquiel—an angel of Monday, residing in the 
1st Heaven. He is invoked from the south. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II; de Abano, The Hepta¬ 
meron.] 

Daryoel—variant form of Radueriel. [Rf. 
3 Enych, chap. 27.] 

Dasim—one of the 5 sons of the Muslim fallen 
archangel Iblis or Eblis. Dasim is the demon of 
discord. The other 4 sons are Awar, demon of 
lubricity; Sut, demon of lies; Tir, demon of fatal 
accidents; Zalambur, demon of mercantile dis¬ 
honesty. 

Daveithe—in gnosticism, one of the 4 great 
luminaries surrounding the Self-Begotten (i.e., 
God). 

David—one of the 7 archons in gnosticism, 
according to the Catholic Encyclopedia, “Gnosti¬ 
cism.” 

Days—in the view of Theodotus, angels are 
called days. See “Excerpts of Theodotus” in the 
Ante-Nicene Fathers Library. 

Dealzhat—in Mosaic cabalistic lore, a mighty 
and secret name of God, or a great luminary whom 
Joshua invoked (along with the name of Baahando) 
to cause the sun to stand still—an incident related 
in Joshua 10:12-13. 

Degaliel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
the 3rd pentacle of the planet Venus. [Rf Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon; Shah, The Secret 
Lore of Magic, p. 49.] 

Degalim—an angelic suborder of the Song- 
Uttering Choirs, serving under Tagas. [Rf 3 
Enoch.] 



[96] DEHARHIEL / DOUTH 

Deharhiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abati), an angelic guard of the 5 th heavenly hall. 

Deheborym—in the Pirke Hechaloth, an 
angelic guard of the 1st Heaven. 

Deliel—one of the angels of the 4th chora or 
altitude invoked in magical prayer, as set forth in 
The Almadel of Solomon. Cornelius Agrippa cites 
Deliel as a governing angel of the zodiac. [ Rf. 
Three Books of Occult Philosophy III.] 

Delukiel—one of the angelic guards of the 7th 
Heaven. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim I, 119.] 

Demiurge (Demiourgos)—the gnostic writer 
Basilides called Demiurge the great archon (ruler). 
To Valentinus he was “an angel like God” and 
identified with the God of the Jews. Demiurge 
has always been identified with Mithras. A title for 
the Demiurge, “Architect of the Universe,” 
denotes or suggests that it was Demiurge, not 
God, who formed the world, at the instance of 
En Soph, the Unknowable. [Rf. Legge, Fore¬ 
runners and Rivals of Christianity, p. 107 fn.; 
Irenaeus, Contra Haereses I, 1.] In the cabala, says 
Westcott in his The Study of the Kabalah, the Greek 
Demiourgos is Metatron. 

Demon [Daimon] 

Demoniarch—a title for Satan. [Rf. Schneweis, 
Angels and Demons According to Lactantius, p. 105.] 

Deputies—in his “Of Angels, Genii, and 
Devils” Voltaire speaks of deputies as an order of 
angels, “one of 10 classes in Talmud and Targum.” 

Deputy Angels—in Jewish magic, the deputy 
angels are the tnetnunim, a class of spirits who 
appear to do the invocant’s bidding when 
properly invoked. Usually they are regarded as 
evil, but Eleazar of Worms (13th-century sage) 
insists they are holy angels. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition .] 

Deramiel—an angel serving in the 3rd Heaven, 
as cited in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Derdekea—a heavenly female power who 
descends to earth for the salvation of man. In the 
gnostic Paraphrase of Shem, Derdekea is referred 
to as the Supreme Mother. [See Drop.] 


Destroying Angel (Angel of Destruction)—a 
term for the angel of death. David met and 
appeased the destroying angel at Mt. Moriah. In 
The Book of Wisdom (ed. Reider) the destroying 
angel is Kolazonta, the “chastiser.” The Danites, 
a Christian band organized for secret assassination, 
were called “Destroying Angels.” They were 
incorrectly associated with the early Mormon 
Church. [Cf. Manoah of the Danite clan in Judges 
13 :2; Rf Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore 
and Symbols.] 

Destroying Angel of the Apocalypse— 

Abaddon or Apollyon, who is also called “chief 
of the demons of the 7th dynasty.” This is 
according to Christian demonologists, says Grillot 
in A Pictorial Anthology of Witchcraft, Magic and 
Alchemy, p. 128. 

Devatas—in Vedic lore, the devatas are 
analogous to the Judaeo-Christian angels. The 
term is often used interchangeably with the suryas 
(q.v.). 

Devil, The [Satan] 

Dey [Dai] 

Diabolus or Diabolos [Asteroth]—to Bunyan 
in his Holy War, Diabolus is the devil. His aides in 
the war against Shaddai (God) include Apollyon, 
Python, Cerberus, Legion, Lucifer, and other 
“diabolonians.” 

Dibburiel—variant form of Radueriel. [R/. 
3 Enoch, chap. 27.] 

Didnaor—an angel mentioned in The Book of 
the Angel Raziel (Sefer Raziel). 

Dina—a guardian angel of the Law (Torah) 
and of wisdom. Dina is also known as Yefefiah 
and as Iofiel). He is credited with having taught 70 
languages to souls created at the time of Creation. 
He dwells in the 7th Heaven. [R/. Revelation of 
Moses in M. Gaster, Studies and Texts in Folklore .] 

Diniel —an angel invoked in Syriac incantation 
rites. Diniel is also cited as one of the 70 childbed 
amulet angels. In The Book of Protection he is 
grouped with Michael, Prukiel, Zadikiel, and 
other “spellbinding angels” in the “binding [of] 



the tongue of the ruler.” [Rf. Budge, Amulets and 
Talismans, p. 278.] 

Dirachiel—one of the 28 angels ruling the 28 
mansions of the moon. In the view of Barrett, 
The Magus II, Dirachiel is an “extra” among the 
7 Electors of Hell. 

Dirael—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
ahah), an angelic guard of the 6th heavenly hall. 

Divine Beasts—the holy hayyoth (q.v.). 

Divine Wisdom—in the cabala, divine wis¬ 
dom or chochma is the 2nd of the holy sefiroth, 
and personified in the angel Raziel (q.v.). 

Djibril (Jibril, Gabriel)—called, in the Koran, 
the “Faithful Spirit.” 

Dobiel [Dubbiel] 

Dodekas—in Valentinian gnosticism, divine 
powers operating under the rule of Ogdoas (q.v.). 

Dohel [Boel] 

Dokiel—“the weighing angel” or, as Dokiel is 
called in The Testament of Abraham XIII, “the 
archangel who is like the sun, holding the balance 
in his hand.” The name is derived from Isaiah 
40:15: “by the dust [dk] in the balance.” 

Domedon-Doxomedon—described as the 
“aeon of aeons” and one of the Ogdoas (q.v.). 
[Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics, p. 178.] 

Domiel (Dumiel; Abir Gahidriom)—in Mer- 
kabah mysticism, a guardian angel of the 6th hall 
of the 7th Heaven. Domiel is an archon, “prince 
of majesty, fear, and trembling.” He is also a ruler 
of the 4 elements. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus ; Schwab, 
Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] As the gatekeeper of 
Hell, says Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish 
Mysticism, p. 362, Domiel is mistakenly confused 
with Duma. 

Dominations (dominions, lords, lordships)—in 
the Dionysian scheme, the dominations rank 4th 
in the celestial hierarchy. In Hebrew lore they are 
the hashmallim, according to Barrett, The Magus, 
where the chief of the order is given as Hashmal or 


...Donquel, invoked to procure women [97] 

Zadkiel. Says Dionysius: “they regulate angels’ 
duties and are perpetually aspiring to true lordship; 
through them the majesty of God is manifested.” 
The order is headed by Pi-Zeus(in horoscopy). [Cf 
Colossians 1:16: “Dominions or principalities or 
powers” and Enoch II, 20:1: “lordships and 
principalities and powers.”] In The Book of Enoch, 
lordships is given in lieu of dominions or domina¬ 
tions. Emblems of authority: sceptres, orbs. 

Dominion—the name of “the oldest angel,” 
according to Philo. [Rf Mead, Thrice-Greatest 
Hermes .] 

Domos—an angel invoked in magical opera¬ 
tions; also one of the 12 names for the Evil Eye. 
A variation of Domol. [Rf. Budge, Amulets and 
Talismans.] 

Donachiel—in occult lore, an angel invoked 
to command demons. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Donahan—in the cabala, an archangel sum¬ 
moned in magical rites. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Donel—one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Doniel—one of the 72 angel rulers of the 
zodiac. [Rf Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Donquel—a prince (angel) of love invoked to 
procure the woman of an invocant’s desire. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 301.] 

Doremiel—a Friday angel invoked from the 
north. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameroir, Barrett, 
The Magus.] 

Dormiel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
11,316.] 

Doucheil—an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf 
Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouabir .] 

Douth—one of the 9 angels that “run together 
throughout the heavenly and earthly places,” as 



DOXOMEDON / DYNAMIS 


[98] 

recorded in The Gospel of Bartholomew, p. 177, 
where the names of the 9 angels are revealed by 
Beliar to Bartholomew. 

Doxomedon —one of the great luminaries 
cited in the gnostic Revelations of Zostrian. 

Dracon —an angel of the 6th hour of the night, 
serving under Zaazonash. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton, p. 69.] 

Dragon —in Revelation 12:9, Satan is termed 
“the great dragon . . . that old serpent” who was 
“cast out into the earth,” along with the angels 
who followed him. In Psalms 91:13, “the saints 
shall trample the dragon under their feet.” 
Michael (St. Michael) is usually represented as the 
slayer of the dragon. He is thus the forerunner of 
St. George. In classical legend, the dragon guarded 
the golden apples in the garden of Hesperides. 
In gnosticism, dragon is a term for the angel of 
dawn. [Rf. Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore 
and Symbols.] 

Dramjtzod —an angel of the 6th hour of the 
night, serving under Zaazonash. 


Dramozin —an angel of the 8th hour of the 
night, serving under Narcoriel. 

Drelmeth —an angel of the 3rd hour of the 
day, serving under Veguaniel. 

Drial —one of the angelic guards stationed in 
the 5th Heaven. [Rf Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Drop —in the gnostic Berlin Codex, a female 
heavenly power who descends to earth for the 
salvation of mankind. [See Derdekea.] 

Drsmiel —an evil angel, one of the nomina 
barbara, summoned in conjuration rites for separa¬ 
ting a husband from his wife. [Rf M. Gaster, The 
Sword of Moses.] 

Dubbiel (Dubiel, Dobiel—“bear-god”)— 
guardian angel of Persia and one of the special 
accusers of Israel. It is rumored that Dubbiel once 
officiated in Heaven for 21 days as proxy for 
Gabriel when the latter (over whom Dubbiel 
scored a victory) was in temporary disgrace. [Rf 
Talmud Yoma 79a.] In the light of the legend that 
all 70 or 72 tutelary angels of nations (except 
Michael, protector of Israel) became corrupted 


Vision of the ram and the he-goat (Rf. Daniel 8) with Daniel kneeling before the angel Gabriel. 
From Strachan, Pictures from a Mediaeval Bible. [Note—The ram represents the kings of Media and 
Persia, while the he-goat represents the king of Greece.] 










[ 99 ] 



Woodcut from the Cologne Bible. Left, Michael spearing the dragon (also known as the devil 
and Satan). Center, the beast with the 7 crowned heads. Right, a beast with horns like a lamb, and 
fire dropping from heaven. Illustration for Revelation 12, 7-10 and 13, 1. From Strachan, 
Pictures from a Mediaeval Bible. 


through national bias, Dubbiel must be regarded 
corrupt and an evil angel, a demon. 

Duchiel —an angel invoked in Solomonic 
magic for commanding demons. [Rf. Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Duhael —an angel of non-Hebraic origin. \R[ 
Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 99.] 

Duma(h) or Douma (Aramaic, “silence”)— 
the angel of silence and of the stillness of death. 
Duma is also the tutelary angel of Egypt, prince 
of Hell, and angel of vindication. The Zohar 
speaks of him as having “tens of thousands of 
angels of destruction” under him, and as being 
“chief of demons in Gehinnom [i.e., Hell] with 
12,000 myriads of attendants, all charged with the 
punishment of the souls of sinners.” [Rf. Muller, 
History of Jewish Mysticism.] In the Babylonian 
legend of the descent of Istar into Hades, Duma 
shows up as the guardian of the 14th gate. [Rf. 
Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions .] Duma is a 
popular figure in Yiddish folklore. I. B. Singer’s 
Short Friday (1964), a collection of stories, men¬ 
tions Duma(h) as a “thousand-eyed angel of 
death, armed with a fiery rod or flaming sword.” 


Dumariel —an angel of the 11th hour of the 
night, serving under Dardariel. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton .] 

Dumiel [Domiel] 

Dunahel [Alimiel] 

Durba’il —in Arabic lore a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Duvdeviyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Dynamis (or Dunamis)—one of the 7 aeons 
who, as is said of Pistis Sophia, procreated the 
superior angels. In gnosticism, Dynamis is the 
chief male personification of power, just as Pistis 
Sophia is chief female personification of wisdom. 
Cf. Matthew 26:64: “Hereafter shall ye see the 
Son of man sitting on the right hand of power.” 
[See Preisendanz, Papyri Graecae Magicae II.] In 
hechaloth lore, according to Scholem in Jewish 
Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic 
Tradition, Dynamis is a secret name of Metatron. 
Steiner, The Work of the Angels in Man’s Astral 
Body, equates Dynamis with Mights. 


















The Elders in the Mystic Procession by 

Dor6. Illustration to Canto 29 of Dante’s 
Purgatorio. From Dante, The Divine Comedy, 
translated by Lawrence Grant White. 



Ea [Taurine Angel] 

Ebed —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Eblis (Iblis, Haris—“despair”)—in Persian and 
Arabic lore, Eblis is the equivalent of the Christian 
Satan. As an angel in good standing he was once 
treasurer of the heavenly Paradise, according to 
Ibn Abbas in Jung’s Fallen Angels in Jewish, Christ¬ 
ian and Mohammedan Literature. Beckford in the 
oriental romance Vathek introduces Eblis thus: 
“Before his fall he [Eblis] was called Azazel. When 
Adam wa$ created, God commanded all the angels 
to worship him [Adam], but Eblis refused.” Cf. 
Koran, sura 18; also the legend related in Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews I, 63: “Me thou hast 
created of smokeless fire, and shall I reverence a 
creature made of dust?” Thereupon God turned 
Eblis into a shetan (devil) and he became the father 
of devils. To Augustine ( Enchiridion, 28) and to 
Mohammed (in the Koran) Eblis is a jinn rather 
than an angel or a fallen angel. The Arabs have 3 
categories of spirits: angels, jinn (good and evil), 
and demons. There is a tradition that the great 


grandson of Eblis was taught by Mohammed 
certain suras of the Koran. [Rf. The Encyclopaedia 
of Islam m, 191.] 

Ebriel —the 9th of the 10 unholy sefiroth ( q.v .). 
[Rf Isaac ha-Cohen of Soria’s texts.] 

Ebuhuel— an angel of omnipotence, one of 8, as 
recorded in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 
Ebuhuel may be invoked in cabalistic conjura¬ 
tions. 

Ecanus (Elkanah)—as noted in the apocalyptic 
Esdras (IV Esdras, 14:42) Ecanus is one of 5 “men” 
(i.e., angels) who, on orders from God, transcribed 
the 94 (or 204) books dictated to them by Ezra. 
The 5 “men” were, including Ecanus, Sarea, 
Dabria, Selemia, Asiel. Some versions give Ethan 
for Ecanus. Of the books, 70 were to be kept 
hidden, “reserved for the wise among the Jews.” 
These contained esoteric knowledge; the rest were 
for public use. 

Efchal (Efchiel)—another name for the angel 
Zophiel? [See The Book of the Angel Raziel 1,42b; 
Schwab, Vocahulaire de I’Angelologie; West, “Names 


101 



[102] EFNIEL I ELDERS 

of Milton’s Angels,” in Studies in Philology XLVII, 
2 (April 1950).] 

Efniel—an angel belonging to the order of 
cherubim. In The Book of the Angel Raziel, the 
name Efniel, which occurs there, might have been 
Milton’s inspiration (says R. H. West, quoted in 
the Efchal entry) for Zephon. 

Egibiel—one of the 28 angels governing the 
28 mansions of the moon. [See Appendix for the 
names of all 28 angels.] 

Egion—in hechaloth lore ( Maasseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard of the 7th heavenly hall. 

Egoroi [Grigori] 

Egregori [Grigori] 

Egrimiel (Egrumiel)—in Pirke Hechaloth, an 
angelic guard stationed in one of the halls of the 
6th Heaven. 

Eheres—in occult lore, an angel invoked in the 
exorcism of Wax. [Rf. Clavicula Salomonis; Shah, 
Occultism, Its Theory and Practice, p. 25.] Lewis 
Spence claims that the name is “attributed to the 
Holy Spirit.” 

Eiael—an angel with dominion over occult 
sciences, longevity, etc. Eiael is also one of the 72 
angels bearing the mystical name of God Shem- 
hamphorae. His corresponding angel is Abiou. 
The sigil of Eiael is reproduced in Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, p. 294. When Eiael is conjured 
up, the invocant must recite the 4th verse of 
Psalm 36. 

Eighth Heaven—this Heaven in Hebrew is 
called Muzaloth. Enoch II says it is the home of the 
12 signs of the zodiac; but the 9th heaven is also 
given as the home of the signs. 

Eimilus—in Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron, a genius (angel) with dominion over fruit. 
He serves also as one of the genii of the 6th hour. 

Eisheth Zenunim (Isheth Zenunim)—in Zoh- 
aristic cabala, an angel of whoredom or prostitu¬ 
tion, one of the 4 mates of the evil Sammael ( q.v .). 


The other 3 angels in the profession are Lilith, 
Naamah, and Agrat bat Mahlah(t). 

Eistibus—genius of divination, one of the genii 
of the 4th hour. 

El (pi. elohim)—a term for God or angel. In 
Canaanitish epic lore, El is the angel who begot 
Shahar and Shalim by a mortal woman. 

Eladel—one of the 72 angels ruling the zodiac, 
as listed in Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah. 

El-Adrel—in Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, 
p. 248, a genius (angel) who is invoked to bring 
the invocant the music of his choice. El-Adrel is 
mentioned in the Book of Powers. 

Elamiz—an angel of the 11th hour of the night, 
serving under Dardariel. [Rf Waite, The Leme- 
geton, p. 70.] 

Elamoi—in Solomonic conjuring rites, a spirit 
invoked in prayer by the Master of the Art. [Rf. 
Grimorium Verum.J 

El Auria—angel of flame. El Auria is equated 
with Ouriel or Uriel. 

Elders—the Revelation of St. John speaks of 
24 Elders sitting on 24 thrones around the throne 
of God, clothed in white garments, “having each 
a harp and golden bowls full of incense, which are 
the prayers of the saints.” According to Charles, 
Critical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John 
(p. 130), the Elders are angels, acting as “angeli 
interpretes” to John. They constitute, Charles 
believes, “a college or order of angels,” deriving 
originally from the 24 Babylonian star-gods, and 
are the angelic representatives of the 24 priestly 
orders. In Enoch II (Slavonic Enoch), the Elders 
are to be found in the 1st of the 7 heavens. In the 
pseudepigraphical Vision of Paul the 24 Elders are 
among cherubim and archangels in Heaven, 
“singing hymns.” Dante in Purgatorio, canto 29, 
speaks of the “four and twenty elders, two-by-two, 
upon their brows crowns of fleurs-de-lis.” 
Gustave Dor£ did an engraving for The Divine 
Comedy showing the Elders in mystic procession. 
Prudentius (Latin Christian poet, 4th-5th century 



[ 103 ] 



St. John and the Twenty-four Elders in Heaven by Diirer. From Willi Kurth, The Complete 
Woodcuts of Diirer. 


























[ 104 ] ELECT ONE / ELORKHAIOS 


C.E.) describes the Elders in a poem called “Dip- 
tychon,” written to accompany paintings or 
mosaics for a church [Rf. Cockerell, Book of the 
Old Testament Illustrations]. 

Elect One, The—in Enoch I (The Book of 
Enoch), the elect one is identified as Metatron (q.v.) 
and the Son of Man, or the lord of spirits. 

Electors—in Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon, there are 7 planetary spirits or angels of 
Hell, the notion deriving from the maskim of the 
Akkadians. The 7 are: Barbiel (under the rule of 
Zaphiel), Mephistophiel (under Zadkiel), Ganael 
(under Apadiel and Camael), Aciel (under 
Raphael), Anael (under Haniel), Ariel (under 
Michael), Marbuel (under Gabriel). In the Magia 
Naturalis et lnnaturalis, the electors are fiends (not 
angels), and their names are given as: Dirachiel, 
Amnodiel, Adriel, Amudiel, Tagriel, Annixiel, 
Geliel, Eequiel. Agrippa’s list of the 7 electors, 
which more or less agrees with the list in The 
Testament of Solomon, has Bludon and Apadiel in 
place of Anael and Ganael. 

Eleinos—in gnostic lore, one of the powers or 
aeons. [Rf Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics.] 

El El—one of the angelic guards of the gates of 
the North Wind. Cited in Ozar Midrashim II, 316. 

Eleleth (Heleleth)—in the Apocryphon of John, 
one of the 4 luminaries that stand around the 
arch-aeon Autogenes. [Cf Phronesis; see Heleleth.] 

Elemiah—one of the 8 seraphim of the Tree 
of Life in the Book of Yetsirah, and an angel (one of 
72) bearing the mystical name of God Shemham- 
phorae. Elemiah rules over voyages and maritime 
expeditions. His corresponding angel is Senacher. 
For the sigil of Elemiah, see Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique, p. 260. 

Eliel (Elael)—in Montgomery’s Aramaic Incan¬ 
tation Texts from Nippur, an angel “that may be 
invoked in ritual magic.” 

Elijah (Gr. Elias—“my God is Jehovah”)—in 
the Old Testament, 2 Hebrew patriarchs were 
translated to Heaven while they were still in the 
flesh: God “took” Enoch (Genesis 5); Elijah was 


transported in a fiery chariot (II Kings 2:11). 
Enoch was transformed into the angel Metatron; 
Elijah into Sandalphon (although there is a legend 
that Elijah was an angel from the very beginning: 
“one of the greatest and mightiest of the fiery 
angel host”). Another legend relates that Elijah 
fought the angel of death, subdued him, and 
would have annihilated him but for the interven¬ 
tion of God (Who had, it seems, further use for 
the angel of death—at least, for this particular 
one). In Talmud there is a similar tale relating to 
Moses’ encounter with an angel of death—in fact, 
with several of them. Malachi 4:5 prophesies that 
Elijah would be the forerunner of the Messiah. In 
Luke, Elijah appears with Moses on the Mount of 
Transfiguration, in conversation with Jesus. In 
Heaven, according to Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, Elijah is 
the “psychopomp whose duty is to stand at the 
crossways of Paradise and guide the pious to their 
appointed places.” The hasidic Rabbi Elimelekh of 
Lizhensk (d. 1786) referred to Elijah after his 
transfiguration as the “Angel of the Covenant” 
(q.v.). In Jewish homes, at Passover festivals, the 
cup of Elijah is filled with wine, and a place is left 
vacant at the seder for him, “the expected guest.” 
[Rf Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews.] The 
British Museum, Oriental Division, owns a 
manuscript (6673) showing Elijah eating the fruit 
of the Tree of Life in Paradise, at which he is 
joined by Enoch. The drawing is reproduced in 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 277. Blake, in his 
Marriage of Heaven and Hell, pictures Elijah as a 
composite devil and angel. “I beheld the Angel 
who stretched out his arms embracing the flame 
of fire, and he was consumed and arose as Elijah. 
Blake adds a note: “This Angel, who is now 
become a Devil, is my particular friend.” 

Elilaios—in gnosticism, Elilaios is one of 7 
archons, resident of the 6th Heaven. [Rf. “Gnosti¬ 
cism,” Catholic Encyclopedia ; Doresse, The Secret 
Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Elim (‘ ‘trees”; in Hebrew, “mighty ones”)— 
the guardian angel of Libbeus the Apostle. The 
term elim also denotes a high order of angels 
(mentioned in 3 Enoch) along with the orders of 
erelim and tafsarim (q.v.). 



Elimelech (“my God is king”)—an angel of 
Summer, according to R. M. Grant, Gnosticism 
and Early Christianity, p. 43, who claims the name 
is derived from Enoch I, 82:13-20. Associated 
with the angel He’el, “leader of the heads of 
thousands.” 

Elimiel —in Jewish cabala, the angel (spirit, 
intelligence) of the moon. 

Eliphaniasai —an angel of the 3rd chora or 
altitude invoked in magical prayer, as set forth in 
The Almadel of Solomon. 

Elion or Elyon (Phoenician, “the most high”) 
—an aide to Ofaniel in the 1st Heaven. Elion is 
an angel invoked in the conjuration of the Reed; 
also a ministering angel. By invoking Elion, Moses 
was able to bring down hail on Egypt at the time 
of the plagues. Elion is also the deity of Melchi- 
zedek whom Abraham is represented to have 
identified with Yahweh (God). Cf. Genesis 14,18, 
19, 22. [Rf. Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions .] 

Elkanah [Ecanus] 

Eloa —the great (male) angel in Klopstock, The 
Messiah. In Alfred de Vigny’s poem “Eloa” (1823) 
it is the name of a female angel born of a tear shed 
by Jesus. 

Eloai —according to Origen, one of the 7 
archons in the Ophitic (gnostic) system. 

Eloeus —in Phoenician mythology, one of the 
7 elohim (angels) of the presence, builders of the 
universe. In Ophitic (gnostic) lore, he is one of 7 
potentates, rulers of the 7 Heavens, who constitute 
the Hebdomad. [Rf. Epiphanius, Penarion .] 

Elogium —an angel who rules over the month 
ofElul (September), in the Hebrew calendar. [Rf 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de I'Angelologie.] Ordinarily 
the ruling angel of September is Uriel (Zuriel). 

Eloha (pi. Elohaym or Elohim)—an angel of 
the order of powers, as named in The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses. Eloha is summoned up in 
conjuring rites by cabalists. 

Eloheij —an angel of the Seal, as cited in The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 


...Elijah, the expected guest [10 5] 

Elohi —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
fire. Elohi is 5th of the angelic hierarchies answer¬ 
ing to the 10 divine names. In Solomonic conjura¬ 
tion rites, Elohi is invoked in prayer by the Master 
of the Art. [Rf. Spence, An Encyclopaedia of 
Occultism ; Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 
According to Mathers, when the name of Elohi is 
pronounced “God will dry up the sea and the 
rivers.” 

Elohim —in Hebrew, elohim stands for Jehovah 
(YHWH) in the singular or plural. The term 
derives from the female singular “eloh” plus the 
masculine plural “im,” God thus being conceived 
originally as androgynous. In I Samuel 28:13, 
where the woman (not the witch) of Endor tells 
Saul “I saw gods [the Hebrew here gives elohim] 
ascending out of the earth,” the word would seem 
to designate spirits of the departed (from below, 
not from above) rather than God or gods. In The 
Zohar (Numbers 208b), Rabbi Isaac, commenting 
on the passage in Deuteronomy “And God 
[Elohim] came to Balaam,” says: “What we have 
learnt is that Elohim in this passage designates an 
angel, because sometimes the angel is called by the 
superior name.” In the Mirandola listing of the 
celestial hierarchy, the elohim rank 9th (where 
Dionysius gives the order as angels). In the Book 
of Formation, elohim is listed 7th of the 10 sefiroth 
and corresponds to netzach (victory). See Blake’s 
drawing, “Elohim Giving Life to Adam.” 

Eloi (Eloiein)—one of the 7 angels created by 
Ildabaoth “in his own image.” [Rf. King, The 
Gnostics and Their Remains, p. 15.] 

Eloiein (Eloi)—one of the 7 archons (celestial 
powers) in gnostic cosmology. [Rf. “Gnosticism,” 
Catholic Encyclopedia.] 

Elomeel (Ilylumiel)—in Enoch lore ( Enoch I, 
82:14), one of the leaders of the angels of the 
seasons. 

Elomnia (Elomina)—one of the 5 chief angel 
princes of the 3rd altitude. [Rf. The Almadel of 
Solomon.] 

Elorkhaios —a mysterious entity to whom the 
secrets of creation were divulged, as related in the 
gnostic Paraphrase of Shem. 



[106] ELUBATEL / ESCHIEL 

Elubatel —one of the 8 angels of omnipotence. 
Two angels of omnipotence in The Sixth 
and Seventh Books of Moses are Ebuhuel and 
Atuesuel. They are conjured in the citation of 
Leviathans. In the dismissal, each angel’s name 
“must be called 3 times toward the 4 quarters of 
the earth, and 3 times must be blown with the 
horn.” 

Emekmiyahu —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Emial —in occultism, an angel invoked in the 
exorcism of the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of So/omon.] 

Emmanuel (“God with us”)—the angel in the 
fiery furnace who appeared beside Sidras, Misac, 
and Abednego. In conjuring rites, Emmanuel is 
summoned up under the 3rd Seal. In de Vigny’s 
poem “Le Deluge,” Emmanuel is the name of an 
angel as well as the name of the son of an angel by 
a mortal woman. In the cabala, Emmanuel is a 
sefira of Malkuth (the Kingdom) in the Briatic 
world. [Rf. Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Empire —an angelic order cited in lieu of 
virtues in White, A History of the Warfare of 
Science with Theology in Christendom. 

Empyrean —in Christian angelology, the em¬ 
pyrean is the abode of God and the angels. To 
Ptolemy, it is the 5th Heaven, seat of the deity, as 
it is to Dante and Milton. 

Enediel —one of the 28 angels governing the 
28 mansions of the moon. Enediel is, specifically, 
a spirit of the 2nd day of the moon in its waning 
phase. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II; Levi, Trans¬ 
cendental Magic.] 

Eneije —in occult lore, an angel of the Seal 
invoked in magical rites. 

Enga —one of the ineffable names of God used 
in Monday conjurations addressed to Lucifer. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.] 

Enoch-Metatron —the patriarch Enoch, on 
his translation to Heaven (Genesis 5:24), became 
Metatron, one of the greatest of the hierarchs, 
“king over all the angels.” Cf. the Assyrian legend 


in the Epic of Izdubar. On earth, as a mortal, Enoch 
is said to have composed 366 books (the Enoch 
literature). Legend has it that Enoch-Metatron is 
twin-brother to Sandalphon ( q.v .); that when he 
was glorified he was given 365,000 eyes and 36 
pairs of wings. [Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews I.] The spectacular mode of Elijah’s convey¬ 
ance to Heaven, as reported in II Kings 2, had, it 
seems, an earlier parallel in the case of Enoch, for 
the latter also was whisked away “in a fiery chariot 
drawn by fiery chargers,” as related in The Legends 
of the Jews I, 130; however, a few pages farther on 
(p. 138) it transpires that it wasn’t a horse or a team 
of horses, but an angel (Anpiel) who transported 
the antediluvian patriarch from earth to Heaven. 
But that may have been on a different journey. To 
the Arabs, Enoch was Idris (Koran, sura 19, 56). 
In the Pirke Rabbi Eliezer the invention of astron¬ 
omy and arithmetic is laid to Enoch. Legend 
connects Enoch-Metatron with Behemoth. [Rf. 
Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions.] 

En Suf (Ain Soph—“the boundless”)—in the 
cabala, a name for the supreme, invisible, un¬ 
imaginable creator of the universe, the substance 
of God which became personalized in the Part- 
sufim. Cf. the Zoroastrian Zervan Akarana; the 
writings of Cordovero and Scholem. 

Entities —an order of angels in occult lore. 
These angels were sheathed in gold lame. [Rf. 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Enwo —in Mandaean lore, a spirit of one of 
the 7 planets; specifically he is the uthra (angel) of 
science and wisdom, to be compared wth Raphael 
in Judaeo-Christian angelology. 

Eoluth —a cherub or seraph used for conjuring 
by cabalists. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Eomiahe —in occult lore, an angel invoked in 
the exorcism of the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Eon [Aeon] 

Ephemerae —angels that lived only for a day 
or less, expiring right after they finished chanting 



the Te Deum. [Rf. Daniel 7:10; Talmud Hagiga 
14a.] 

Epima —the corresponding angel for Eiael 
(q.v.). 

Epinoia —in Valentinian gnosticism, the 1st 
female manifestation of God. Cf. the Shekinah, 
also Holy Ghost (the latter being regarded in some 
sources as the mother of the living, Zoe, hence 
female). [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics, p. 202.] 

Epititiokh —a virgin aeon, mentioned in 
gnostic lore. [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics, p. 178.] 

Eradin —the name of an angel invoked in 
special ceremonial rites. [Rf. Waite, The Book of 
Black Magic and of Pacts.] 

Erastiel —an angel serving in the 4th division 
of the 5th Heaven. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses, p. 139.] 

Erathaol (Erathaoth)—one of the 7 archons in 
gnostic theology. Origen (in Contra Celsum VI, 
30), drawing on Ophitic sources, lists Erathaol or 
Erathaoth, along with Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, 
Onoel, Thautabaoth, and Suriel. When invoked, 
Erathaol manifests in the form of a dog. [Rf. Mead, 
Thrice-Greatest Hemes I, 294.] 

Erathaoth [Erathaol] 

Eregbuo —corresponding angel for the angel 
Daniel (q.v.). 

Erel— the name of a holy angel or of God by 
which demons are commanded to appear in 
Solomonic conjuration rites. [Rf. Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Erel(l)im or Arelim (“the valiant ones”)— 
also called ishim; an order of angels in the celestial 
hierarchy equated with the order of thrones. The 
name is derived from Isaiah 33:7. The erelim, 
composed of white fire, are stationed in the 3rd 
(or 4th or 5th) Heaven and consist of 70,000 
myriads. In Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, 
the erelim are said to be appointed over grass, 
trees, fruit, and grain. They were pointed out to 


...Emmanuel, the angel in the fiery furnace [10 7] 

Moses by Metatron when the Lawgiver visited 
Paradise. [Rf. Revelation of Moses.] Talmud 
Kathaboth 104a speaks of the “angelic order aralim 
and the most distinguished of men being caught 
at the sacred ark,” and that “the angelic order 
prevailed, and the sacred ark was captured.” The 
erelim are “one of 10 classes of angels under the 
rulership of Michael,” according to Maseket Azilut. 
[Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Eremiel (Jerimiel, Hierimiel, Jeremiel, Remiel, 
etc.)—an angel who watches over souls in the 
underworld. In Apocalypse of Elias (ed. Steindorffj, 
Eremiel is equated with Uriel. Variants appear in 
IV Esdras and Apocalypse of Sophonias. 

Ergedial —one of the 28 angels governing the 
28 mansions of the moon. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Erionas (Erione)—in occult lore, an angel 
invoked in the exorcism of Wax. [Rf. Gollancz, 
Clavicula Salomotiis.] 

Ermosiel —an angel of the 2nd hour, serving 
under Anael. 

Ero —the corresponding angel for Haziel (q.v.). 

Erotosi —planetary genius of Mars, invoked in 
talismanic magic. [Rf. The History and Practice of 
Magic (I, 68, 317; II, 475). In hermetics, Erotosi is 
head of the order of powers. 

Ertrael —a fallen angel listed in The Book of 
Enoch. 

Erygion —the name of an angel (or of God) 
that Joshua invoked in order to gain victory over 
the Moabites. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Erzla —in the Clavicula Salomotiis, a benign 
angel invoked in conjuring rites. 

Esabiel —an angel of the order of powers; he 
is mentioned in Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Atigelo- 
logie, suppl. 

Escavor —in the Grimorium Verum, an angel 
invoked in Solomonic magical rites. 

Eschiel (Eshiel)—one of 4 angels whose names 
are inscribed on the 1st pentacle of the planet 



[108] ESCHIROS I EZRIEL 

Mars, the names of the other 3 angels being 
Ithuriel, Madiniel, and Bortzachiak (Barzachia). 

Eschiros —in the cabala, an angel of the 7 
planets invoked in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Secret 
Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Eserchie/Oriston —the name of an angel (or 
of God) invoked by Moses when the latter brought 
forth frogs in Egypt as one of the plagues (frogs 
were also brought forth by invoking the name of 
Zabaoth). [Rf. Waite, The Book of Black Magic and 
of Parts.] According to Barrett, The Magus II, the 
name of Eserchie/Oriston was invoked by Moses 
when turning the rivers of Egypt into blood. 

Eshiniel —in The Book of Protection, an angel 
invoked in Syriac spellbinding charms. 

Eshmadai —in rabbinic literature, a king of 
demons; he is compared by some with the 
Persian Aeshma Deva, by others with the Hebrew 
Shamad the Destroyer. [Rf. Bouisson, Magic, Its 
History and Principal Rites ; see Ashmedai.] 

Esor —a cherub or a seraph used by cabalists in 
conjuring rites. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses.] 

Esphares —the name of an angel or of God 
used in conjuring rites. Mentioned in The Secret 
Grimoire of Turiel. 

Espiacent —an angel used in the exorcism of 
Wax for bringing about the successful accomplish¬ 
ment of one’s work. Psalms must be cited after 
the rites of exorcism. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Estael —in black-magic lore ( The Secret Grim¬ 
oire of Turiel) Estael is an intelligence of the planet 
Jupiter. He is usually invoked in the company of 
3 other intelligences of the planet—Kadiel, 
Maltiel, and Huphatriel. 

Estes —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Eth (“time”)—an angelic power, a ministering 
angel, charged with seeing to it that “all events 
occur at their appointed time.” [R/i The Zohar 
(Miqez, 194a); see also Time.] 


Ethan [Ecanus] 

Ethnarchs —angels that exercise authority over 
nations (the tutelary angels, of which there were 
70). [See Guardian Angels; Rf. Danielou, The 
Angels and their Mission.] 

Etraphill —one of the Arabic angels who will 
sound the trumpet on the Day of Judgment. 
Etraphill is very likely a variant form for Israfel. 

Etrempsuchos (Astrompsuchos)—one of the 
celestial guardians of one of the 7 Heavens. 
Cited in the Bodleian Library Bruce Papyrus. 

Euchey —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
evil spirits through the application of incense and 
fumigation. [Rf. Grimorium Verum.] 

Eudaemon —a good spirit, a daemon. One of 
the Greek terms for angel. 

Eurabatres —an angel of the planet Venus. 
[See Iurabatres.] 

Eve [Angel of Humanity] 

Eved —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Exael —in Enoch I, an angel spoken of as the 
“10th of the great angels that taught men how to 
fabricate engines of war, works in silver and gold, 
the uses of gems and perfume,” etc. He operates 
supposedly from the nether regions. [Rf. De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Exercitus —an appellation (like Strateia, q.v) 
for an angelic host. [Rf Pesikta Rahbati XV, 69a; 
“Angelology,” in Jewish Encyclopedia.] 

Existon —an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. Existon is cited in The Greater Key of 
Solomon. 

Exousia —the Greek term for the angelic order 
translated variously as power, authority, virtue, in 
the New Testament. To Steiner ( The Work of the 
Angels in Man’s Astral Body) the exousia are 
“Spirits of Form” in the angelic hierarchy. 

Extabor —“one of the fair angels of God” 
employed in the exorcism of Wax. Extabor is 



...Eserchil, turned rivers of Egypt into blood [10 9] 


mentioned in Gollancz, Clavicula Salomonis and 
in Shah, Occultism, p. 23. 

Exterminans —the Latin name for Abaddon 
(q.v.). [Rf Confraternity (Catholic) New Testa¬ 
ment in its version of Revelation 9:11.] 

Ezeqeel (Hebrew, “strength of God”)—in 
Enoch I, a fallen angel who taught “augury from 
the clouds.” [Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews I, 125.] 

Ezgadi —an angel’s name used in conjuring 
rites for insuring the successful completion of 
journeys. Mentioned in Hechaloth Rabbati. [Rf 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de VAngelologie.] 

Ezoiil —a spirit (angel?) invoked in the exor¬ 
cism of the Water. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon.] 


Ezra —the Apocalypse of Esdras (IV Esdras), 
referring to Ezra’s translation to Heaven, there¬ 
after accounts him “the scribe of the Most High, 
for ever and ever.” Cf. Vretil, Enoch, Dabriel, all 
of whom are also accounted celestial scribes. 

Ezrael (Hebrew “help of God”)—an angel of 
wrath, as cited in the Apocalypse of Peter. In Sefer 
Gan Eden an angel is introduced “whose duty it is 
to save those of ‘middle merit’ or ‘the unstable’ 
ones from the angels of destruction; that angel is 
Ezrael (from ezra—help).” [Rf. 3 Enoch, p. 182.] 

Ezriel —an angel’s name found inscribed in an 
Aramaic amulet discovered among the recent 
Dead Sea scrolls. Ezriel is referred to as an arch¬ 
angel in Montgomery’s Aramaic Incantation Texts 
from Nippur. [Rf. Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, 
Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition.] 








Fallen Angels. A 12th-century French-Spanish 
conception, in the Bibliothique Nationale. 
Reproduced from R^gamey, Attges. 



Fabriel —an angel serving in the 4th Heaven. 
[Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.\ 

Faith —one of the 3 theological virtues (with 
hope and charity) depicted as angels by 15th- 
century Florentine masters. 

Fakr-Ed-Din (“poor one of faith”)—one of 
the 7 archangels in Yezidic religion. He is invoked 
in prayer. For the names of the other 6 Yezidic 
archangels, see Appendix. [Rf. Forlong, Encyclo¬ 
pedia of Religions.] 

Fallen Angels —the notion of fallen angels is 
not found in the Old Testament. In books like 
Job, the God-appointed adversary is ha-satan 
(meaning “the adversary” and the title of an 
office, not the designation or name of an angel). 
The possible exceptions are I Chronicles 21 and 
II Samuel 24, where Satan seems to emerge as a 
distinct personality and is identified by name; but 
scholars are inclined to believe that in these 2 
instances the definite article was inadvertently 
omitted in translation and that the original read 
“the satan,” i.e., “the adversary.” In the New 


Testament, specifically in Revelation 12, the notion 
of a fallen angel and of fallen angels is spelt out: 
“And his [the dragon’s or Satan’s] tail drew the 
third part of the stars of heaven [angels] and did 
cast them to earth .. . and Satan, which deceiveth 
the whole world; he was cast out into the earth 
and his angels were cast out with him.” Enoch I 
claims that 200 fell, naming about 19 (allowing for 
variant spellings and repetitions) and listing 
“chiefs of ten,” the most prominent among them 
being Semyaza, Azazel, Sariel, Rumiel, Danjal, 
Turel, Kokabel. In Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews I, 125, the chiefs are given as Shemhazai 
(Semyaza), Armaros, Barakel, Kawkabel (Koka¬ 
bel), Ezekeel, Arakiel, Samsaweel, Seriel. William 
Auvergne, bishop of Paris (1228-1249), in his De 
Universo, held that, of the 9 orders of angels that 
were created, a “10th part fell,” some (as Cardinal 
Pullus also claimed) from each order, and that in 
their fallen state they retained their relative rank. 
[Rf. Lea, Materials Toward a History of Witchcraft 
I, 89.] According to Cardinal Bishop of Tusculum 
(1273), reaffirmed by Alphonso de Spina (c. 1460), 
the one-third that fell totaled 133,306,668, those 


111 



[ 112 ] FAMIEL I FORFAX 

that remained loyal 266,613,336. As opposed to 
the contention that angels fell from each of the 
9 orders, an opinion backed by papal authority 
holds that only the angels of the 10th (sic) order 
fell. The question is, which of the 9 orders is the 
10th. [See Moore’s The Loves of the Angels, p. 155.] 
In this book, Moore quotes Tertullian ( De Habitu 
Mulieb ) to the effect that all the chief luxuries of 
female adornment and enticement—“the neck¬ 
laces, armlets, rouge, and the black powder for 
the eye-lashes” are to be traced to the researches 
and discoveries of the fallen angels. After the 
apostate angels fell, “the rest were confirmed in 
the perseverance of eternal beatitude,” as Isidor 
of Seville assures us in his Sententiae —although 
Bible references to God’s finding his angels (long 
after the Fall) untrustworthy point to a contrary 
conclusion. The cause of Satan’s downfall has 
commonly been attributed to the sin of pride or 
of ambition (“by that sin fell the angels”). 
Another explanation sometimes offered with 
regard to the origin of fallen angels goes back to 
Genesis 6, where the sons of God (angels) “saw 
the daughters of men ... and took them wives” 
from among them. Enoch saw 7 great stars like 
burning mountains which (so Enoch’s guide told 
him) were being punished because they failed to 
rise at the appointed time. In other early writings, 
fallen angels were said to be shooting stars. 
Aquinas identified the fallen angels with demons. 
The Christian writers of the later Middle Ages 
looked upon all heathen divinities as demons. In 
most sources, the leader of the apostates is Satan, 
but in apocryphal writings the leader has also been 
called Mastema, Beliar (Beliel), Azazel, Belzebub, 
Sammael, etc. In Mohammedan lore he is Iblis. 
In Levi 3 ( Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs) the 
fallen angels are “imprisoned in the 2nd Heaven.” 
Enoch II, 7:1 also speaks of the fallen angels in the 
2nd Heaven as “prisoners suspended [there], 
reserved for [and] awaiting the eternal judgment.” 
“In most Jewish literature,” says Caird in Principal¬ 
ities and Powers, “it was on account of mankind 
that the angels fell,” and cites the Apocalypse of 
Baruch which goes so far as to say that it was “the 
physical nature of man which not only became a 
danger to his own soul, but resulted in the fall of 


the angels.” According to legend (Budge, Amulets 
and Talismans ) the rebel angels fell for 9 days. 

Famiel —a Friday angel of the air. Famiel 
serves in the 3rd Heaven and is invoked from the 
south. 

Fanuel (Phanuel)—one of the 4 angels of the 
presence, as noted in Ezra IV, where Fanuel is said 
to be “Uriel under another aspect.” But see 
Phanuel, where he is equated with Raguel, 
Ramiel, the Shepherd of Hermes, etc. 

Farris —a governing angel of the 2nd hour of 
the night. [See Praxil.] 

Farun Faro Vakshur —in ancient Persian 
theogony, the protecting angel of mankind. Cf 
Metatron in Judaeo-Christian occult lore, where 
he is often referred to as the “sustainer of man¬ 
kind.” 

Farvardin —angel of March (in ancient Persian 
lore). Farvardin also governed the 19th day of each 
month. He is called “one of the cherubim.” 
[Rf. The Dabistan, pp. 35-36.] 

Favaahi (Pravashi, Farohars, Ferouers, Fervers, 
Farchers)—in Zoroastrianism, the celestial proto¬ 
type of all created beings, the guardian angels of 
believers. They possessed a dual character or 
nature: angels on the one hand and, on the other, 
beings with human qualities, attributes, and 
thoughts. They were the fravardin of the Zend- 
Avesta, “female genii dwelling in all things and 
protectors of mankind.” In Jacob Wassermann’s 
novel Dr. Kerkhoven, the favashi are defined as 
“part of the human soul yet independent of the 
body... not destructible like the conscience and 
the mind . . . neither are they assigned to one 
and the same body; they may find themselves 
another body, provided it belongs to the pure.” 
[Rf Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism; Heckethom, 
The Secret Societies of All Ages and Countries I, 25; 
King, The Gnostics and Their Remains. 

Feluth [Silat] 

Female Angels —in Jewish occult lore, female 
angels are rare (the Shekinah is one). In gnostic 
lore there is, pre-eminently, Pistis Sophia 



(“faith, knowledge”), a great female aeon or 
archon, or angel. In Arabic legend, female angels 
are not uncommon and were often objects of 
worship or veneration; they were called benad 
hasche, that is, daughters of God. 

Ferchers [Favashi] 

Fiery Angel [Angel of Fire] 

Fifth Heaven—the empyrean, seat of God and 
the angels—according to Ptolemy. Here “crouch 
the gigantic fallen angels in silent and everlasting 
despair,” says Graves in Hebrew Myths, p. 36. 
These were the grigori, who were in the “north¬ 
ern” regions. Elsewhere in the 5th Heaven, 
whither a spirit carried him, the prophet Zepha- 
niah beheld “angels that are called lords, and each 
of the angels had a crown upon his head as well as 
a throne shining 7 times brighter than the light 
of the sun”—quoted by Clement of Alexandria 
from the lost Apocalypse of Zephaniah. The prince 
guardian of the 5th Heaven is Shatqiel ( q.v .). In 
Islamic lore, the 5th Heaven is the “seat of Aaron 
and the Avenging Angel.” 

Fire-Speaking Angel—Hashmal. 

First Heaven, The—in Islamic lore, the abode 
of the stars, “each with its angel warder.” It is 
also the abode of Adam and Eve. 

Five Angels Who Lead the Souls of Men to 
Judgment—Arakiel, Remiel, Uriel, Samiel, Aziel 
[Rf. Sibylline Oracles II; see Angels at the End of 
the World.] 

Flaef—in the cabala, an angelic luminary con¬ 
cerned with human sexuality. [Rf. Masters, Eros and 
Evil] 

Flame of the Whirling Swords—a term 
applied to the cherubim who guarded Eden. 

Flames—an order of angels, “one of the classes 
in Talmud and Targum,” says Voltaire in his “Of 
Angels, Genii, and Devils.” Chief of the order is 
Melha who, in Buddhist theogony, is identified 
with the Judaeo-Christian angel Michael. [Cf 
chashmallim, the “scintillating flames” in Eze¬ 
kiel 4.] 


...Focalor, sinks ships and slays men [113] 

Flaming Angel, The [Angel of Fire] 

Flauros [Hauras] 

Focalor (Forcalor, Furcalor)—before he fell, 
Focalor was an angel of the order of thrones. 
This “fact” was “proved after infinite research,” 
reports Spence in An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, 
p. 119. Focalor is a mighty duke in the infernal 
regions and commands 30 legions of demonic 
spirits. His special office or mission is to sink 
ships of war and slay men. After 1,000 years (or 
1,500 years) he “hopes to return to the 7th 
Heaven,” as he confided to Solompn. When 
invoked, Focalor manifests as a man with the 
wings of a griffin. Focalor is an anagram for 
Rofocale (q.v.). For Focalor’s sigil, see Waite, 
The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, p. 178. 

Forcalor [Focalor] 

Forcas (Foras, Forras, Furcas, Fourcas)—in 
occult lore it is not indicated what rank Forcas 
once held in the angelic hierarchy, or to what 
order he belonged; but he is a fallen angel; in Hell 
he is a renowned president or duke; and here he 
devotes his time to teaching rhetoric, logic, and 
mathematics. He can render people invisible; 
he knows also how to restore lost property. De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal, calls Forcas a chevalier 
of the infernal kingdom, with 29 legions of demons 
to do his bidding. His sigil is shown in Waite, The 
Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, p. 175. [Rf Scot, 
Discoverie of Witchcraft', Wierus, Pseudo-Monarchia.] 
A Louis Breton engraving of Forcas is reproduced 
in Seligmann, The History of Magic, p. 230. 

Forces—in the view of John of Damascus, 
forces constitute an angelic order sometimes 
identified as powers, sometimes as virtues or 
authorities. John of Damascus places forces 3rd 
in the 2nd triad of the 9 choirs. Their special duty 
is or was to govern earthly affairs. 

Forerunner Angel, The [John the Baptist; 
Metatron; Shekinah] 

Forfax (Morax, Marax)—in Scot’s Discoverie of 
Witchcraft, a great earl and president of the under¬ 
world in command of 36 legions of spirits; he 



[114] FORNEUS I FUTINIEL 

gives skill in astronomy and liberal arts. He is also 
called Foraii (by Weirus). Manifests in the form of 
a heifer. His sign is reproduced in Shah, The Secret 
Lore of Magic. 

Forneus—before he fell, Forneus was of the 
order of thrones and partly also of the order of 
angels. In the underworld he is a great marquis, 
with 29 legions of infernal spirits ready to carry 
out his commands. In addition to teaching art, 
rhetoric, and all languages, he causes men to be 
loved by their enemies. The sigil of Forneus is 
shown in Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of 
Pacts, p. 174. It is said that, when he is invoked, 
Forneus manifests in the form of a sea monster. 

Fortitude—one of the cardinal virtues, de¬ 
picted by the 15th-century Florentine masters as 
an angel. 

Four Angels—Revelation 7 speaks of the 4 
angels “standing on the 4 corners of the earth, 

The Angel Fortitude. Enameled terracotta 
roundel by Luca della Robbia in the Church of 
San Miniato al Monte, Florence, 1461-1466. 
From The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 
December 1961. 



holding the 4 winds of the earth.” The angels are 
not named. [See Angels of the Four Winds.] 

Four Angels of the East—in the Clavicula 
Salomonis, the 4 angels of the east are Urzla, Zlar, 
Larzod, and Arzal. They are “benevolent and 
glorious angels” and are invoked “so that the 
invocant may partake of some of the secret 
wisdom of the Creator.” 

Four Archangels—as listed in Enoch I, the 4 
archangels are Michael, Raphael, Gabriel, Phanuel. 
In the Universal Standard Encyclopaedia the 4 are 
given as Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Suriel (the 
last name being equated with Raphael). According 
to Arabic traditional lore, the 4 are: Gabriel, 
angel of revelation; Michael, who fights the 
battle of faith; Azrael, angel of death; and Israfel, 
who will sound the trumpet at the Resurrection. 

Fourcas [Forcas] 

Four Spirits of the Heaven—angels in the 
guise of black, white, grizzled, and bay horses 
“which go forth from standing before the Lord 
of all the earth” (Zechariah 6). The horses, har¬ 
nessed to chariots, were shown to the Old Testa¬ 
ment prophet by an angel (unnamed). In rabbinic 
lore, Zechariah, 300 years before Daniel, had 
already graded angels according to rank, but did 
not name them. It is said, further, that Zechariah 
drew his inspiration for the “seven eyes of the 
Lord” (Zechariah 4) from the Parsee archangels, 
the amesha spentas. 

Fourth Angel, The—John, in Revelation 8, 
speaks of the 4th angel as one of the 7 angels of 
wrath who sound trumpets. When the trumpet 
of the 4th angel is sounded, a 3rd part of the 
sun is smitten, and a 3rd part of the moon, and a 
3rd part of the stars. 

Fourth Heaven—the abode of Shamshiel, 
Sapiel, Zagzagel, and Michael. According to 
Talmud Hagiga 12, it contained the heavenly 
Jerusalem, the temple, and the altar. Here, too, 
dwelt Sandalphon, angel of tears. [Rf. Brewer, 
Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, p. 537.] It was in the 
4th Heaven that Mohammed encountered Enoch. 
[Rf. Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 



...Fomeus, causes men to love their enemies [115] 


Fowl of Heaven [Angels of Service] 

Fraciel—a Tuesday angel of the 5th Heaven, 
invoked from the north. [Rf. de Abano, The Hep- 
tameron; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Framoch—in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel 
of the 7th hour of the night, under Mandrion. 

Francis, St. [Rhamiel; see also St. Francis] 

Fravardin [Favashi] 

Fravashi [Favashi] 

Fravishi [Favashi] 

Fremiel—in de Abano, The Heptameron and 
Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel of the 4th hour 
of the night, serving under Jefischa. 

Friagne—in occult texts generally, a Tuesday 
angel serving in the 5th Heaven and invoked 
from the east. 


Fromezin—an angel of the 2nd hour of the 
night under the command of Farris. [Rf. Waite, 
The Lemegeton.] 

Fromzon—an angel of the 3rd hour of the 
night, serving under Sarquamich. 

Fuleriel—angel of the 6th hour of the night, 
serving under Zaazonash. 

Furiel—an angel of the 3rd hour of the day, 
serving under Veguaniel. 

Furlac (Phorlakh)—in occult science, an angel 
of the earth. [Rf. Papus, Traite Tlementaire de 
Science Occulte .] 

Furmiel—an angel of the 11th hour of the day, 
serving under Bariel. 

Fustiel—an angel of the 5th hour of the day, 
serving under Sazquiel. 

Futiniel—an angel of the 5th hour of the day, 
serving under Sazquiel. 




Gabriel pictured in the “Annunciation” by 

Melozzo Da Forli (1438-1494). Reproduced from 
R6gamey, Anges. 



Gaap (Tap)—once of the order of potentates 
(powers), now a fallen angel, Gaap serves, in 
Hell, as a “great president and a mighty prince.” 
As king of the south, he rules 66 legions of infernal 
spirits. His sigil is reproduced in The Book of Black 
Magic and of Pacts, p. 176. [See also The Book of 
Ceremonial Magic and the Lesser Key of Solomon 
(the latter known also as The Lemegeton) .] Gaap is 
pictured in De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal, 1863 
ed., in the form of a human being with huge bat’s 
wings. 

Gabamiah—in Solomonic goetic rites, a great 
angel invoked by the use of the incantatory power 
of the name of the angel Uriel. [R/l Grimorium 
Verum.J 

Gabriel (“God is my strength”)—one of the 2 
highest-ranking angels in Judaeo-Christian and 
Mohammedan religious lore. He is the angel of 
annunciation, resurrection, mercy, vengeance, 
death, revelation. Apart from Michael, he is the 
only angel mentioned by name in the Old Testa¬ 
ment—unless we include among the Old Testa¬ 
ment books the Book of Tobit, usually considered 


apocryphal, in which case Raphael, who appears 
there, becomes the 3rd-named angel in Scripture 
(but see Gustav Davidson’s article “The Named 
Angels in Scripture,” wherein no less than 7 angels 
are named). Gabriel presides over Paradise, and 
although he is the ruling prince of the 1st Heaven, 
he is said to sit on the left-hand side of God (whose 
dwelling is popularly believed to be the 7th 
Heaven, or the 10th Heaven). Mohammed claimed 
it was Gabriel (Jibril in Islamic) of the “140 pairs 
of wings” who dictated to him the Koran, sura by 
sura. To the Mohammedans, Gabriel is the spirit 
of truth. In Jewish legend it was Gabriel who dealt 
death and destruction to the sinful cities of the 
plain (Sodom and Gommorah among them). And 
it was Gabriel who, according to Talmud San¬ 
hedrin 95b, smote Sennacherib’s hosts “with a 
sharpened scythe which had been ready since 
Creation.” Elsewhere in Talmud it is Gabriel who, 
it is said, prevented Queen Vashti from appearing 
naked before King Ahasuerus and his guests in 
order to bring about the election of Esther in her 
place. In Daniel 8, Daniel falls on his face before 
Gabriel to learn the meaning of the encounter 


117 



Leonardo da Vinci’s conception of Gabriel, a detail from the Annunciation, in the Utfizi 
Gallery, Florence. Reproduced from Rlgamey, Atiges. 






between the ram and the he-goat. The incident 
is pictured in a woodcut in the famous Cologne 
Bible. Cabalists identify Gabriel as “the man 
clothed in linen” (Exekiel 9, 10 ff.). In Daniel 10- 
11 this man clothed in linen is helped by Michael. 
In rabbinic literature, Gabriel is the prince of 
justice [Rf. Cordovero, Palm Tree of Deborah, 
p. 56.] Origen in De Principiis I, 81, calls Gabriel 
the angel of war. Jerome equates Gabriel with 
Hamon (q. v.). According to Milton (Paradise Lost 
IV, 549) Gabriel is chief of the angelic guards 
placed over Paradise. As for the incident of the 3 
holy men (Hananiah, Mishael, Azariah) who were 
rescued from the furnace, it was Gabriel, according 
to Jewish legend, who performed this miracle. 
Other sources credit Michael. Gabriel is likewise 
identified as the man-God-angel who wrestled 
with Jacob at Peniel, although Michael, Uriel, 
Metatron, Samael, and Chamuel have also been 
put forward as “the dark antagonist.” Rembrandt 
did a canvas of the celebrated encounter. A Mo¬ 
hammedan legend, growing out of the Koran, 
sura 20, 88, relates that when the dust from the 
hoofprints of Gabriel’s horse was thrown into 
the mouth of the Golden Calf, the Calf at once 
became animated. According to the Encyclopaedia 
of Islam I, 502, Mohammed confused Gabriel 
with the Holy Ghost—a confusion understand¬ 
able or explainable by virtue of the conflicting 
accounts in Matthew 1:20 and Luke 1:26 where, 
in the 1 st instance, it is the Holy Ghost that begets 
Mary with Child and, in the 2nd instance, it is 
Gabriel who “came in unto her,” and also then 
informs her that she “had found favor with the 
Lord” and “would conceive in her womb.” 
In Bamberger’s Fallen Angels, p. 109, quoting a 
Babylonian legend, Gabriel once fell into disgrace 
“for not obeying a command exactly as given, 
and remained for a while outside the heavenly 
Curtain.” During this period the guardian angel 
of Persia, Dobiel, acted as Gabriel’s proxy. The 
name Gabriel is of Chaldean origin and was 
unknown to the Jews prior to the Captivity. 
In the original listing of 119 angels of the Parsees, 
Gabriel’s name is missing. Gabriel is the preceptor 
angel of Joseph. In Midrash Eleh Ezkerah, Gabriel 
figures in the tale of the legendary 10 Martyrs 


...Gabriel, inspired Joan of Arc [119] 

(Jewish sages). One of these 10, Rabbi Ishmael 
ascends to Heaven and asks Gabriel why they 
merit death. Gabriel replies that they are atoning 
for the sin of the 10 sons of Jacob who sold 
Joseph into slavery. According to the court 
testimony of Joan of Arc, it was Gabriel who 
inspired her to go to the succor of the King of 
France. In more recent times, Gabriel figures as 
the angel who visited Father George Rapp, leader 
of the 2nd Advent community in New Harmony, 
Indiana, and left his footprint on a limestone slab 
preserved in the yard of the Maclure-Owen 
residence in that city. Longfellow’s The Golden 
Legend makes Gabriel the angel of the moon who 
brings man the gift of hope. There are innumer¬ 
able paintings by the masters of the Annunciation 
with Gabriel pictured as the angel who brings the 
glad tidings to Mary. Word-pictures of the event, 
in rhyme, are rare. One of these is by the 17th- 
century English poet, Richard Crashaw. The 
quatrain is from Steps to the Temple: “Heavens 
Golden-winged Herald, late hee saw /To a poor 
Galilean virgin sent./How low the Bright Youth 
bow’d, and with what awe/Immortall flowers to 
her faire hand present.” 

Gabuthelon—an angel whose name was re¬ 
vealed to Esdras as among the 9 who will govern 
“at the end of the world.” Apart from Gabuthelon, 
the others are: Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, 
and Aker, Arphugitonos, Beburos, Zebuleon. 
[See Revelation of Esdras in the Ante-Nicene Fathers 
Library VIII, 573.] 

Gadal—an angel invoked in magic rites, accord¬ 
ing to Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 155. 

Gadamel [Hagiel] 

Gader—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 4th heavenly 
hall. 

Gadiel—a “most holy angel” invoked in 
goetic operations, as directed in Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon. Gadiel is a resident of the 
5th Heaven. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] In Ozar Midrashim II, 316, Gadiel is one 
of numerous angelic guards of the gates of the 



GADREEL / GAURIIL ISHLIHA 


[ 120 ] 

South Wind. The fact that Gadiel’s name is found 
inscribed on an oriental charm ( kamea ) suggests 
that he must have been regarded as a power to 
protect the wearer against evil. [Rf. Schrire, 
Hebrew Amulets.\ 

Gadreel (Gadriel—Aramaic, “God is my 
helper”)—one of the fallen angels in Enoch lore. 
It was Gadreel who, reputedly, led Eve astray— 
which, if true, would make Gadreel rather than 
Satan the talking serpent and seducer in the Garden 
of Eden. Like Azazel, Gadreel made man familiar 
with the weapons of war ( Enoch I, 69, 6). The 
IV Book of Maccabees refers to the seduction of 
Eve, but speaks of her as protesting that “no false 
beguiling serpent” sullied “the purity of my maid¬ 
enhood.” Gadreel is not mentioned by name in this 
source. 

Gadriel —chief ruling angel of the 5th Heaven 
in charge of wars among nations. [See Gadreel.] 
When a prayer ascends to Heaven, Gadriel crowns 
it, then accompanies it to the 6th Heaven. [Rf. 
The Zohar (Exodus 202a).] Sandalphon, another 
great angel, is also said to crown prayers for trans¬ 
mission—not, however, from heaven to heaven, 
but direct from man to God. 

Ga’ga —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 7th heavenly hall. 

Gaghiel —an angelic guard of the 6th Heaven. 
[Rf Ozar Midrashim 1,116.] 

Galdel —a Tuesday angel resident of the 5th 
Heaven; he is to be invoked from the south. 
[Rf de Abano, The Heptameron ; Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Galearii (“army servants”)—according to the 
Jewish Encyclopedia, “Angelology,” the galearii 
are angels of the lowest rank. [Rf Friedmann, 
Pesikta Rabbati V, 45b and XV, 69a.] 

Gale Raziya —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Galgaliel (Galgliel)—with Raphael, Galgaliel 
serves as a chief angel of the sun. He is also 
credited with being the angel governing the wheel 


of the sun, and as the eponymous head of the 
order of galgallim. 

Galgal(l)im (“spheres”)—a superior order of 
angels of a rank equal to the seraphim. The gal¬ 
gallim are called “the wheels of the Merkabah” 
(i.e., chariots of God) and are equated with the 
ophanim ( q.v .). There are 8 ruling angels in the 
order, with Galgaliel or Rikbiel generally desig¬ 
nated as chief. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth ; Odeberg, 
3 Enoch.] The galgallim share with the other 
Merkabah angels in the performance of the 
Celestial Song. 

Galgliel [Galgaliel] 

Galiel—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Galizur (Hebrew, “revealer of the rock”— 
Gallitzur, Gallizur, Raziel, Raguil, Akrasiel)— 
one of the great angels in Talmudic lore whom 
Moses encountered in Heaven, as related by Simon 
ben Lakish. It was Galizur, “surnamed Raziel,” 
who is reputed to have given Adam The Book 
of the Angel Raziel (but see Rahab). He is a 
ruling prince of the 2nd Heaven and an expounder 
of the Torah’s divine wisdom. “He spreads his 
wings over the hayyoth lest their fiery breath 
consume the ministering angels.” (The hayyoth 
are the holy beasts who “uphold the universe.”) 
[Rf. Pirke Rabbi Eliezer ; Pesikta Rabbati .] 

Gallizur [Galizur] 

Galmon—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard stationedat the4thheavenly 
hall. 

Gamaliel (Hebrew, “recompense of God”)— 
in the cabala and gnostic writings, one of the great 
aeons or luminaries, a beneficent spirit associated 
with Gabriel, Abraxas, Mikhar, and Samlo. 
However, Levi in his Philosophic Occulte rates 
Gamaliel as evil, “an adversary of the cherubim” 
serving under Lilith (who is the demon of de¬ 
bauchery). In the Revelation of Adam to His Son 
Seth (a Coptic apocalypse), Gamaliel is one of the 
high, holy, celestial powers whose mission is “to 
draw the elect up to Heaven.” 



Gambiel—ruler of the zodiacal sign of Aquar¬ 
ius, as cited in Camfield, A Theological Discourse of 
Angels. He is mentioned also in The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses as a zodiacal angel. 

Gambriel—one of the guardian angels of the 
5th Heaven. [Rf Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Gamerin—in ceremonial magical rites, an angel 
called in for special service, according to Waite, 
The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 160, quoting 
from the Grimorium Verum. The name Gamerin 
should be engraved on the Sword of the Art, 
before the start of the conjuring rite. 

Gamidoi—a “most holy angel” invoked in 
magical operations, as directed in Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon. 

Gamiel—supreme ruling angel of the 1st hour 
of the night, according to Waite, The Lemegeton. 

Garnorin Debabim (Gamerin)—an angel 
invoked in the conjuration of the Sword. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Gamrial—one of the 64 angel wardens of the 
7 celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Gamsiel—angel of the 8th hour c f the night, 
serving under Narcoriel. 

Ganael—one of the 7 planetary rulers (Electors) 
serving under the joint rule of the angels Apudiel 
and Camael. [Rf. Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon.] 

Gardon—an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt, according to Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon. 

Garfial (Garfiel)—one of the guardians of the 
5th Heaven. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Gargatel—one of the 3 angels of the summer; 
he acts in association with Tariel and Gaviel. 
[Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Gariel—an angel of the order of shinanim, 
according to Hayim Haziz, “The Seraph,” The 
Literary Review, Spring 1958. In Hechaloth Rahhati, 
Gariel is an angelic guard of the 5th Heaven. 


...Galgaliel, a chief angel of the sun [121] 

Garshanel —an angelic name found inscribed 
on an oriental charm (kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Garthiel —chief officer angel of the 1st hour of 
the night, serving under Gamiel. [&/! Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Garzanal —an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental charm (kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Gaspard —a spirit invoked in Solomonic 
magical rites to procure to the invocant a lady’s 
garter. [Rf. Grimorium Verum; Shah, The Secret 
Lore of Magic.] 

Gastrion —an angel of the 8th hour of the 
night, serving under Narcoriel. 

Gat(h)iel —one of the angelic guards of the 
5th Heaven. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim I, 116.] 

Gauriil Ishliha —a Talmudic angel who pre¬ 
sides over the east. [Cf. Gazardiel.] His duty is to see 
to it that the sun rises every morning at the right 

A Syriac amulet. Gabriel on a white horse 

spearing the body of the devil-woman (evil eye). 

British Museum Ms. Orient, No. 6673. Repro¬ 
duced from Budge, Amulets and Talismans. 













[122] GAVIEL I GENIUS 

time. Gauriil also appears in Mandaean lore and 
corresponds to the Zoroastrian Sraosha or to the 
Hebrew Gabriel. 

Gaviel—with Gargatel and Tariel, Gaviel 
serves as one of the 3 angels of the summer. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II; de Abano, The Heptameron .] 

Gavreel (Gavriel)—a variant for Gabriel used 
by the Ethiopian Hebrew Rabbinical College of 
the Black Jews of Harlem (New York). To this 
sect there are 4 cardinal angels (of whom Gavreel 
is one) and they are to be invoked for the curing 
of disease, the restoring of sight, turning enemies 
into friends, and “keeping the invocant from going 
crazy in the night.” The other 3 cardinal angels 
are Micharel (for Michael), Owreel (for Uriel), 
and Rafarel (for Raphael). [R/. Brotz, The Black 
Jews of Harlem, pp. 32-33.] In Ozar Midrashim 
Gavreel is one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the East Wind. In hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh 
Merkahah), he is an angelic guard stationed either 
at the 2nd or 4th heavenly hall. 

Gazardiel (Casardia, Gazardiya)—chief angelic 
supervisor of the east. Gazardiel “kisses the prayers 
of the faithful and conveys them to the supernal 
firmament,” as related in The Zohar. Hyde 
mentions Gazardiel in Historia Religionis Veterum 
Persarum. In De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal, 
Gazardiel is a Talmudic angel charged with the 
rising and setting of the sun. Regamey in What 
Is An Angel?, speaking of “later Judaism teaching 
the names of the angels of the elements,” refers to 
Casardia (i.e., Gazardiel) as having to “see to it 
that the sun rose every day at the right time and 
set at the right time.” 

Gazarniel—an angel of “flame of fire” who 
sought to oppose and wound Moses at the time 
that the Lawgiver visited Heaven. Moses routed 
Gazarniel, we are told, “by pronouncing the 
Holy Name consisting of 12 letters.” (Note: the 
only reference so far come upon to Gazarniel is 
in Raskin, Kabbalah, Book of Creation, Zohar. 
Mr. Raskin may have intended Hadraniel, and 72 
letters rather than 12.) 

Gazriel—one of 70 childbed amulet angels. [See 
Appendix.] 


Gdiel [Gediel] 

Geal—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 5th heavenly hall. 

Gebiel—an angel of the 4th altitude. [Rf 
Waite, The Almadel of Solomon .] 

Gebril—an angel invoked in conjuring rites. 
[Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Geburael (Geburah)—a sefira of the Briatic 
world who figures frequently in cabalistic con¬ 
juring operations. In The Ancient’s Book of Magic, 
Geburah or Geburael (meaning strength) is 
equated with Gamaliel and it is said that the in¬ 
fluence of Elohi (God) “penetrates the angel 
Geburah (or Gamaliel) and descends through the 
sphere of [the planet] Mars.” For additional facts 
about this angel, see Geburah. 

Geburah or Geburael (“divine power or 
strength”)—an angel who is the upholder of the 
left hand of God. In occult works, Geburah is 
usually listed as 5th of the 10 holy sefiroth (divine 
emanations). He is also of the order of seraphim. 
Identified variously as Gemaliel, Khamael (Cam- 
ael) and, in Isaac ha-Cohen of Soria’s text, as 
Geviririon. 

Geburathiel—the angel of geburah. In 3 
Enoch (the Hebrew Enoch), Geburat(h)iel is one 
of the great angel princes representing “the divine 
strength, might, and power.” He is the chief 
steward of the 4th hall in the 7th Heaven. 

Gedael (Giadaiyal, “fortune of God”)—in 
Enoch I Gedael is an angel of one of the seasons. 
Cornelius Agrippa cites Gedael (Gediel) as a 
governing angel of the zodiac. [R.f. Cornelius 
Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy III.] 

Gedariah—a supervising chief sar (angel) of the 
3rd Heaven, as noted in The Zohar. Gedariah 
ministers 3 times a day; he bows to prayers as¬ 
cending from the 2nd Heaven, crowns such 
prayers, then transmits them for further ascent. 

Gedemel—a spirit of Venus, of which planet 
the angel Hagiel is the presiding intelligence, 
according to Paracelsus in his doctrine of Talis- 




Musical angels by Hans Memling (c. 1490). 

Reproduced from E. H. Gombrich, The Story of 

Art. New York: Oxford University Press, 1951. 

mans. [Rf. Christian, The History and Practice of 
Magic l, 315.] 

Gediel (Gdiel) —in The Almadel of Solomon, 
Gediel is one of the chief princes in the 4th 
chora or altitude. In The Book of the Angel Raziel, 
Gediel figures as one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels; he is also, in occult lore, an angel of the 
zodiac. 

Gedobonai —an angel of the 3rd chora or alti¬ 
tude invoked in magical prayer, as set forth in 
The Almadel of Solomon. 

Gedudiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Gedudim —a class of angels of the Song- 
Uttering Choirs under the leadership of Tagas. 
[Rf. 3Enoch.] 

Gedulael —one of the sefiroth (divine emana¬ 
tions) invoked in cabalistic rites. [Rf. Levi, 
Transcendental Magic.] 


Gavreel, keeps invocantfrom going crazy [12 3] 

Gehatsitsa —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah ), an angelic guard stationed at the 5th 
heavenly hall. 

Gehegiel —an angelic guard of the 6th Heaven. 
[Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Gehirael —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th heavenly 
hall. 

Gehorey —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th heavenly 
hall. 

Gehoriel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 1st heavenly 
hall. 

Gehuel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh . Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Geliel —one of the 28 angels who govern the 
28 mansions of the moon. 

Gelomiros —an angel of the 3rd chora or alti¬ 
tude invoked in magical prayer, as set forth in 
The Almadel of Solomon. 

Geminiel —one of the governing angels of the 
zodiac. [Rf. Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of 
Occult Philosophy, III.] 

Gemmut —in Pistis Sophia, a Coptic work, 
Gemmut is an archon who serves under the ruler- 
ship of Kalapatauroth (who causes all aeons and all 
destinies to revolve). 

Genaritzod —a chief officer-angel of the 7th 
hour of the night, serving under Mendrion. [Rf. 
Waite, The Lemegeton, 69.] 

Genii of Fire —in occultism, there are 3 genii 
of fire: Anael, king of astral light; Michael, king 
of the sun; and Sammael, king of volcanoes. [Rf. 
Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore and 
Symbols.] 

Genius (pi. genii)—another name for angel or 
spirit or intelligence. [Cf. Blake: “the forms of all 
things are derived from their Genius, which by 
the Ancients was call’d an Angel & Spirit & 




[124] GENIUS: BESTIAL LOVE / GREAT AND WONDERFUL 


Demon”; Rf. Blake, All Religions Are One, 
First Principle.] Paul Christian in The History 
and Practice of Magic I, 303, says: “the genii of the 
orient [were] the originals of the Christian angels.” 
Athanasius Kircher, 17th-century Jesuit, in his 
voyage to the planets, accompanied by the genius 
Cosmiel, finds the genii (whom he dubs “sinister”) 
inhabiting the planet Saturn. According to 
Kircher, the genii “administer divine justice to the 
wicked, and suffering to the righteous.” 

Genius of Bestial Love [Schiekron] 

Genius of the Contretemps [Angel of the 
Odd] 

Geno—an angel of the order of powers. [Rf. 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Genon—an angel of the 2nd chora or altitude 
invoked in magical prayer. [R/ The Almadel of 
Solomon .] 

Gereimon—like Genon, an angel of the 2nd 
chora. 

Gergot—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Germael (“majesty of God”)—an angel sent 
by God to create Adam from the dust—a mission 
also ascribed to Gabriel. [Rf Falasha Anthology.] 

Geron—like Genon and Gereimon ( q.v .), one 
of the angels of the 2nd chora or altitude invoked 
in magical prayer. 

Geroskesufael—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh 
Merkabah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Gerviel (Cerviel)—in Jewish cabala, the pre¬ 
ceptor angel of King David. [Rf Clayton, 
Angelology .] As Cerviel, this angel is chief of the 
order of principalities (elohim), sharing the post 
with Haniel, Nisroc, and others. 

Gethel (Ingethel)—an angel set over hidden 
things. According to The Biblical Antiquities of 
Philo, Gethel was the angel who smote the Amor- 
ites with blindness in their battle with Cenez. 


Gethel was assisted by Zeruel, another angel sent 
by God against the Amorites. 

Geviririon—an angel symbolizing or personi- 
fying geburah (fear or strength). Geviririon ranks 
5th of the 10 holy sefiroth. 

Geviriyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Gezardiya [Gazardiel] 

Gezuriya—in Malache Elyon, an angel of the 
order of powers; he is a guard of one of the celes¬ 
tial halls (hechaloth) and ruler over 6 other angels, 
among them the angel of the sun, Gazardiya. 

Gheoriah—an angel’s name inscribed on the 3rd 
pentacle of the planet Mercury. [Rf Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Giant Angels—the great demons are so called 
by Milton in Paradise Lost VII, 605. 

Giatiyah—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Gibborim (“mighty ones”)—an order of angels 
of the Song-Uttering Choirs under the leadership 
of Tagas. “They are the mighty ones... men of 
name” (Genesis 6). According to The Zohar I, 
25a-b, the gibborim “erect synagogues and col¬ 
leges, and place in them scrolls of the law with 
rich ornaments, but only to make themselves a 
name.” If that is so, then the gibborim must be 
regarded as evil, and they usually are so regarded. 

Gidaijal (Gedael—“fortune of God”)—a lumi¬ 
nary of the seasons, as listed in Enoch I. He is 
among the leaders of “heads of thousands.” 

Giel—in ceremonial magic, the angel with 
dominion over the zodiacal sign of Gemini 
(the Twins). 

Gippuyel—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. [Rf. 3 Enoch, chap. 48.] 

Glarai—an angel of the 1st hour of the night, 
serving under Gamiel. 

Glauron or Glaura—a beneficent spirit of the 
air, invoked from the north. He is mentioned in 
Scot, Discoverie of Witchcraft. 



Glmarij—an angel of the 3rd hour of the day, 
serving under Veguaniel. 

Glorious Ones—a term for the highest order 
of archangels. [Rf. Enoch II; Slavonic Encyclopedia.] 

Glory of God—according to the 11th—12th 
century Jewish poet and sage Judah ha-Levi, 
“glory of God” is a term which “denotes the 
whole class of angels, together with their spiritual 
instruments—the thrones, chariots, firmament, 
ophanim, and the spheres (galgalim).” [Rf. 
Abelson, Jewish Mysticism, p. 64.] 

Gmial—one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Goap—formerly an angel of the order of 
powers; now fallen and in Hell. Goap is one of the 
infernal regions’ 11 presidents. He is also known 
as Gaap and Tap. [Rf. Scot, Discoverie of Witch¬ 
craft; Waite, The Lemegeton .] That Goap was once 
of the order of powers "was proved after infinite 
research,” reports Spence, An Encyclopaedia of 
Occultism. According to demonologists, Goap was 
“prince of the west.” 

God of this Age (or God of This World)—see 
II Corinthians 4, “in whom the god of this world 
hath blinded the minds of them which believe 
not,” etc. Here Paul has in mind Satan, chief of 
the fallen angels. 

Gog and Magog—in the grimoires of Honorius 
III, ineffable names of God used to command 
spirits. “The unexpected appearance of Gog and 
Magog amongst the other holy names of God must 
be put down,” says Butler, Ritual Magic, “to the 
ignorance of Honorius.” The Koran ( sura 18, 95) 
mentions Gog and Magog as “spoiling the land.” 

Golab (“incendiaries”)—one of the adversaries 
of the seraphim, one of the 10 unholy sefiroth 
“whose cortex is Usiel.” Golab has also been 
denoted a spirit of wrath and sedition, operating 
under his chief, “Sammael the Black.” [Rf. Levi, 
Philosophic Occulte; Waite, The Holy Kabbalah, 
P- 237.] 

Golandes—an angel invoked in the exorcism 
of Wax, according to Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon. 


...Golub, spirit of wrath and sedition [12 5] 

Gonael—one of numerous guards of the gates 
of the North Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Gonfalons—an order of angels in the celestial 
hierarchy, according to Milton, Paradise Lost V, 
590-591. In the latter book, the angel Raphael 
speaks of “Standards and Gonfalons” who “for the 
distinction serve/Of hierarchies, of Orders, and 
Degrees.” 

Good Daimon—the “aeon of the aeons,” a 
term applied to Thoth in Hermetic theology. [Rf. 
Thrice-Greatest Hermes 1,280.] 

Gorfiniel—an angelic guard of the 7th Heaven, 
as listed in Ozar Midrashim 1,119. 

Gorson or Gorsou [Gurson] 

Governments—in the Apocalypse of the Holy 
Mother of God, governments is an order of angels 
mentioned along with thrones, lordships, authori¬ 
ties, archangels, etc. 

Gradhiel [Gradiel] 

Gradiel (Gradhiel, Graphiel—“might of God”) 
—the intelligence (angel) of the planet Mars when 
this luminary enters the signs of the Ram and 
Scorpio. Gradiel’s corresponding angel (for Mars) 
is Bartyabel ( q.v.). 

Graniel—an angel of the 2nd hour, serving 
under Anael. 

Granozin—an angel of the 2nd hour of the 
night, serving under Farris. 

Graphathas—“one of the 9 angels that run 
together throughout the heavenly and earthly 
places,” as certified in the Gospel of Bartholomew, 
p. 177, where the names of the 9 angels are re¬ 
vealed by Beliar to Bartholomew. 

Graphiel (Gradiel)—a spirit in cabalistic 
enumerations answering to Gabriel, according to 
Forlong, Encyclopedia of Religions. 

Grasgarben—with Hadakiel, Grasgarben gov¬ 
erns the sign of Libra. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental 
Magic.] 

Great and Wonderful—when Michael came 



[ 126 ] GRIAL j GUARDIAN ANGELS 



“Guardian Angels” by Georges Rouault. Reproduced from Regamey, Anges. 


to announce to Mary her impending death, the 
Virgin is said to have asked the archangel who he 
was, and that he answered, “My name is Great and 
Wonderful.” The legend is retold in Clement, 
Angels in Art, where there is a reproduction of Fra 
Filippo Lippi’s painting, depicting the scene. 

Grial (Griel)—a guardian angel of the 5th 


Heaven; also one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
[Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Griel [see Grial] 

Grigori (egoroi, egregori, “watchers”)—in 
Jewish legendary lore, the grigori are a superior 
order of angels in both the 2nd and 5th Heavens 
(depending on whether they are the holy or 





...Grigori, taller than giants and eternally silent [12 7 ] 


unholy ones). They resemble men in appearance, 
but are taller than giants, and are eternally silent. 
Ruling prince of the order is Salamiel “who re¬ 
jected the Lord” ( Enoch II). [Rf Testament of Levi 
(in the Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs) ; Talmud 
Hagiga.] 

Guabarel —angel of autumn. In addition to 
Guabarel, another angel cited in occult lore as 
governing autumn is Tarquam ( q.v .). 

Guael (Guel)—an angel of the 5th Heaven 
ruling on Tuesday. Guael is invoked from the 
east. 

Guardian Angels of Adam and Eve —our 

1st parents had 2 guardian angels, according to 
The Book of Adam and Eve, and these were of the 
order of virtues, says Ginzberg. [Rf. Charles, 
Apocrypha and Pseudcpiqrapha of the Old Testament, 
P-142.] 

Guardian Angel of Barcelona —an unnamed 
angel who visited St. Vincent Ferrer. The angel 
never actually protected the city since it was 


frequently captured. There is a statue of this 
guardian angel in Barcelona, [i^. Brewer, A 
Dictionary of Miracles, p. 504.] 

Guardian Angel of the Earth —originally 
Satan, according to Irenaeus, Athenagoras, Metho¬ 
dius of Philippi, and other early Church Fathers. 

Guardian Angel of France [Hakamiah] 

Guardian Angel of Heaven and Earth —in 

the Islamic scheme of 7 Heavens, the Guardian 
Angel of Heaven and Earth dwells in the 6th 
Heaven. He has not been identified by name but 
is described as being composed of snow and fire. 

Guardian Angels —of a class with national 
(tutelary) or ministering angels. In the cabala, there 
are 4 ruling princes of the order: Uriel, Raphael 
Gabriel, Michael. There are also 70 guardian 
angels of nations, one in charge of each state. [Rf. 
Ecclesiasticus .] This was the doctrine of St. Basil of 
Caesarea and other doctors of the Church. Ac¬ 
cording to Buber, in the glossary to his Tales of 
the Hasidim Early Masters, these 70 tutelary princes 


“The Angel Gabriel Appearing to Mohammed.” From the Ms. of Jami'al-Tawarikh, at the 
University of Edinburgh. 








[128] GUARDS / GZREL 

of nations “are either angels or demons.” It 
would be more conformable to rabbinic tradi¬ 
tion to say that the 70 started out as angels, but 
became corrupted through national bias and are 
now demons—with the sole exception of Michael, 
sar of Israel, whose bias was excusable or even 
justified, since he espoused the cause of the “cho¬ 
sen people.” It is said that every human being is 
assigned at birth to one or more guardian angels. 
Talmud indeed speaks of every Jew being attended 
throughout his life by 11,000 guardian angels; 
also that “every blade of grass has over it an angel 
saying ‘grow.’ ” That every child has its protecting 
spirit is adduced from Matthew 18:10 where Jesus 
bids his disciples not to despise the little ones and 
speaks of their “angels in heaven.” According to 
Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old 
Testament, the earliest reference to a belief in 
guardian angels, in noncanonical lore, is to be 
found in The Book of Jubilees, 35:17. Another 
early source might be cited: The Biblical Antiquities 
of Philo, the writing of which is said to date back 
to the 1st century c.e. In Athanasius Kircher’s 
account of his voyage to the planets, “the guardian 
angels of all the virtues” are found inhabiting “the 
Elysian shores of the planet Jupiter.” [Rf Kircher, 
Oedipus Aegyptiacus .] The liturgical feast of the 
Holy Guardian Angels, in Catholic observances, 
occurs on October 2. [Note: Of the 70 tutelary 
angels, only those of 4 nations are named in 
rabbinic writings: Dobiel for Persia; Samael for 
Rome (Edom); Rahab, Uzza, Duma, and/or 
Semyaza for Egypt; and Michael for Israel.] 

Guards—an order of the celestial hierarchy 
mentioned in Paradise Lost IV, 550; XII, 590, 
where the guards, earlier referred to as powers 
and equated likewise with the cherubim, are under 
the command of Michael. Alfred de Vigny 
mentions the order of guards in his poem “Eloa.” 
[Rf. West, Milton and the Angels.] 

Guel (Guael)—an angel of the 5th Heaven 
ruling on Tuesday and invoked from the east. 


No doubt the same as Guael. [Rf Barrett, The 
Magus II, 119.] 

Gulacoc—an angel of the Seal, used for con¬ 
juring. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Gulhab—5th of the 10 unholy sefiroth, as 
noted in Moses de Burgos’ text. For a list of the 
sefiroth, see Appendix. 

Gurid—a summer equinox angel, effective 
when invoked as an amulet against the evil eye. 
[Rf Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition .] 

Guriel (“whelp of God”)—one of the angels 
ruling the zodiacal sign of Leo. [Rf Trachten¬ 
berg, Jewish Magic and Superstition .] 

Gurson (Gorson or Gorsou)—one of the routed 
forces under Lucifer, now serving in the nether 
regions as king of the south. [Rf Spence, An 
Encyclopaedia of Occultism, p. 119.] 

Guth—one of the angelic .aiers of the planet 
Jupiter. [Rf Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed 
Angels, p. 215.] 

Gutrix—in occultism, a Thursday angel of the 
air, ministering to Suth, chief of these angels, 
all of whom are subject in turn to the South 
Wind. Acting with Gutrix is Maguth, who like¬ 
wise ministers to Suth. [Rf The Ancient’s Book of 
Magic; de Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, The 
Magus II, 122; Shah, Occultism, 52.] 

Guziel—in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, an 
evil angel summoned in incantation rites against 
an enemy. 

Gvurtial—an angelic guard of one of the great 
halls (or palaces) of the 4th Heaven. [Rf Pirke 
Hechaloth .] 

Gzrel—in Tracthenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition, an angel invoked to countermand 
evil decrees. The word Gzrel is part of a 42-letter 
name for God. 





Hand of an angel by Botticelli. Detail from 
the Magnificat, in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. 
Reproduced from Regamey, Anges. 



Haael —one of the 72 angels of the zodiac. 

Haaiah —an angel of the order of dominations. 
Haaiah rules over diplomacy and ambassadors, 
and is one of the 72 angels bearing the name of 
God Shcmhamphorae. Haaiah’s sigil is reproduced 
in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 273. 

Haamiah —an angel of the order of powers. 
Haamiah dominates religious cults and “protects 
all those who seek the truth.” His corresponding 
angel (in the cabala) is Serucuth. For Haamiah’s 
sigil, see Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 281. 

Haarez —an angel of the Seal, as noted in The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Haatan —a genius who conceals treasures, 
according to Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron. 

Habbiel (Habiel)—a Monday angel of the 1st 
Heaven, invoked in love charms. [Rf. de Abano, 
The Heptameron ; M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Haborym [Raum] 

Habriel —an angel of the order of powers, 


summoned in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Habudiel —in occultism, an angel of the Lord’s 
Day, resident of the 4th Heaven. He is invoked 
from the south. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron.] 

Habu(h)iah —an angel who exercises dominion 
over agriculture and fecundity. Habuhiah is one 
of the 72 angels bearing the name of God Shem- 
hamphorae. 

Hachashel —one of the 72 angels of the zodiac. 
[Rf. Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah, p. 87.] 

Hadakiel (Chadakiel)—with Grasgarben, an¬ 
other genius, Hadakiel governs the sign of Libra 
(the Balance) in the zodiac. [Rf. Prince of Darkness 
(A Witchcraft Anthology), pp. 177-178.] 

Hadar —“the superior Benignity” conceived of 
by cabalists as a sefira. [Rf Runes, The Wisdom 
of the Kabbalah.] 

Hadariel [Hadraniel] 

Hadariron —an archon named in lesser hecha- 
loth lore and in the Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba. [Rf. 


131 





HADARMIEL / HALUDIEL 


[13 2] 

Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, 
and Talmudic Tradition, p. 63.] 

Hadarmiel—a holy angel named in Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon. 

Hadarniel [Hadraniel] 

Hadasdagedoy—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh 
Merkabah), an angelic guard of the 6th heavenly 
hall. 

Hadiririon—“the beloved angel of God,” 
who may be invoked in ritual magic rites. [Rf. 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Hadraniel (Hadarniel, Hadariel, Hadriel— 
“majesty of God”)—a porter angel stationed at 
the 2nd gate in Heaven (according to one view). 
He is taller than Kemuel ( q.v .) “by 60 myriads of 
parasangs” but shorter than Sandalphon “by a 
500 years’ journey.” On seeing Hadraniel in 
Heaven, Moses was “struck dumb with awe”; 
but when Moses uttered the Supreme Name, 
Hadraniel in turn trembled. Legend speaks of 
Adam visiting Heaven some 2,000 years before 
Moses did. On that occasion, Hadraniel spoke to 
Adam about the latter’s possession of The Book 
of the Angel Raziel, a holy tome reputed to have 
contained secrets and knowledge unknown even 
to the angels [Rf The Zohar I, 55b]. The precious 
book came finally into the possession of Solomon, 
via Noah and Abraham. According to a Zoharic 
legend (The Zohar III), “when Hadraniel proclaims 
the will of the Lord, his voice penetrates through 
200,000 firmaments,” and “with every word 
from his mouth go forth 12,000 flashes of light¬ 
ning” (the latter, according to the Revelation of 
Moses). In gnosticism Hadraniel, great as he is, is 
“only one of 7 subordinates to Jehuel, prince of 
fire.” [Rf. King, The Gnostics and Their Remains, 
p. 15.] As Hadriel, he serves among the numerous 
angelic guards of the gates of the East Wind. In 
Sefer ha-Heshek, Hadraniel is one of the more than 
72 names (actually more than 100) of Metatron. 
In 3 Enoch, Odeberg holds that it is possible for 
Hadraniel to be identified with Metatron and 
that he has indeed been so identified in apocalyptic 
literature. 


Hadriel (Hadraniel)—equated with Pusiel in 
the Revelation of Rabbi Joshua Ben Levi. 

Hadrion—a variant form of Hadariron (q.v.). 

Haduriel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th heaven¬ 
ly hall. 

Hafaza—in Muslim lore, a term denoting 
angels. The hafaza constitute a special class, are 
4 in number, and “protect man from jinn, men, 
and Satans.” On these 4 angels devolves the duty 
of writing down the actions of mortals. [Rf. 
Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 
617.] 

Hafkiel—in Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation 
Texts from Nippur, an angel invoked in the exor¬ 
cism of demons. 

Hagai—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 5th 
heavenly hall. 

Hagedola—an angel of the Seal, invoked in 
ceremonial rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses.] 

Haggai—a minor Hebrew prophet called 
“God’s messenger or angel.” See hook of Haggai 
in the Old Testament. 

Haggo—an angel of the Seal who could be 
summoned in conjuring rites, like Hagedola 
(q.v.). [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Hagiel—the intelligence of Venus when that 
planet enters the signs of Taurus and Libra. 
Hagiel’s cabalistic number is 49. His correspond¬ 
ing angel, the spirit ruler of Venus, is Gadamel 
(q.v.). [R/i Barrett, The Magus', Budge, Amulets 
and Talismans', Lenormant, Chaldean Magic.] 

Hagi os—the name of a great angel, or one of 
the secret names of God, used in invocation rites. 
[Rf. Malchus, The Secret Grimoire ofTuriel.] 

Hagith—ruler of the planet Venus and one of 
the 7 Olympian spirits. Hagith is governor of 21 or 
35 of the 196 Olympian provinces. His day is Friday. 
According to Cornelius Agrippa, Hagith com¬ 
mands 4,000 legions of spirits; he has the power of 



transmuting metals. For a reproduction of Hagith’s 
sigil, see Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 389. In 
white magic, Hagith is one of the 7 stewards of 
Heaven. 

Hagion—angel of the 3rd hour of the night, 
serving under Sarquamich. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Hahael (Hahahel)—an angel of the order of 
virtues. Hahael protects Christian missionaries 
and all disciples of Christ; he is also one of the 72 
angels that bear the name of God Shemhamphorae. 
His corresponding angel (in occult lore) is Chan- 
tar£. The sigil of Hahael is shown in Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique, p. 281. 

Hahahel [Hahael] 

Hahaiah—an angel of the order of cheru¬ 
bim. He influences thoughts and reveals hidden 
mysteries to mortals. His corresponding angel 
is Atarph. The sigil of Hahaiah is shown in 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 260. 

Hahayel (Chayyliel)—in 3 Enoch, Hahayel is 
prince of ministering angels when these angels sit 
in at the divine judgment councils. 

Hahaziah—one of the 72 angels bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae, according to 
Barrett, The Magus II. 

Hahiniah—in the cabala, one of the throne 
angels. [Rf. Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Hahlii—in occult lore, an angel invoked in the 
conjuration of Ink and Colors. [Rf. Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Hahowel—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, a ministering angel. 

Hahuiah—one of 72 angels bearing the name of 
God Shemhamphorae. 

Haiaiel (Hahahel)—one of the 72 angels of the 
zodiac and one of the 72 angels bearing the name 
of God Shemhamphorae. The sigil of Haiaiel is 
shown in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 294. 

Hailael (Hayael)—chief angel of the order of 
hayyoth (“holy beasts”). 


...Hahael, protects Christian missionaries [13 3] 

Haim—an angel who exercises dominion over 
the zodiacal sign of Virgo. [Rf. Heywood, The 
Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] 

Hajoth Hakados—a species of angels inhabiting 
one of the hierarchies named “Jehovah,” accord¬ 
ing to Spencer, An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, p. 
199. Hajoth Hakados is also referred to as one of 
the spheres of the angels. 

Hakael—one of the 7 leaders of the apostate 
angels, “the seventh Satan.” [Rf. Charles, The 
Book of Enoch, p. 138 fn.; Schmidt, The Apocalypse 
of Noah and the Parables of Enoch.] 

Hakamiah—one of the cherubim (invoked 
against traitors) and guardian angel of France. 
His corresponding angel is Verasua. His sigil is 
shown in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 267. 

Hakem—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 4th 
heavenly hall. 

Hakha—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses 
an angel of the Seal. 

Hakham—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Halacho—genius of sympathies; also one of the 
genii of the 11th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron.] 

Halahel—a spirit, partly good and partly evil, 
under the rule of Bael. His seal is shown in Waite, 
The Lemegeton, Fig. 175. 

Halelviel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Halliza—the name of an angel appearing on the 
external circle of the pentagram of Solomon 
(Fig. 156). [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Halqim—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the North Wind. [Rf Ozar Midra- 
shim II, 316.] 

Haludiel—an angel of the 4th Heaven invoked 
on Lord’s Day, with the invocant facing south. 
Haludiel is also an intelligence of the sun. [Rf. 
Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Tune/.] 



[134] HALWAYA / HARTA’IL 

Halwaya—a secret name of the angel Metatron, 
as revealed in The Visions of Ezekiel. 

Hamabiel—in Heywood, The Hierarchy of the 
Blessed Angels, an angel that exercises dominion 
over the zodiacal sign of Taurus. In ceremonial 
magic, however, the angel over Taurus is Tual. 
Asmodel is also credited with dominion over this 
zodiacal sign. 

Hamal (Hmnal)—an angel with dominion over 
water. Also one of the 7 angels worshipped by 
Balaam. Hamal is invoked in Arabic incantation 
rites. [Rf M. Gaster, The Asatir.] 

Hamaliel—angel of the month of August, one 
of the rulers of the order of virtues, and governor 
of the zodiacal sign of Virgo—all the foregoing 
according to Trithemius. In ceremonial magic, 
the governor of Virgo is Voil or Voel. [Rf 
Barrett, The Magus', De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal', The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses', 
Camfield, A Theological Discourse of Angels.] 

Hamarytzod—in Waite, The Lemegeton, an 
angel of the 11th hour, serving under Dardariel. 

Hamatiel—in occultism, a zodiacal angel 
governing Virgo. [Rf Jobes, Dictionary of Mytho¬ 
logy Folklore and Symbols .] 

Hamaya—a ministering angel, mentioned in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Hamayzod—angel of the 4th hour of the night 
serving under Jefischa. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Hameriel—angel of the 5th hour of the night, 
serving under Abasdarhon. 

Hamiel [Haniel] 

Ham Meyuchad—an angel of the order of 
cherubim. Ham Meyuchad is sometimes equated 
with the great angel Akatriel. [Rf 3 Enoch.] 

Hamneijs—an angel of the Seal, mentioned in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Hamon—according to Jerome, commenting 
on Isaiah 10:13, Hamon is another name for 
the angel Gabriel. [Rf 3 Enoch; Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the fews VI.] In Ozar Midrashim (II, 316) 


Hamon is one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the South Wind. In 3 Enoch (chap. 18) 
Hamon is a “great prince, fearful and honored, 
pleasant and terrible, who maketh all the children 
of heaven to tremble when the time draweth nigh 
for the singing of the Thrice Holy.” 

Hamshalirn (Hashmallim)—one of the 10 
angelic hierarchic orders as listed in The Zohar; 
in this cabalistic work the hamshalirn are under the 
ministry of Samael. 

Hamwak’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Hanaeb—one of the 12 angels of the zodiac. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Hanael [Haniel] 

Hananel—one of the fallen angels in Enoch I. 

Hananiel (“graciously given of God”)—an 
archangel whose name appears inscribed on a 
pentagram, i.e., a Hebrew amulet of cabalistic 
origin. See reproduction of pentagram in Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 233. 

Hanhl—the angel who ordered Balaam to build 
the first 7 altars. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Asatir.] 

Haniel (Aniel, Hamiel, Onoel, Hanael— 
“glory or grace of God” or “he who sees God”)— 
angel of the month of December, chief of the 
order of principalities, virtues (tarshishim), and 
innocents, according to Barrett, The Magus. 
Haniel is also governor of the sign of Capricorn 
(as cited by Camfield in A Theological Discourse of 
Angels), and of Venus. He figures in the list of the 
7 (or 10) archangels and the 10 holy sefiroth. 
Variants of the name occur: Hamiel, Simiel, 
Onoel, Anael, etc. In occult writings Haniel is 
credited with the feat (usually ascribed to Anafiel) 
of transporting Enoch to Heaven. Haniel has been 
compared to the Chaldean Ishtar (who ruled 
Venus) and is invoked as an amulet against evil. 
[Rf. Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed 
Angels; Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Super¬ 
stition; Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique; Barrett, 
The Magus.] 



Hannini el—in Aramaic incantation rites, an 
angel appealed to in love charms. [Rf. Mont¬ 
gomery, Aramaic Incantation Texts from Nippur.] 

Hannuel—an angel who exercises dominion 
over the zodiacal sign of Capricorn. [Rf. Hey- 
wood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] 

Hanoziz—an angel of the 8th hour of the 
night, serving under Narcoriel, as cited in Waite, 
The Lemegeton. 

Hanozoz—an angel of the 9th hour of the 
night, serving under Nacoriel. 

Handel—an angel of the 3rd hour of the day, 
serving under Veguaniel. 

Hanum (Hanun)—a Monday angel residing in 
the 1st Heaven and invoked from the south. [Rf. 
de Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, The Magus 
II.] de Claremont, The Ancient’s Book of Magic, 
claims that Hanum must be invoked from the 
north. 

Ha-Qadosch Berakha—in Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon, a name for the “Holy and 
Blessed One” called on in Solomonic conjurations. 

Haqemel—one of the 72 angels of the zodiac, 
as listed in Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah. 

Harabael (Harabiel)—an angel with dominion 
over the earth. 

Harab-Serapel (“ravens of death”)—an averse 
sefira to Netzach, whose cortices are Theuniel and 
Baal Chanan. Harab-Serapel is 7th of the 10 
demons in the Asiatic world; he is also a leader 
in the infernal regions. Cf. “adversaries of the 
Elohim or the Gods, and their chief is Baal” in 
Levi, Philosophie Occulte, where Harab-Serapel is 
regarded as plural. [Rf. chart in Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, facing p. 80.] 

Harahel—in the cabala, an angel in charge of 
archives, libraries, and rare cabinets; also one of 
the 72 angels bearing the name of God Shem- 
hamphorae. [ Rf. sigil of Harahel in Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique, p. 289.] 

Harariel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( katnea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 


...Harahel, angel of archives and libraries [13 5] 

Harbonah (“ass driver”)—one of the 7 angels 
of confusion, as cited in Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews. In the story relating to Ahasuerus and 
Esther, Harbonah is the angel of annihilation. 

Harchiel —in black magic rites, an angel in¬ 
voked to command the demons that confer the 
gift of invisibility. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon, p. 45.] 

Harhaziel (Harhazial)—one of the guardian 
angels of one of the halls or palaces of the 3rd 
Heaven. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Hariel (Harael, Behemial)—angel with domin¬ 
ion over tame beasts. Hariel is invoked against 
impieties. He rules science and the arts and is of 
the order of cherubim. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II.] 
Hariel’s sigil is in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
p. 267. 

Hariph—another name for the angel Raphael 
in Maria Brooks’ book-length poem Zophiel (q.v .). 

Haris—another name for Iblis, chief of the jinn 
and leader of the fallen angels in Arabic lore. 

Hariton (fictional)—an archangel who figures 
in Gurdjieff’s cosmic myth, All and Everything, 
Beelzebub’s Tales to His Grandson. Hariton devises 
a new type of ship for navigating interplanetary 
space. 

Harmozey (Harmozel, Armogen)—in gnostic 
lore, one of the 4 great luminaries that “surround 
the self-begotten, the savior, or God.” [Rf. 
Apocryphon of John; Irenaeus, Contra Haereses; 
Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity.] The 3 
other luminaries that surround the self-begotten 
are usually listed as Oroiael, Daveitha, and Eleleth. 

Harshael [Harshiel] 

Harshiel—an angel invoked in Syriac conjuring 
ceremonies. In The Book of Protection, Harshiel, as 
a spellbinding power, is cited (especially for the 
binding of sorcerers) along with Michael, Gabriel, 
Sarphiel, Azrael, and others. 

Harta’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 



[136] HARUDHA / HAZIEL 

Harudha—in Persian mythology, the angel 
who rules the element of water. In Mandaean lore, 
Harudha is equated with the female Haurvatat, 
who is the spirit of health and vegetation, as well 
as ruler of water. 

Harut (Haroth, Haurvatati, Haroot)—usually 
linked with Maroth in Islamic legend. Harut was 
sent down from Heaven (with Maroth) to teach 
mortals the art of government (see the Koran, sura 
2, 102). In Persian lore, Harut and Maroth were 
angels of the highest rank, claimed to be 2 of the 
amesha spentas, and in possession of the secret 
name of God; this name unhappily they revealed 
to Zobra or Zuhrah, a mortal woman, with whom 
they both fell in love. A footnote to Ode 14 of 
Hafiz (in the English rendering by Richard Le 
Gallienne) states that, by the power of the 
Explicit Name, Zuhrah ascended to the planet 
Venus “with which she became identified in 
Mohammedan mythology”; and goes on to say 
that the fallen angels (Marut and Harut) “were 
punished by being confined, head down, in a pit 
near Babylon, where they were supposed to teach 
magic and sorcery.” In Hastings, Encyclopaedia of 
Religion and Ethics IV, 615, the pair are character¬ 
ized as “fallen angels with a Satanic role.” 

Harviel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
ahah), an angelic guard stationed at the 2nd 
heavenly hall. 

Hasdiel—an angel of the planet Venus; also the 
angel of benevolence, as recorded in a German- 
type mezuza. In his duties as angel of benevolence, 
Hasdiel shares the office with Zadkiel (q.v.). [R/ 
The Book of the Angel Raziel.] In The Zohar 
(Numbers 154b), Hasdiel is one of 2 chieftains 
(the other being Shamshiel) that accompanied 
Uriel when the latter bore his standard in battle. 

Haseha—one of 15 throne angels listed in The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. For the names of 
all 15, see Appendix. 

Hashesiyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Hashmal (Chasmal, Hayyah)—chief angel of 
the order of hashmallim (dominations). According 


to The Zohar, the term denotes “an inner, supernal 
sphere, hidden and veiled, in which the mysteries 
of the celestial letters of the Holy Name are 
suspended.” [Rf. Ezekiel 1:4; Cf Talmud Hagiga 

13. ] In Ginzherg, The Legends of the Jews I, 18, it 
is said that “Hashmal surrounds the throne of 
God.” He is the “fire-speaking angel.” Joseph 
Albo in Sefer ha-Ikkarim (Book of Principles) I, 

14, reports that the rabbis, when speaking of 
Hashmal, mean “the hayyot of fire-speaking.” In 
Hagiga, it is related that “once upon a time a 
young man was studying the vision of Ezekiel and 
was dwelling upon the angel Chashmal when fire 
proceeded from Chashmal and consumed him.” 
The moral of this is not explained. 

Hashmallim (the “hayyot,” living creatures)— 
a high order of angels, equated with the domina¬ 
tions. The hashmallim are ranked with the 
cherubim and seraphim. While the eponymous 
chief is Hashmal, Zadkiel or Zacharael is also 
designated head of the order. In the cabala, the 
hashmallim belong to the yetziratic world, the 
world of foundation, the abode of angels presided 
over by the angel Metatron. [Rf. Abelson, Jewish 
Mysticism, p. 38.] It is said ( Bereshith Rahha) that the 
river Dinur (“fiery river”) was created “out of the 
sweat of those animals [the hashmallim] who 
sweat because they carry the throne of the Holy 
and Blessed God.” 

Hashul—one of the chiefs of the order of the 
hashmallim, as reported in Maseket Azilut. [Rf 
Ozar Midrashim I, 67.] 

Hasmed—the angel of annihilation, and one of 
the five angels of punishment that Moses en¬ 
countered in Heaven. [Rf Midrash Tehillim on 
Psalm 7.] 

Hasmiyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Hasmodai—a spirit of the moon, invoked in 
talismanic magic. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II, 147.] 

Hasriel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 



...Hauras, gives tme answers about the future 


“Hastening Angel”—a term applied by 
Milton ( Paradise Lost XII, 637) to Michael as the 
angel who “caught/Our lingring Parents” and led 
them out of Eden. Dryden in his State of Innocence 
informs us that it was Raphael, not Michael, who 
expelled the ill-fated pair. [Rf. Angels of the 
Garden of Eden.] 

Hatach—an angel invoked in medieval Jewish 
incantation rites. The name derives from the 
initials of the words of the incantation. [Rf. 
Trachtenberg, fewish Magic and Superstition, p. 
165.] 

Hatiphas—genius of finery, mentioned in 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Hatspatsiel—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Hauras (Haures, Havres, Flauros)—one of the 
72 spirits that Solomon, according to legend, shut 
up in a brass vessel and cast into a deep lake (or 
into the sea). Formerly, as he confided to Solomon, 
Hauras was a mighty celestial power (but to which 
order he belonged he did not say). He converses 
gladly about the creation of the world and the 
fall of the angels. In Hell, where he is a great duke, 
he appears in the form of a leopard but, on com¬ 
mand of an exorcist, will manifest in human 
shape. He gives true answers concerning the past 
and the future. Under his sway, and ready to do 
his bidding, are 36 legions of the damned. His 
sigil is shown in Waite, The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts, p. 186. In De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal (1863 ed.) he is pictured in the shape of a 
man-leopard. 

Haurvatat (“wholeness”)—in Zoroastrianism, 
one of the 6 amesha spentas (archangels). Haur¬ 
vatat is female and the personification of salvation. 
She is also a spirit of the waters. In Mandaean lore 
she is known as Harudha, or equated with Harud- 
ha, since the latter is male. [Rf. Grundriss der 
iranischen Philologie III.] Some scholars see a 
derivation of the Koranic fallen angel Harut from 
this Persian archangel. [Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels in 
fewish, Christian and Mohammedan Literature, p. 
131.] 


[137] 

Haurvatati (Haurvatat)—an angel in Arabic 
lore derived from the amesha spentas; also called 
Chordad. 

Haven—in Levi, Transcendental Magic (p. 503), 
one of the 12 genii who preside over the 12 hours 
of the day. Haven is the genius of dignity. 

Havhaviyah, Haviyahu, Hayat—3 of the 
many names of the angel Metatron. 

Hayya—singular for hayyoth. 

Hayyael [Hayyel] 

Hayyel (Hashmal, Chayyiel, Hayyliel, Johiel, 
Yayael)—chief angel of the hayyoth ( q.v .). He has 
dominion over wild beasts, according to 3 Enoch, 
but shares the dominion with Thegri (Thuriel), 
Mtniel, and Jehiel. 

Hayyliel [Hayyel] 

Hayyoth (“holy, heavenly beasts”—Chayoh, 
chayyoth, Chiva)—a class of Merkabah angels 
equated or ranked with the cherubim, residing in 
the 7th Heaven. Angels of fire, they support the 
throne of Glory (see hashmallim). As reported in 
3 Enoch, they each have “4 faces, 4 wings, 2,000 
thrones, and are placed next to the wheels of the 
Merkabah.” Ezekiel saw the hayyoth (cherubim) 
by the river Chebar (Ezekiel 20). According to 
The Zohar (Vayigash 211a) there are 36 hayyoth— 
although, in 3 Enoch, they number only 4. They 
constitute the “camp of the Shekinah.” They 
receive the holy effluence from above and dissemi¬ 
nate it to the hayyoth, who are the “movers of 
the wheels.” [See Abelson, fewish Mysticism.] 
According to The Zohar (Noah, 71b) the hayyoth 
uphold the universe; when they spread their 
wings, they break forth at the same moment into 
songs of praise “as the voice of the Almighty.” 
[Cf Ezekiel 1:24; 6:3.] The prophet’s vision of 
the hayyoth and the post-Biblical lore on these 
holy beasts strongly influenced, it is claimed, the 
work of the contemporary painter, Marc Chagall. 

Haziel (“vision of God”)—a cherub invoked 
to obtain the pity of God. Haziel is one of 72 
angels bearing the mystical name of God Shem- 
hamphorae (see Appendix). When equated with 



HEAVENLY ACADEMY / HELEL 


[138] 

Bernael (q.v.), he is an angel of darkness. For 
Haziel’s sigil, see Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
p. 260. [Rf. Falasha Anthology.] In I Chronicles 
23:9 Haziel is a mortal, an offspring of the 
Gershonites. The cabalists very likely drew the 
name from this source. 

Heavenly Academy—the trial body of angels 
that assemble to judge human beings when the 
latter appear in Heaven for judgment. If a mortal 
proves worthy, he is “crowned with many 
radiant crowns,” but if he proves unworthy, he is 
“thrust outside, and stands within the pillar until 
he is taken to his punishment.” [R/l The Zohar 
(Balak 185b).] 

Heavenly Host—a term denoting the angels 
of Heaven as a whole. Job conceived the heavenly 
host as morning stars singing together and shout¬ 
ing for joy. In Dante’s Paradiso, canto 27, the 
heavenly host intone the “Gloria in Excel sis.” For 
this and the succeeding canto, Dore provided wood 
engravings. Blake saw the innumerable company 
(the heavenly host) crying “Holy, Holy, Holy, is 
the Lord God Almighty.” 

Heavenly Scribe—Michael, Enoch, Vretil, 
Metatron, Radueriel, Soferiel. The heavenly 
scribe is associated with the “man clothed in 
linen,” an image found in Ezekiel 9:2 and in 
Daniel 10. 

Hebdomad—a term in Ophitic (gnostic) lore 
for the 7 angels or potentates, rulers of the 7 
Heavens, the 7 being Iadalbaoth, Jao, Sabaoth, 
Adoneus (Adonai), Eloeus, Horeus (Oreus), 
Astaphaeus. Origen, in Contra Celsum VI, spells 
out equivalent names of these 7, to wit: Michael 
(in the form of a lion); Suriel (in the form of an 
ox); Raphael (in the form of a dragon); Gabriel 
(in the form of an eagle); Thautabaoth (in the form 
of a bear); Erataoth (in the form of a dog); Onoel 
(in the form of an ass). [Rf. Mead, Thrice-Greatest 
Hermes III, p. 294.] 

Hechaloth (hekhaloth)—the hechaloth are the 
7 female emanations of God, the counterpart of 
the 10 male sefiroth (q.v.). The Zohar (Exodus 
128a), translates the word to mean beautiful 
virgins. The term “hechaloth” also denotes the 


heavenly halls or palaces guarded over by the 
great warden angels. It should be pointed out that 
these emanations are from the right side of the 
Creator. There are also unholy emanations (the 
unholy sefiroth, the averse ones) and these issue 
from His left side (the dark or evil side). For a 
listing of both choirs, see Appendix. The Book of 
Hechaloth, originally published by Jellinek, was 
reissued by Odeberg as 3 Enoch or The Hebrew 
Book of Enoch. See Hechaloth for an angel so named. 

He’el (“life of God”)—an angel leader of the 
“heads of thousands.” He’el is ruler of one of the 
seasons of the year, as noted in Enoch I. In the 
Apocrypha, He’el is associated with the angel 
Elimelech (q.v.). 

Heiglot—in transcendental magic, a genius or 
angel of snowstorms. He is also a ruler of the 
1st hour, hi Apollonius of Tyana’s The Nuctemeron 
the 12 hours, analogous to the 12 zodiacal signs, 
are presided over by 12 genii or angels, of whom 
Heiglot is one. 

Heikhali —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Hekaloth (hechaloth)—an angel in the 
heavenly Paradise mentioned in the treatise 
Hekaloth and in The Zohar I, 141 fn. 

Hel—according to Scot, Discoverie of Witch¬ 
craft, a name for God (or of an angel of God) 
invoked in conjuring rites. 

Helayaseph (Jiluyaseph, Hilujaseph)—an angel 
governing one of the seasons. In Enoch I Helaya¬ 
seph is “head of a thousand” angels of the seasons. 
[Rf. Charles, The Book of Enoch, p. 177.] 

Helech [Abelech] 

Helel—in Canaanitish mythology, a fallen 
angel, son of Sahar or Sharer, a winged deity. 
Helel sought to usurp the throne of the chief god 
and, as punishment, was cast down into the abyss. 
Cf. the Lucifer legend. The 1st star to fall from 
Heaven (Enoch I, 86:1) was Satan-Helel. This is an 
interpretation offered by Morgenstem, “The 
Mythological Background of Psalm 82” (Hebrew 
Union College-Jewish Institute of Religion 



[ 139 ] 



The sparkling circle of the heavenly host by Dore. Illustration to Canto 27 of Dante’s Partidiso, 
From Dante, The Divine Comedy, translated by Lawrence Grant White. 






[140] HELELETH / HOCHMEL 

Annual XIV, pp. 29-126). However, in his Fallen 
Angels, Bamberger argues: “The more natural 
explanation is that the 1st star [that fell] was 
Azazel.” Helel was head or leader of the nephilim 
( q.v .). Generally speaking, angels can have no off¬ 
spring, since they are pure spirits; but when angels 
sin, when they “put on the corruptibility of the 
flesh” and cohabit with mortal women, they are 
capable of producing progeny. A case in point 
is the incident in Genesis 6. In the cabala and 
rabbinic lore there are numerous instances of such 
heteroclitish productivity. [Rf. Graves and Patai, 
Hebrew Myths.] 

Heleleth (Eleleth)—in gnostic lore, a great 
luminary, described thus in the Hypostasis of the 
Archons: “the great Heleleth descends from before 
the holy spirit; his aspect is like gold, his vesture 
like snow.” [ Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics, p. 178.] 

Helemmelek—in Enoch I, an angel governing 
one of the seasons. The name is said to be an 
inversion of Milkiel. 

Helias the Prophet—a name for the forerunner 
angel. See John the Baptist. 

Hel(l)ison—one of the 5 angels of the 1st 
altitude, the other 4 being Alimiel, Gabriel, 
Barachiel, Lebes. When invoked, Helison appears 
carrying a banner adorned with a crimson cross, 
crowned with roses. [R/i The Almadel of Solomon.] 

Hemah—angel of wrath, with dominion over 
the death of domestic animals; also an angel of 
destruction. According to The Zohar I, Hemah, 
with the help of a brother angel named Af, well- 
nigh swallowed Moses, and would have succeeded 
in doing so, but for the timely intervention of 
God. When the Lawgiver was disgorged, he 
turned around and slew Hemah—one of the rare 
instances where a mortal was able to do away with 
an immortal, an angel. Like Af, Hemah was 500 
parasangs tall, and was “forged out of chains of 
black and red fire,” as described in Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews II, 308. 

Heman (“trust”)—according to Rabbi Judah in 
The Zohar (Kedoshim) and according to 3 Enoch, 


Heman is a leader of one of the heavenly choirs. 
Heman and the angels under him sing hosannas in 
the morning hours, just as those under Jeduthun 
sing hosannas in the evening hours, and those 
under Asaph sing at night. Psalm 88 is headed: 
“To the chief Musician upon Mahalath Leannoth, 
Maschil of Heman the Ezrahite.” In the course of 
time, it seems that the 3 psalmists (Heman, Asaph, 
and Jeduthun) were transformed into maestro- 
angels in order to perform, in Heaven, services for 
which they showed special skill on earth. 

Herachio [Astrachios] 

Herald Angel—identified as Raziel or Akra- 
ziel; also Michael. Said to have announced Jesus’ 
resurrection. The term was made popular by 
Wesley’s “Hark! The Herald Angels Sing!” 
When pictured with right hand raised in benedic¬ 
tion and wings outspread, the herald angel is the 
symbol of the Nativity. 

Herald of Hell—the angel Zophiel. [Rf. 

Klopstock, The Messiah.] 

Hermes—the agathosdaimon, the “bringer of 
good, the angel standing by the side of Tyche.” 
[Rf. Harrison, Epilegomena to the Study of Greek 
Religion, pp. 294fF.] Hermes is the psychopompos 
(q.v.), god of the underworld, daimon of rein¬ 
carnation. He is also the god of flocks and herds. 
He received his art of divination and golden wand 
from Apollo, his winged sandals from Perseus. 
In Homer it is Hermes who leads the ghosts of 
slain suitors to Hades. He was given the name 
Trismegistus—“thrice-greatest Intelligencer”—be¬ 
cause, so it is said, he was the 1st intelligence to 
communicate celestial knowledge to man. It is 
also said that the cabala was shown to Hermes by 
God on Mt. Sinai and that, in fact, he was none 
other than the Hebrew lawgiver Moses [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus, “Biographia Antiqua,” p. 
150.] This identification, however, is disputed by 
N. Wieder in his article “Idea of a Second Coming 
of Moses” ( Jewish Quarterly Review, April 1956), 
declaring “Nowhere in rabbinic literature does 
one meet with this designation [i.e., Hermes]. And 
this is only natural: the rabbis must have regarded 
it as most objectionable to attach to Moses the 



...Herald Angel, announced Jesus’ resurrection [141] 


name of a heathen deity.” The last poem Long¬ 
fellow wrote (1882) was titled “Hermes Tris- 
megistus.” 

Hermesiel—a leader of the heavenly choir, 
sharing this post with Metatron, Radueriel, Tagas, 
and other celestial masters of song. Hermesiel is 
an angel “created” from Hermes, the Greek 
divinity. Says T. Gaster in The Holy and the 
Profane: “Hermes, inventor of the lyre, was 
transmogrified into the angel Hermesiel”—a 
suffix device by which sundry pagan material and 
sources were made to serve the uses of early Jewish 
angelologists. In time, Prof. Gaster adds, Herme¬ 
siel was identified with David, “sweet singer of 
Israel.” 

Heroes of Heaven—a term for good angels, 
as in Mansoor, The Thanksgiving Hymns. 

Hetabor—an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
Wax. Found in works of practical cabala, origin¬ 
ally in Gollancz, Clavicula Salomonis. 

Heziel—an angel of the zodiac. 

Hhml Haml—angel of the firmament, one of 
the 7 angels worshipped by Balaam. The name 
was created through permutations of the letters 
of the Hebrew alphabet. [Rf. M. Gaster, The 
Asatir.] 

Hibel-Ziwa—in Mandaean lore, an angel 
equated with Gabriel. See Hiwel-Ziwa. 

Hiel—an angel’s name found inscribed on an 
oriental charm ( kamea) for warding off evil. [R/ 
Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Hierarchy [Celestial Hierarchy] 

Hierimiel [Jeremiel] 

Hilofatei and Hilofei—in hechaloth lore 
( Ma’asseh Merkabah), angelic guards stationed in 
the 4th heavenly hall. 

Hiniel—an angel invoked in Syriac incantation 
rites, along with Michael, Gabriel, Sarphiel, and 
other “spellbinding angels,” as cited in The Book 
of Protection. 

Hipeton (Anaphaxeton)—a spirit or angel 


of the planet Jupiter, sharing rulership with the 
angel Johphiel (i.e., Jophiel). [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus.] 

Hiphkadiel—an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental charm (kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Hismael—the spirit of the planet Jupiter. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II, 146.] 

Hivvah—one of 2 sons of the fallen angel 
Semyaza. See Hiyyah. 

Hiwel-Ziwa (Hibel-Ziwa)—in Mandaean lore, 
one of the 360 divine beings, created by Alaha, the 
Supreme Being. Hiwel in turn is said to have 
created this world. 

Hiyyah—a son of the fallen angel Semyaza. 
[See Hiwah.] According to legend, Hiyyah and 
his brother together consumed daily 1,000 camels, 
1,000 horses, and 1,000 oxen. 

Hizarbin—a genius of the sea and one of the 
genii of the 2nd hour. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental 
Magic, quoting The Nuctemeron of Apollonius of 
Tyana.] 

Hizkiel—with Kafziel, Hizkiel serves as chief 
aide to Gabriel when the latter bears his standard 
in battle. [R/ The Zohar, Numbers 155a.] In Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316, Hizkiel (or Hizqiel) is one of 
numerous guards of the gates of the North Wind. 

Hlin Hntr—one of the “nomina barbara,” 
Hlin Hntr is an angel of winds and among the 7 
angels worshipped by Balaam, as noted in M. 
Gaster, The Asatir. 

Hlk Lil Hlk Lib—one of the “nomina bar¬ 
bara,” an angel of holiness, and one of the 7 
worshipped by Balaam. 

Him Hml [Hhml Haml] 

Hngel—an angel of the summer equinox, 
effective as an amulet against the evil eye. 

Hochmel (Hocroel, Hochmal, Hokmael, 
Hochmael—“wisdom of God”)—the angel who 
is reputed to have inspired the 7-volume Grimoire 
of Pope Honorius TTT. Hochmel is one of the 
10 sefitoth. 



[ 142 ] HOCUS POCUS / HUZIA 


Hocus Pocus—in Jewish magical rites of the 
Middle Ages, Hocus Pocus manifests as “a prince 
[angel] on high”—in fact, as two princes. The 
term derives, it is said, from “hoc est corpus 
meum.” [Rf. Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christian¬ 
ity, p. 45.] 

Hod [Hodiriron] 

Hodiel (“victory of God”)—an angel of the 
Briatic world (the world of Creation), according 
to cabalists. [See Hodiriron.] In Moses Botarel’s 
work on the efficacy of amulets, Hodiel is men¬ 
tioned as an angel who might profitably be 
invoked, along with Kabniel, Tarpiel, and other 
invocation spirits. 

Hodiriron (from “hod,” meaning splendor)— 
9th of the 10 holy sefiroth (q.v), as listed in the 
text of Isaac ha-Cohen of Soria, and in the works 
of other cabalists. 

Hodniel—an angel reputed to have the power 
of curing stupidity in man. 

Hoesediel (“mercy of God”— choesed) —like 
Hodiel, Hoesediel is an angel of the Briatic world 
(one of the 4 archetypal worlds). See chart facing 
p. 60, Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, where Hoe- 
sediel is listed along with Zadkiel as belonging to 
the order of hashmalim or dominations. Hoesediel 
is also ranked as one of the 10 sefiras. 

Hofniel (“fighter for God”)—chief of the bene 
elohim (“sons of God”), an order among the 10 
hierarchies in the cabala. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, 
“Angelology.”] 

Hokmael [Hochmel] 

Holy Beasts—in Talmud the holy beasts are 
the cherubim. In Hagiga “the holy beasts are 
numbered with the ophanim [wheels, thrones] and 
the seraphim, and the ministering angels.” See 
hishmallim and hayyoth. 

Holy Ghost (or Holy Spirit)—another name 
for the Comforter (q.v), the 3rd person in the 
Trinity, sometimes regarded as female. The 
apocryphal The Gospel According to the Hebrews 
makes the Lord speak of “my mother the Holy 
Ghost” who “took me by one of my hairs and 


carried me to the great mountain Tabor” (tradi¬ 
tionally the mountain of the Transfiguration). 
The “mother” reference here is explained by the 
fact that in Aramaic, which Jesus spoke, as also in 
Hebrew, the word spirit or ghost is of the feminine 
gender. Origen On John II, 12, quotes the cited 
passage from The Gospel According to the Hebrews. 
[Rf. Harnack, History of Dogma IV, 308; Hervieux, 
The New Testament Apocrypha (p. 132); Hastings, 
Dictionary of the Bible, “Tabor.”] The Commentary 
on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John suggests that 
“by the angel flying through the midst of Heaven 
is signified the Holy Spirit.” 

Holy Ones—another term for archangels. 

Homadiel—identified as the “Angel of the 
Lord.” [Rf. introduction to Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Horaios (Oreus, Horeus)—one of the 7 
archons in the Ophitic (gnostic) system and ruler 
of one of the 7 Heavens “leading to the aeon of 
the archons.” See Invocation to Horaios repro¬ 
duced in Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christian¬ 
ity II, 74. Origen in Contra Celsum also mentions 
Horaios. 

Hormuz—in ancient Persian lore, the angel in 
charge of the 1st day of the month. [Rf. The 
Dabistan, p. 35.] 

Horses—a term for angels, as in Zechariah 
6:2-5: “These [red, black, white, and grizzled 
horses] are the four spirits of the heaven which go 
forth to stand before the Lord of all the earth.” 
For a similar use of the term, see the Book of 
Revelation. 

Hosampsich—one of the leaders of the fallen 
angels in Enoch writings. [Rf. Voltaire, “Of 
Angels, Genii, and Devils.”] 

Hosts—a term for angels; also a designation for 
one of the 10 angelic orders (before Dionysius 
fixed the orders at 9 and omitted hosts). [Rf. 
Apostolic Constitutions-, Parente, The Angels.] 

Hosts of the High Ones or Hosts of the 
Height—a term for angels, as in Isaiah 24:21, 
where God threatens dire punishment on his 



...Holy Ghost, sometimes regarded as female [14 3] 


servitors, mortal and divine: “And it shall come 
to pass in that day that the Lord shall punish the 
host of the high ones that are on high and the 
kings of the earth upon the earth.” [Cf. God’s 
dissatisfaction with the angels in Job 4:18: 
“Behold, he put no trust in his servants, and his 
angels he charged with folly.”] 

Hosts of the Lord—according to the Mekilta 
of Rabbi Ishmael, the Hosts of the Lord are the 
ministering angels led by Michael. 

Household of the Upper World—in hecha- 
loth literature, the Household of the Upper World 
constitutes one of the highest angelic groups— 
called, in Hebrew, “pamelia shel ma’alah.” [Rf. 
Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism, p. 152.] 

Hout—an angel invoked in Arabic conjuring 
rites. [Rf. Shah, Occultism, p. 152.] 

Hoveh Hayah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Hshahshiel—a Syrian “spellbinding” angel 
mentioned in The Book of Protection. [R/ Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 273.] 

Hsprh Hsmim—one of the 7 angelic creatures 
worshipped by Balaam. [Rf. M. Gaster, The 
Asatir, p. 263.] 

Hubaiel—an angel serving in the 1st Heaven, 
according to a listing in The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses. 

Hubaril—an angelic messenger of the planet 
Saturn. [Rf. Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Turiel, 
P-33.] 

Hufaltiel (Huphaltiel)—an angel serving in the 
3rd Heaven. He officiates on Friday and is to be 
invoked from the west. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus; 
de Abano, The Heptameron; Shah, Occultism; The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Hugron Kunya—one of the 14 great conjuring 
angels named in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Huha—a name for God or of an angel men¬ 
tioned by the Essenes in their Covenant of the 
Community (a scroll recently discovered among 


the Dead Sea Scrolls). [Rf. Potter, The Last 
Years of Jesus Revealed.] 

Hukiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Hula’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism; [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Humastrav (Humastraw)—a Monday angel 
invoked from the north. Humastrav is said to 
reside in the 1st Heaven. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron.] 

Humiel—in occultism, a zodiacal angel 
governing Capricorn. [Rf. Jobes, Dictionary of 
Mythology Folklore and Symbols.] 

Huphaltiel [Hufaltiel] 

Huphatriel—one of the angelic intelligences 
of the planet Jupiter. [Rf. Malchus, The Secret 
Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Huristar [Barinian] 

Hurmin—another name for Satan. 

Hurmiz—one of the daughters of Lilith (q.v.). 
Hurmiz is mentioned in Talmud Sabbath 151b. 
[Rf Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. 71.] 

Hurtapal—one of 3 angels of Lord’s Day 
(Sunday), the other 2 angels being Michael and 
Dardael. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron.] 

Husael—an angel serving in the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Hushmael—an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental Hebrew charm (kamea) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Hutriel (“rod of God”)—one of the 7 angels of 
punishment, equated with Oniel (q.v.). Hutriel 
lodges in the 5th camp of Hell, and helps in the 
“punishment of the 10 nations.” [Rf. Maseket Gan 
Eden and Gehinnom; Jellinek, Beth ha-Midrasch ; 
see also the Jewish Encyclopedia 1,593.] 

Huzia—one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf Pirke Hechaloth.] 



[144] HUZNOTH / HYPEZOKOS 


Huznoth—a spirit invoked in the exorcism of 
the water. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, p. 93.] 

Hydra(s)—compare with the Chalkydri (q.v.). 

Hyniel—one of the angels ruling on Tuesday 
and subject to the East Wind. Hyniel is to be 
invoked from the north. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus 
II.] 


Hyoskiel Jhvhh—one of the angelic princes of 
the hosts of X. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses XI.] 

Hyperachii—in Chaldean theogony, a group 
of archangels who guide the universe. [Rf. Aude, 
Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster .] 

Hypezokos (“flower of fire”)—one of the 
“effable, essential and elemental orders” in the 
Chaldean cosmological scheme. 








Israfel, the Arabic angel of resurrection and' 
song, by Hugo Steiner-Prag. From The Poems of 
Edgar Allan Poe. New York: Limited Editions 
Club, 1943. 



Iabiel—an evil angel invoked in ceremonial 
magic for separating a husband from his wife. 
Iabiel is mentioned in The Sword of Moses. 

Iachadiel —an angel whose name is found 
inscribed on the 5th pentacle of the moon. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 80.] 
He “serveth unto destruction and loss .. . thou 
mayest call upon him against all Phantoms of the 
night and to summon the souls of the departed 
from Hades.” 

Iadalbaoth (Ialdabaoth, Jaldabaoth, Ildabaoth, 
etc.)—the 1st archon of darkness. In Hebrew 
cabala and gnostic lore, Iadalbaoth is the demi- 
ourgos, occupying a position immediately below 
the “unknown Father.” In Phoenician mythology, 
he is one of the 7 elohim, creators of the visible 
universe. In Ophitic gnosticism, Iadalbaoth is said 
to have generated the 7 elohim (angels) in “his 
own image,” the 7 being: Iao, Sabaoth, Adonai, 
Ouraios, Eloi, Astaphaios, and Iadalbaoth’s own 
mother, Achamoth! Origen, who also refers to 
Iadalbaoth as one of the 7, or as the creator of the 
7, speaks of him as “Michael’s second name.” In 


Enoch I, Iadalbaoth is equated with Sammael as the 
fallen angel and as the supreme hierarch of the 
order of thrones. 

Iadara—in association with another spirit 
named Schaltiel, Iadara governs the sign of the 
virgin (Virgo) in the zodiac. 

Iadiel (“hand of God”)—an angel listed in 
Schwab, Vocahulaire de /’ Angelologie. 

Iaeo—an angel invoked to exorcise demons. 
[Rf. Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon ; Butler, 
Ritual Magic.] Iaeo is able, with the aid of other 
angels, to frustrate the machinations of the demon 
Saphathorael. 

Iahhel—in the cabala, an archangel who has 
dominion over philosophers and those who wish 
to withdraw from worldly concerns. Iahhel is also 
one of the 72 angels bearing the mystical name of 
God Shemhamphorae. [See Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique for Iahhel’s sigil, p. 294.] 

Iahmel—an angel who has dominion over the 
air. [Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel.] 


147 



[148] IAHO I INTELLIGENCES 

Iaho (Jehovah)—the name of a divine spirit 
pronounced by Moses on Pharaoh Necho, causing 
the Egyptian king to die on the spot. [Rf. Voltaire, 
“Of Angels, Genii, and Devils,” quoting Clement 
of Alexandria’s Stromatei, 5.] 

Ialcoajul —angel of the 11th hour of the night, 
serving under Dardariel. [R/. Waite, The Leme- 
geton, p. 70.] 

Ialdabaoth [Iadalbaoth] 

Iamariel —angel of the 9th hour of the night, 
serving under Nacoriel. 

Iameth —an angel encountered in occult and 
apocryphal writings. He is the only beneficent 
spirit who is able to overcome the machinations 
of Kunospaston, demon of the sea. [Rf. Odeberg, 

3 Enoch', Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon; 
Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Iao the Great— 1st of the 7 archons constituting 
the Hebdomad in the gnostic system of primordial 
powers. [Rf. Pistis Sophia .] According to Doresse, 

The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, Iao the 
Great is the demiurge, master of the 7 Heavens. 

In 3 Enoch, Iao’s assistant, Little Iao, is actually 
Metatron under one of his many agnomina. [Cf. 

J eu -] 

Iaoth —in The Testament of Solomon, one of the 
7 archangels. By the power of Iaoth’s name, the 
demon Kurteel (who causes bowel pains) can be 
overcome. [Rf Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Iaqwiel —an angel of the moon, cited in 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de VAngelologie. 

lax —an angel capable of thwarting the demon 
Roeled (who causes stomach trouble) and the 
demon Envy. [Rf. Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon.] 

Iblis [Eblis] 

Iboriel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
ahah), an angelic guard of the 7th heavenly hall. 

Iciriel —one of the 28 angels ruling the 28 
mansions of the moon. 


Idedi —in Akkadian theology, angels who have 
their dwelling in Heaven. [Rf Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic, p. 148.] 

Idrael —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkahah), 
an angelic guard of the 5th heavenly hall. 

Idris —a name for Enoch in Koranic lore. [Rf. 
3 Enoch.] 

lealo —an angel invoked to exorcise demons. 
[Rf Butler, Ritual Magic, p. 32; Conybeare, The 
Testament of Solomon .] Probably a variant of Iaeo 
(q.v.). 

Iedidiel —an angel summoned up in ritual 
invocation. [Rf Schwab, Vocabulaire de I'Angelo- 
logie.] 

Iehuiah —an angel of the order of thrones or 
of powers, a protector of princes, and one of the 
72 angels bearing the mystical name of God 
Shemhamphorae. For Iehuiah’s sigil, see Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique, p. 273. 

Ieiaiel —angel of the future, sharing the office 
with Teiaiel (q.v.). Ieiaiel is also one of the 72 
angels bearing the name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Ieilael— one of the 72 angels bearing the name 
of God Shemhamphorae. 

Ielahiah —formerly an angel of the order of 
virtues, Ielahiah protects magistrates, and renders 
decisions in legal suits. He is also one of the 72 
angels bearing the name of God Shemhamphorae. 
His corresponding angel is Sentacer. [Rf. Ambe¬ 
lain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Ieliel —one of the 72 angels bearing the name 
of God Shemhamphorae. 

Ierahlem —in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, an angel invoked in ceremonial magic. 

Ierathel (Terather)—an angel of the order of 
dominations, according to Barrett, The Magus II. 

Ierimiel (Hierimiel)—a form of Jeremiel (q.v.). 

Iesaia —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 



...Imamiah, destroys and humiliates enemies [14 9 ] 


Ietuqiel—in occult lore, an angel invoked by 
women at childbirth. Ietuqiel is said to be the 
primitive name of Moses. [R/l Schwab, Vocabulaire 
de I’Angilologie .] 

’Ifafi—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard of the 7th heavenly hall. 

Iggereth bath Mahalath—a variant spelling in 
The Zohar (Leviticus 114a) for Agrat bat Mahlat 
{q.v). 

Ihiazel—one of the 72 angels bearing the name 
of God Shemhamphorae. 

Iibamiah—one of the 72 angels bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Ijasusael—in Enoch lore, one of the leaders of 
the angels of the seasons. 

Ilrlcar Sof—the angelic ruler of the month of 
SchebatQanuary-February). [R/! Schwab, Vocabu¬ 
laire de I’Angilologie.] 

Daniel—in Jewish legend, an angel with 
dominion over fruit-bearing trees. [See Sofiel.] 

Di-Abrat (Ilabrat)—a winged angel, Baby¬ 
lonian chief messenger of the god Anu. He carries 
a staff or wand in his right hand. Also called 
Papukkal. 

Im—Akkadian name for Rimmon (q.v.). 

Imachedel—according to listing in Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon, an angel, in cere¬ 
monial magic, invoked by the Master of the Art. 

Images—“one of the 10 orders of angels in 
Talmud and Targum,” according to Voltaire in 
his essay “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils.” 

Imamiah—in the cabala, an angel of the order 
of principalities, or rather an ex-angel of that 
order, since he is fallen. In Hell he supervises and 
controls voyages, and destroys and humiliates 
enemies, when he is invoked to do so, or is so 
disposed. He was once one of the 72 angels that 
bore the name of God Shemhamphorae. His 
sigil is pictured in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
p. 289. 

’Immiel—in hechaloth lore, an angel who assists 


Metatron (q.v.) in reciting the Shema. [Rf. 3 
Enoch.] 

Imriaf—in Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie, 
the angelic ruler of the month of Tamouz (June- 
July). 

Imriel (“eloquence of God”)—the angelic ruler 
of the month of Siwan (May-June). [Rf. Schwab, 
Vocabulaire de I'Angdlologie.] 

Incubi—Justin Martyr, Clement, and Tertullian 
believe the incubi are “corporeal angels who 
allowed themselves to fall into the sin of lewdness 
with women.” [Rf Sinistrari, Demoniality; or 
Incubi and Swccwfei.] 

Indri—in Vedic lore, one of the celestial 
deities analogous to the Judaeo-Christian angels. 
[See Adityas.] 

Informer—a designation for Satan in The 
Zohar. 

Ingethal or Ingethel [Gethel] 

In Hii—in Mandaean mythology, one of the 
4 mallei or uthri (i.e., angels) of the North Star. 
[Rf Drawer, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.] 

Inias—one of the 7 angels reprobated at the 
church council in Rome (745 c.e.). The other 
reprobated angels were Uriel (sic), Raguel, Simiel 
(Semibel), Tubuel, Tubuas, and Saboac. 

Innocents—according to Barrett, The Magus, 
the innocents rank 10th of the 12 orders in the 
celestial hierarchy, with the angel Hanael as ruler. 
In the pseudo-Dionysian scheme there are only 9 
orders. 

Innon—in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 
the holy name of an angel by which demons are 
commanded to appear in Solomonic conjuration 
rites. 

Intelligences—the neo-Platonic equivalent of 
the Judaeo-Christian angels or sefiroth. Usually 
10 in number. They are mentioned in the Enchiri¬ 
dion of Pope Leo the Third (Rome, 1523), where they 
are called planetary intelligences. [Rf Jung, Fallen 
Angels in Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan 
Literature.] 



[150] IOBEL / ISRAFEL 



Infant angels by Raphael. Reproduced from 
Regamey, Anges. 


Iobel—in gnostic lore, one of the 12 powers 
engendered by the god Ialdabaoth. [Rf. Doresse, 
The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics .] 

Ioelet—according to The Testament of Solomon, 
an angel invoked to exorcise demons. [Rf Butler, 
Ritual Magic.] With the help of other angels, 
Ioelet is able to frustrate the designs of the demon 
Saphathorael. 

Iofiel (“beauty of God”—Iophiel, Zophiel, 
Jofiel, Jophiel)—a companion angel of Metatron; 
a prince of the Law (Torah), usually included 
among the 7 archangels and equated with Yefefiah 
(q. v.). According to Cornelius Agrippa, Iofiel 
is ruler of the planet Saturn, alternating with 
Zaphchiel (Zaphkiel). In his doctrine of Talismans, 
Paracelsus cites Iofiel as the intelligence of the 
planet Jupiter. [Rf Christian, The History and 
Practice of Magic I, 318.] According to de Blcs, 
How to Distinguish Saints in Art, it is Iofiel (Jophiel) 
who drove Adam and Eve out of Eden. This is 
also the view of the Rev. R. L. Gales in “The 
Christian Lore of Angels.” In a work called Angels 
in Art by C. E. Clement, Iofiel is cited as the 
preceptor angel of the sons of Noah (Shem, Ham, 
and Japhet). 


Iomuel—an angel who had sexual relations 
with women before the Flood, according to 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie. Iomuel is to 
be included with the fallen angels. 

Ioniel—in Solomonic lore, one of the 2 princes 
ruling the universe, the other angel being Sefoniel. 
He (Iomel) may be invoked under the proper 
auspices and according to the proper magical rites. 

Iophiel [Iofiel] 

Irel—in occultism, an angel resident of the 5th 
Heaven. He rules Tuesday and is invoked from 
the west. 

Irin (“watchers” or irin qaddisin, “holy 
watchers”)—twin angels resident in the 6th 
Heaven (the 7th according to 3 Enoch). The irin 
constitute, together with the twin qaddisin (q.v.), 
the supreme judgment council of the heavenly 
court. They are among the 8 exalted hierarchs 
that enjoy a rank superior to that of Metatron 
(who is considered, in occult and apocalyptic lore, 
one of the greatest angels serving God). According 
to Daniel 4:17, the irin are the watchers or 
grigori ( q.v .). In 3 Enoch it is said that each of the 
irin “is equal to the rest of the angels and princes 
together.” Hyde in Historia Religionis Veterum 
Persarum states that the irin are of Persian origin. 
In the Revelation of Moses, Metatron points out 
the irin to Moses in the 6th Heaven, at the time 
the Lawgiver visited Paradise while still in the 
flesh. 

Isaac (Hebrew, Ishak, “he laughed”)—called 
“angel of light” because, at birth, Isaac had a 
supernatural brightness about him. His birth was 
announced by the angel Michael; and the fact 
that Abraham was too old at the time to be the 
begetter of offspring (Genesis 21) lent color to the 
legend that Isaac was of divine origin. “Jewish 
tradition,” says Forlong in Encyclopedia of Religions, 
“makes Isaac an angel of light, created before the 
world, and afterwards incarnate as one of the 
sinless patriarchs over whom death had no power.” 

Isda—an angel who provides nourishment to 
human beings. [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
I’Angelologie.] 



Isfandarmend (Isphan Darmaz)—in Persian 
mythology, the angel of February; also ruler of 
the 5th day of each month. [Rf. Hyde, Historia 
Religionis Veterum Persarum.] 

Isheth Zenunirn [Eisheth Zenunim] 

Is(c)him (Aishim, Izachim)—angels composed 
of snow and fire, resident of the 5th Heaven (Cf. 
Psalms 104:4) where Moses encountered them. [R/! 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jem II, 308; also V, 
124.] In the cabala the ishim are “the beautiful 
souls of just men (the saints). In The Zohar, they 
are interchangeable with the bene elim, who are 
of the order of thrones or angels, with Azazel 
chief of the order. In the scheme of Mirandola, 
the ishim rank 9th in the hierarchic system 
(Dionysius does not mention them). Their duty, 
since Creation, has been to extol the Lord. Among 
the angelic hosts the ishim represent the 9th 
sefiroth (Eliphas Levi says the 10th). In this 
connection, see works of de Mirville, 19th-century 
pneumatologist. In The Zohar, Zephaniah (Zephe- 
miah) is listed as chief of the order. Maimonides 
speaks of the ishim in his Mishna Thora as a high 
order of angels. 

Ishliah—one of the angels governing the east, 
[See Gauriil Ishliha.] 

Isiael—in de Abano, The Heptameron, and Bar¬ 
rett, The Magus, one of the Tuesday angels 
resident in the 5th Heaven. 

Isis—in Paradise Lost I, 478, Milton places this 
Egyptian deity among the fallen angels. The 
Phoenicians confused Isis with Ashteroth who, in 
goetic lore, was once a seraph but is now a great 
duke serving in the nether regions. 

Isma’il—in Arabic tradition, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] Also, an angel in 
the 1st Heaven in charge of a group of angels (in 
the guise of cows) engaged in worshipping Allah. 
[Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 
IV, 619.] 

Ismoli—in occultism, the ministering angel to 
Samax, the latter ruler of the angels of the air 
operating on Monday. [Rf. de Abano, The 


...Isaac, the angel of light [15 1] 

Heptameron ; Barrett, The Magus II; de Claremont, 
The Ancient’s Book of Magic.\ 

Isphan Darmaz (Isphendarmoz, Spendarmoz) 
—in ancient Persian lore, the tutelary spirit of the 
earth and the angel who presided over the month 
of February. He also served as the genius (i.e., 
angel) for virtuous women. [Rf. Clayton, Angelo- 
logy, Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum.] 

Israel (“striver with God”)—an angel of the 
order of hayyoth, a distinguished class of angels 
surrounding God’s throne and to be compared 
with the cherubim and seraphim. In The Book of 
the Angel Raziel, Israel is ranked 6th of the throne 
angels. In the Prayer of Joseph, an Alexandrian 
gnostic apocryphon, commented on by Origen 
and Eusebius, there occurs this passage: “He who 
speaks to you, I, Jacob and Israel, am an angel of 
God and a principal (archikon) spirit.” And else¬ 
where in the same: “I am Israel the archangel 
of the power of the Lord and the chief tribune 
among the sons of God.” Further along, Jacob- 
Israel identifies himself as the angel Uriel. In this 
apocryphon, the patriarch Jacob is an archangel 
(angelic name: Israel) who has entered earthly life 
from a pre-existent state. [Rf. introd. 3 Enoch.] 
The mystics of the geonic period (7th-llth 
centuries) speak of a heavenly being named Israel; 
the function of this angel is to “call the hosts of 
angels to chant God’s praise.” He addresses them 
with these words: “Bless ye the Lord who is to be 
blessed.” Philo identifies Israel with the Logos. In 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews V, 307, Israel is 
designated “Jacob’s countenance in the throne of 
Glory.” [Rf. Hekaloth, 4:29; The Book of the Angel 
Raziel, 6b.] 

Israfel (Israfil, Isrephel, Sarafiel, etc.)—in 
Arabic folklore, “the burning one,” the angel of 
resurrection and song, who will blow the trumpet 
on Judgment Day. He is described as 4-winged 
and “while his feet are under the 7th earth, his 
head reaches to the pillars of the divine throne. 
Also “3 times a day and 3 times during the night 
he looks down into Hell and is so convulsed 
with grief that his tears would inundate the earth 
if Allah did not stop their flow.” It is further 



[152] IT A T1YAH / IYAV 

“revealed” that for 3 years Israfel served as com¬ 
panion to Mohammed, whom he initiated in the 
work of a prophet, and that then Gabriel came 
and took over. [Rf. Shorter Encyclopaedia of Islam, 
“Israfil.”] Another tradition in Islamic folklore 
speaks of Israfel, Gabriel, Michael, and Azrael 
being sent by Allah to the 4 corners of the earth 
to fetch 7 handfuls of dust for the creation of 
Adam—a variant of the Genesis account in which 
God Himself creates Adam out of the dust on the 
ground; or, according to Jewish lore (Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews I, 55), “from a spoonful of 
dust taken from the spot where, in time, the altar 
of atonement would stand in Jerusalem.” On this 
mission only Azrael, angel of death, succeeded. 
Israfel, further, is one of the same 4 angels to be 
destroyed in the universal conflagration at the end 
of the world, of which the Koran speaks and 
which will occur at the sounding of the 3rd and 
final blast. However, there is a strong feeling that 
God or Allah will revive them, just as he has 
revived less deserving spirits (Rahab, for instance). 
[Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 
IV, 615.] Attention should be called here to the 
fact that Israfel is not mentioned by name in the 
Koran. It would be incorrect therefore to identify 
him as a Koranic angel—which, however, is what 
Poe has done in a footnote to his poem (“And the 
angel Israfel, whose heart strings are a lute, and 
who has the sweetest voice of all God’s creatures— 
Koran”). Poe must have derived his quotation and 
description from a source or sources other than 
the Koran, for nothing of the kind can be found 
in it. (The matter has been made the subject of an 
article by the compiler of this Dictionary.) Israfel 
figures as a character in C. E. S. Wood’s satire, 
Heavenly Discourse, Chapter 14, called “Prepared¬ 
ness in Heaven,” in which God orders Israfel to 
“mobilize the Old Body Guard.” In the Limited 
Editions Club The Poems of Edgar Allan Poe is a 
lithograph by Hugo Steiner-Prag, reproduced 
on p. 146. See Hervey Allen’s biography of 
Poe called Israfel, and Edwin Markham’s poem 
“Our Israfel.” 

Itatiyah—one of the many names of the angel 

Metatron (q.v.). 


Ithoth—in Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon, an angel who, with the aid of other 
angels, is able to subvert the designs of the demon 
Saphathoreal. 

Ithuriel (“discovery of God”)—one of the 3 
deputy sarim (princes) of the holy sefiroth serving 
under the ethnarchy of the angel Sephuriron. The 
name Ithuriel occurs in the 16th-century tracts of 
Isaac ha-Cohen of Soria, where the term is 
interpreted as denoting “a great golden crown”; 
and in Cordovero’s Pardes Rimmonim (Orchard of 
Pomegranates). Earlier sources may yet come to 
light. The name appears also in the grimoires, as 
in the 1st pentacle of the planet Mars, figured in 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 63. In 
Paradise Lost IV, 788, Milton refers to Ithuriel as 
a cherub (“mistakenly,” says Gershom Scholem) 
who, along with Zephon, is dispatched by Gabriel 
to locate Satan. The “grieslie King” is discovered 
in the Garden of Eden “squat like a Toad close at 
the ear of Eve.” By touching Satan with his spear, 
Ithuriel causes the Tempter to resume his proper 
likeness. The incident is illustrated in Hayley’s 
edition of Milton’s works (London, 1794). In 
Dryden, The State of Innocence, Ithuriel figures in 
the cast of characters as one of 4 angels. Note: It is 
clear from the sources cited that Milton did not 
coin Ithuriel (or Abdiel or Zophiel, as certain 
Milton scholars claim) but found him ready at 
hand. [Rf. West, “The Names of Milton’s Angels” 
in Studies in Philology (April 1950).] 

Itmon—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron ( q.v .). 

Itqal—an angel of affection, invoked in cases 
of dissension among human beings. [Rf. Schwab, 
Vocabulaite-de VAngelologie .] 

Itra’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel invok¬ 
ed in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A Dictionary 
of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Iurabatres—in Heywood, The Hierarchy of the 
Blessed Angels, an angel with dominion over the 
planet Venus. Other angels credited with govern¬ 
ing Venus include Anael, Hasdiel, Raphael, 
Hagiel, and Noguel. Valiant form, Eurabatres. 



[ 153 ] 



Michelangelo’s “Kneeling Angel with Candlestick.” From The Sculptures of Michelangelo. 
New York: Oxford University Press, 1939. 





[154] IUVART I IZRAFEL 

Iuvart—an ex-prince of the order of angels, 
now serving in Hell. He is mentioned in Michaelis, 
Admirable History of the Possession and Conversion 
of a Penitent Woman. 

Iyar—a Talmudic angel said to have been 
derived from Babylonian sources, just as Gabriel 
and Michael were. Iyar is cited in Hyde, Historia 
Religionis Veterum Persarum and in Voltaire, “Of 
Angels, Genii, and Devils.” 

Iyasusael [Ijasusael] 

Izachel—in The Greater Key of Solomon, an 
angel invoked in ritual magic, specifically in 
prayer by the Master of the Art. [Rf. Waite, The 
Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, p. 204.] 

Izads (Izeds)—in Zoroastrianism, heavenly 
hosts, the 2nd series of emanations after the 
amesha spcntas. The izads are sometimes equated 
with the cherubim. There are 27 or 28 in the 
order. Their duty consists in watching over 
the “innocence, happiness, and preservation of the 


world,” of which they are the protecting genii and 
guardians. The most powerful and chief of these 
“spirits of light” is (or was) Mithras. [Rf. King, 
The Gnostics and Their Remains; Saltus, Lords of 
the Ghostland, p. 42.] 

Iz’iel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard of the 6th heavenly hall. 

Izrael—one of 4 angels who will be exempt 
from the terrifying blast of the 1st Trumpet on 
Judgment Day (the other 3 angels being Gabriel, 
Michael, and Israfel). According to Islamic lore, 
there will be 3 blasts in all, the final one the blast 
of the Resurrection. [Rf Sale, The Koran, “Pre¬ 
liminary Discourse,” p. 59.] There will be, it 
seems, a 40-year (or 40-day) interval between each 
blast. At the very end, at Allah’s command, “the 
dry and rotten bones and dispersed parts of the 
bodies of all human creatures, even to the very 
hairs, will be called to judgment.” 

Izrafei [Israfel] 

Izschim [Ischim] 









The Lait Judgment. From a Persian miniature 
of the 8th century, reproduced from The Lost 
Books of the Bible. 



Jabniel (“Jehovah causes to be built”)—one of 
the ruling angels of the 3rd Heaven, as listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Jabriel [Jibril] 

Jachniel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Jacob [Israel] 

Jael (Joel)—one of the twin cherubim on the 
Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant, the other 
cherub being Zarall. In occult lore, Jael is an angel 
governing the zodiacal sign of Libra. 

Jahoel [Jehoel] 

Jaluha—in the gnostic work Texts of the Savior, 
Jaluha is the “receiver of Sabaoth Adamas.” To 
sinners who are being judged or purged, Jaluha 
bears the cup of oblivion so that the soul “may 
drink therein and forget all the places which it has 
passed through.” [Rf. Legge, Forerunners and 
Rivals of Christianity X, 187.] 

Janax—a Monday angel of the 1st Heaven 


invoked from the east. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II, 
118.] 

Janiel—angel of the 5th Heaven ruling on 
Tuesday and subject to the East Wind. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Jareahel [Jevanael] 

Jareriel [Jazeriel] 

Jariel—an angel of the divine face or presence. 
A variant form of Suriel, Sariel, Raziel. 

Javan (Yavan; Greek, for Greece)—a guardian 
angel whose special sovereignty is (or was) 
Greece. In Jewish legend, Javan exercises domin¬ 
ion also over Israel, although, traditionally, it is 
Michael who serves as tutelary guardian of the 
chosen people. [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews VI, 434.] 

Jazar—a genius who “compels love.” Jazar is 
one of the genii of the 7th hour, according to The 
Nuctemeron of Apollonius of Tyana. 

Jazeriel (Jareriel)—one of the 28 angels ruling 
over the 28 mansions of the moon. 


157 



[158] JEDUTHUN / JINN 



“When the morning stars sang together,” 

by William Blake, illustrating Job 38:7. Frontis¬ 
piece in Jastrow, The Book of Job. 

Jeduthun (“praising” or “judgment”)—in the 
cabala, lord of the evening choirs in Heaven. As 
“Master of Howling” he leads myriads of angels 
in chanting hymns of praise to God at the close of 
each day. Psalms 39, 62, 77 are inscribed “To the 
chief Musician, even Jeduthun.” Here, clearly, 
Jeduthun is a mortal (a Levite), one of the directors 
of music at the temple; but in the early Middle 
Ages the Zoharists transformed Jeduthun into an 
angel and assigned him in Heaven a post similar 
to the one he invested on earth. [See Asaph; 
Heman.] 

Jehoel(Jehuel,Jaoel, Yahoel, Shemuel, Kemuel, 
Metatron)—mediator of the ineffable name and 


one of the princes of the presence. In Jewish legend, 
Jehoel is “the angel who holds the Leviathan in 
check.” He is chief of the order of seraphim 
(although it is Seraphiel who is commonly invested 
with this rank). According to The Apocalypse of 
Abraham, Jehoel (otherwise Metatron-Yahoel) is 
the heavenly choirmaster, “singer of the eternal” 
and “heavenly Son of Man” who accompanied 
Abraham on his visit to Paradise and revealed to 
him the course of human history. In his Jewish 
Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic 
Tradition, Scholem suggests that Jehoel is an 
earlier name of Metatron. In the cabalistic Berith 
Menuha 57a, Jaoel (Jehoel) is the principal angel 
over fire. King, The Gnostics and Their Remains 
(p. 15), lists 7 subordinates of Jehuel—Seraphiel, 
Gabriel, Nuriel, Temmael, Shimshael, Hadamiel, 
and Sarmiel. 

Jehovah-Angel—the angel in Genesis 48:16 is 
so termed (i.e., angel of the Lord) by Gregory 
Thaumaturgus in his “Panegyric Addressed to 
Origen.” 

Jehudiam—in The Zohar (Exodus 129a), 
Jehudiam is an angel “who keeps the accounts of 
the righteous.” In addition, he “carries the 70 keys 
of all the treasures of the Lord.” 

Jehudiel—ruler of the movements of the 
celestial spheres. Cf. Metatron, “who doth the 
Primum Mobile guide.” Jehudiel is sometimes 
included in the list of the 7 archangels. [See 
Salatheel.] 

Jehuel [Jehoel] 

Jekusiel—in Pirke Hechaloth, Jekusiel is an 
angelic guard stationed in one of the halls of the 
1st Heaven. 

Jekut(h)iel—an amulet spirit, invoked by 
women at childbirth. [Rf Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
VAngelo logic.] Moses was christened Jekuthiel, says 
Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, because “his form was like 
that of an angel.” 

Jeliel—a seraph whose name is inscribed on the 
Tree of Life in the world of Yetzirah (Formation). 
In the cabala, Jeliel is the heavenly prince-ruler of 
Turkey. He controls the destiny of kings and other 




high dignitaries and gives the palm of victory to 
those who are unjustly attacked or invaded. In 
addition, he inspires passion between the sexes and 
insures marital fidelity. His sigil is reproduced in 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 260. 

Jeou—in gnostic lore, a great heavenly power 
who shackles the god Ialdabaoth to a sphere of 
fate. Jeou deprives the god of his rank and elevates 
in his place Ialdabaoth’s son, Ibraoth (or Sabaoth). 
[Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics, p. 176.] 

Jeqon (Yeqon, Yikon, “inciter”)—a ringleader 
of the fallen angels, as listed in Enoch I. Of Jeqon 
it is said that, with the help of Asbeel, another 
apostate ( q.v .), he led astray the sons of God (i.e., 
other angels) by tempting them with the sight of 
mortal women; and that it was with these women 
that these sons of God later had sexual relations. 
[Rf. Bamberger, Fallen Angels.] 

Jerazol—an angel of power mentioned in 
cabalistic works. He is invoked in conjuring rites. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Jeremiel (“mercy of God” or “whom God sets 
up”)—in Enoch I and II Esdras, Jeremiel is equated 
with Remiel; also with Uriel. He is one of the 7 
archangels in the original or earliest listings. He has 
been described as the “lord of souls awaiting 
resurrection.” [Rf. various editions of the Apo¬ 
crypha by Goodspeed, Metzger, and Komroff.] 
In II Esdras 4:36, Jeremiel is referred to as an 
archangel. In The Masque of Angels, a one-act 
opera produced in February 1966 at St. George’s 
Church in New York, Jeremiel was cast as a 
principality. 

Jerescue(Jeruscue)—a Wednesday angel, resid¬ 
ing in the 3rd Heaven; he is invoked from the 
west—according to de Abano, The Heptameron; 
but, according to Barrett, The Magus II, Jerescue 
is a resident of the 2nd Heaven (which may make 
a difference as to the direction from which he is to 
be invoked). 

Jesodoth—in rabbinic tradition, an angel who 
receives wisdom and knowledge direct from God 
for transmission to man. He is 10th in the hierarchy 


...Jeliel, inspires passion between the sexes [15 9] 

of the elohim. [Rf. Spence, An Encyclopaedia of 
Occultism, p. 238.] Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books 
of Occult Philosophy, speaks of Jesodoth receiving 
beneficence from the 10th of the divine essences, 
elohim. 

Jesubilin—according to the Grimorium Verum, 
a “holy angel of God” invoked in gnostic rites. 
The name is a variant form of Serabilin. 

Jesus—regarded by Philo, Justin Martyr, and 
early Christian writers as “a leading angel” or 
archangel; also identified as the Logos or Word, 
and as such is said to have been one of the 3 angels 
that visited Abraham under the oak of Mamre. 
[Rf. Conybeare, Myth, Magic, and Morals, p. 226.] 

Jetrel—one of 200 fallen angels in the Enoch 
listings. 

Jeu—in gnostic lore, specifically in Pistis Sophia, 
Jeu is a great angel, “overseer of light, arranger of 
the Cosmos.” He is one of the 3 great powers on 
high, occupying the place on God’s right, with 
Propator on God’s left. [Rf. works of Valentinus.] 

Jevanael (Jareahel)—in Mosaic lore, one of the 
7 princes that stand continually before God and 
to whom are given the spirit-names of the planets. 
[A/ Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III.] 

Jibril (Jabriel, Jabril, Jibra’il, Jabriyel, Abruel)— 
the name of Gabriel in Koranic Scripture. As 
Jibra’il in Arabic rites of exorcism, he is regarded 
as a guardian angel. [Rf. Hughes, A Dictionary of 
Islam, “Angels.”] In Persian lore, Jibril is Bahram, 
“the mightiest of all the angels”; also “Serosh, the 
message-bringer.” [Rf. The Dabistan, pp. 127, 
379.] 

Jinn—in Moslem theology, the jinn were 
created 2,000 years before Adam. They were 
originally of a high estate, equal to the angels, 
with Eblis chief among them. When, on the 
creation of Adam, Eblis refused to worship the 
earthling, Eblis was degraded and cast out of 
Heaven along with the jinn, who thenceforth 
became demons. Five sons of Eblis (q.v.) were 
among the evil jinn. In Hughes, A Dictionary of 



[160] JINNIYEH I JUSGUARIN 



Angels bewailing the death of Jesus, a detail from a fresco by Giotto in the Arena Chapel, 
Padua. Reproduced from Regamey, Anges. 


Islam . “Genii,” we find the following quotation: 
“The most noble and honorable among the angels 
are called the Ginn, because they are veiled from 
the eyes of the other angels on account of their 
superiority.” 

Jinniyeh (fem. forjinn). 

Joel (Jael, Jehoel, Yahoel, Jah-el, etc.)—in The 
Book of Adam and Eve, a pseudepigraphic work, 
Joel is the archangel who allotted our first 
parents a 7th part of the earthly paradise. Joel is 
also credited with being the angel who bade Adam 
name all things, an incident related in Genesis 
2:19-20 (where it is God Himself who appoints 
Adam to the task). Joel (or Yahoel) is the 1st of 
Metatron’s names. In Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon, the female demon Onoskelis, on being 


interrogated by Solomon, declared she was sub¬ 
ject to Joel. 

Jofiel [Iofiel] 

Johiel —angel of Paradise, although Shamshiel, 
Zephon, Zotiel, Michael, and Gabriel, among 
others, have been called angels of Paradise. There 
are actually two paradises, the one heavenly, the 
other earthly (Eden). 

John the Baptist —the “forerunner angel,” as 
in Exodus 23:20; Malachi 3:1; Matthew 11:10. 
“Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee 
in the way and to bring thee into the place I have 
prepared.” In The Zoltar (Vayehi, 232a), Rabbi 
Judah declared: “This angel, this deliverer of the 
world, is sometimes male, sometimes female. 




When he procures blessings for the world, he is 
male, resembling the male who provides blessings 
for the female. But when he comes to bring 
chastisement on the world, he is female, being, as 
it were, pregnant with the judgment.” [See 
Metatron; Shekinah; Helias the Prophet.] In the 
Coptic Book of John the Evangelist, Jesus speaks of 
“Helias the prophet” (meaning John the Baptist) 
and refers to the latter as an angel sent by Satan 
(sic) to baptize with water. [Rf. James, The 
Apocryphal New Testament, p. 191.] “In the icons 
of the Eastern Church he (John the Baptist) is 
always depicted with wings, to indicate his office 
as messenger [i.e., angel] sent before the face of 
Christ”—from Gales, “The Christian Lore of 
Angels.” 

Jomiael [Jomjael] 

Jomjael (Yomyael, “day of God”)—one of the 
fallen angels cast out of Heaven, along with 
Semyaza, Satan, etc. [Rf. Enoch /.] 

Jophiel [Ioficl] 

Jorkemo [Yurkemi] 

Josata (Josta)—an angel invoked in Solomonic 
magic rites in the Uriel conjuration. Josata is one 
of the 4 magical words or names spoken by God 
(“with his mouth, to his servant Moses”), the 


..Joel, bade Adam to name all things [161] 

other 3 names being Ablati, Abla, and Caila. [Rf 
Grimorium Verum.] 

Josephel [Asfa’el] 

Joth—a secret name of God which “Jacob 
learned from the angel in the night of his wrest¬ 
ling, and by which he was delivered from the 
hands of his brother Esau.” [Rf Malchus, The 
Secret Grimoire of Turiel\ Waite, The Book of Black 
Magic and of Pacts.] 

Joustriel—in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel 
of the 6th hour of the day, serving under Samil. 

Jove-a fallen angel in Paradise Lost I, 512. 
Milton derived him from Greek mythology, 
where he is Zeus, lord of heaven; or from Roman 
mythology, where he is Jupiter or Jove. 

Jukar—“a prince over all the angels and all the 
Caesars,” according to Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon. 

Junier—an ex-prince of the order of angels. 
[Rf. Garinet, The History of Magic in France-, De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal III, p. 459.] 

Jusguarin—a ruling angel of the 10th hour of 
the night. Jusguarin has 10 chief angelic officers 
under him, as well as 100 lesser officers. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 70.] 




% \m 8 j | 

‘ffr- ■ M 

CSV^IVvS 



Uriel descending from heaven on a sunbeam 

to join Gabriel, Ithuriel, and Zephon in the 
Garden of Eden, where they come upon Adam 
and Eve in embrace (lower right) and Satan in 
the form of a toad “squat at the ear of Eve.” 
From Paradise Lost. London: Richard Bently, 
1688. 



Kabchiel —an angel in Mandaean religious 
lore. [Rf. Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des 
Coupes de Khouabir.] 

Kabiri—there are 7 kabiri; in Phoenician 
mythology, they are the creators of the world. 
They may be compared to the 7 angels of the 
presence in gnostic and rabbinic lore. 

Kabniel—in the cabala, an angel invoked to 
cure stupidity. [Rf. Moses Botarel, Mayan Ha- 
hochmah.] 

Kabriel [Cabriel] 

Kabshiel—in Jewish mysticism, an angel who, 
when conjured up and agreeable to the invocant, 
confers grace and power. The name “Kabshiel” 
is found engraved on amulets. [Rf Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 

Kadal—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Kadashiel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim 
II, 3, 7.] 


Kadashim [Kadishim] 

Kadi(el)—a Friday angel serving in the 3rd 
Heaven and invoked from the west. [R/l Barrett, 
The Magus II; de Abano, The Heptameron.] 

Kadir-Rahman (“power of mercy”)—one of 
the 7 archangels in Yezidic devil-worship, invoked 
in prayer. For the names of all 7 of these “powers 
of mercy,” see Appendix. 

Kadishim (Kadashim or Qaddisin—“holy 
ones”)—angels of a rank higher than the Merkabah 
angels, and resident in the 6th or 7th Heaven. They 
praise God in unceasing hymns of adoration. With 
the irin (q.v.), they constitute the angelic beth din, 
i.e., seat of judgment. The chief of the order “was 
made of hail, and he was so tall, it would take 500 
years to walk a distance to his height,” according 
to rabbinic legend. Moses encountered these 
angels in the company of the irin during the Law¬ 
giver’s visit to Paradise. [Rf 3 Enoch; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews II, 308.] 


163 



[164] KAD KADAEL / KELKHEA 



Amulet from The Book of the Angel Raziel. Out¬ 
side the concentric circles are the names of the 
four rivers of paradise; within is the hexagram 
(shield of Solomon) with groups of three letters. 
Between the circles are the names of Adam, Eve, 
Lilith, Khasdiel, Senoi, Sansenoi, Samangeloph, 
and the words “He hath given his angels charge 
concerning thee, that they may keep thee in all 
thy ways.” 

Kadkadael—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Kadmiel (“before God”)—one of the 70 angels 
to be invoked at the time of childbirth, as recom¬ 
mended in The Book of the Angel Raziel. 

Kadosh—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 4th 
heavenly hall. 

Kadriel—in The Zohar (Balak 201b), one of 3 
“mouths” created by God at the start of Creation. 
Another “mouth” created at the same time was 
(or is) the angel Yahadriel. The term very likely 
denotes the voice of prophecy. And in this connec¬ 
tion, the “start of Creation” would mean the eve 
of the first Sabbath. 

Kafkefoni—one of the 7 enduring unholy 


sefiroth. Kafkefoni is king of the mazzikin and 
husband of the “little leprous one.” [Rf. Bam¬ 
berger, Fallen Angels, p. 174.] 

Kafziel (Cassiel, “speed of God”)—the angel 
governing the death of kings. In geonic tradition, 
one of the 7 archangels with dominion over the 
planet Saturn. As Qaphsiel, a variant spelling, he 
is controller of the moon. [Rf. Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] In The Zohar (Numbers 155a) 
Kafziel serves with Hizkiel as chief aide to Gabriel 
when the latter bears his standard in battle. 

Kahaviel [Dahaviel] 

Kakabel (Kochbiel, Kokbiel, Kabaiel, Kochab 
—“star of God”)—a great angelic prince who 
exercises dominion over the stars and constella¬ 
tions. In The Book of the Angel Raziel, Kakabel is 
a high, holy angel; but in apocryphal lore gener¬ 
ally, as in Enoch I, he is evil (a fallen angel) and a 
resident of the nether realms. Whether in Heaven 
or in Hell, Kakabel commands 365,000 surrogate 
spirits who do his bidding. Among other duties he 
instructs his fellows in astrology. [See Rathiel.] 

Kal—the guardian angel of Nebuchadnezzar. 
[Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews VI, 424.] 

Kalka’il—in Islamic tradition, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] Also, an angel in 
the 5th Heaven in charge of a group of angels in 
the guise of houris (black-eyed celestial nymphs) 
engaged in worshipping Allah. [Rf. Hastings, 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 619.] 

Kalkelmiyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Kalki Avatar—the 10th of the 10 avatars in 
Vedic lore. [See Avatar.] 

Kalkydri [Chalkydri] 

Kalmiya—one of the 7 angelic princes of 
power, guards of the veil or curtain of the 7th 
Heaven. The other 6 angels are usually given as 
Boel, Asimor, Psachar (Paschar), Gabriel, Sandal- 
phon, and Uzziel. [Rf. Margouliath, Malache 
Elyon, p. 17; Ozar Midrashim I, p. 110.] 



Kamuel [Camael] 

Kandile—one of the 9 holy angels invoked by 
cabalists, according to The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses. 

Kamel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
For the names of all 70, see Appendix. 

Kaphkaphiel—an angel’s name found in¬ 
scribed on an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Karkiel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Karmiel—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the East Wind. \Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Karaiel—an angelic guard of the gates of the 
West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Karoz—in rabbinic lore, the Karoz are 
“reporter angels.” [Rf The Thanksgiving Hymns.] 

Kartion—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Kasbak (Baskabas)—a secret name of the angel 
Metatron. [Rf The Vision of Ezekiel.] 

Kasbeel (Kazbiel, Kaspiel—“sorcery”)—a “sin¬ 
ful” angel, referred to as “chief of the oath,” 
whose original name was Biqa, meaning “good 
person.” [Cf. Akae.] But Kasbeel fell, and after 
his fall he was renamed Kazbiel, meaning “he who 
lies to God.” He once asked Michael for the 
hidden name of the Lord, which Michael of 
course refused to divulge. For the story, see Enoch 

I, 69:13. For comment, see Bamberger, Fallen 
Angels, p. 264. 

Kasdaye (Kesdeya, Kasdeja)—a fallen angel 
who teaches “a variety of demonic practices, in¬ 
cluding abortion.” Kasdaye is one of 7 angels 
reputed to have led the apostate angels, according 
to The Book of Enoch ( Enoch I), p. 69. 

Kashiel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim 

II, 316.] 


...Kasdaye, teaches demonic practices [16 5] 

Kashriel (Tophnar)—one of the 7 angelic 
guards of the 1st Heaven, serving (or identified 
with) Zevudiel. [Rf. Hechaloth Rahbati.] 

Kaspiel [Kasbeel] 

Katchiel—one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. 

Katzfiel—an angelic prince of the Sword, and 
guard of the 6th Heaven. It is said that Katzfiel’s 
sword emits lightning. [R/] Ozar Midrashim I, 

p. 118.] 

Katzmiel—one of the angelic guards stationed 
in the 6th Heaven. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Kautel [Ketuel] 

Kavod—in chasidic lore, a term meaning the 
glory of God, i.e., that aspect of the godhead which 
God reveals to man. Identical with the demiurge, 
holy spirit, the “great radiance called Shekinah.” 
Kavod also is a term to describe “the cherub on 
the throne of God.” [R/l Scholem, Major Trends 
in Jewish Mysticism, p. llOff.] 

Kavzakiel—one of the angel-princes of the 
Sword, as listed in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Kawkabel [Kakabel] 

Kazbiel [Kasbeel] 

Kazpiel [Kasbeel] 

Kazviel—an angelic guard of the 4th Heaven. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim I, 116.] 

Kedemel—in talismanic magic, the spirit of 
the planet Venus. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II, 147.] 

Keel (“like God”)—angel of a season; one of 
the “leaders of heads of thousands,” as cited in 
Enoch I. 

Kelail—in Islamic traditional lore, the governor 
of the 5th Heaven. [Rf. Clayton, Angelology.] 

Keliel—one of the 72 angels of the 72 quinaries 
of the degrees of the zodiac. [Rf. Runes, The 
Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Kelkhea and Kelkheak—as described in the 
Paraphrase of Shem, Kelkhea and Kelkheak are 2 



[166] KEMOS / KIPOD 

mysterious entities (angels) to whom the secrets of 
Creation were revealed. 

Kemos [Kimos] 

Kemuel (Shemuel, Camael, Seraphiel— 
“helper” or “assembly of God”)—the great archon 
who stands at the windows of Heaven as mediator 
between the prayers of Israel and the princes of 
the 7th Heaven. Kemuel is chief of seraphim and 
one of the 10 holy sefiroth. Legend tells of Moses 
destroying Kemuel (Camael) when this great 
hierarch tried to prevent the Lawgiver from 
receiving the Torah at the hand of God. [Rf. 
Ginzberg, The Legends' of the Jews.] Kemuel, 
according to the Revelation of Moses, is (or was) 
leader of the 12,000 angels of destruction. 

Kenunit —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. \Rf The Book of the Angel Raziel .] 

Kered —an angel of the Seal in Mosaic magical 
conjurations. 

Kerkoutha —in the Gospel of Bartholomew, an 
angel with rulership over the south. 

Kerubiel —eponymous head of the order of 
cherubim. According to 3 Enoch Kerubiel’s body 
is “full of burning coals . . . there is a crown of 
holiness on his head . . . and the bow of the 
Shekinah is between his shoulders.” 

Ketheriel (“crown of God”)—an angel of the 
sefiroth invoked in cabalistic rites. [Rf Levi, 
Transcendental Magic.] [See Akatriel.] 

Ketuel (Kautel)—one of the 3 angels constitut¬ 
ing the Triune God, the other 2 angels being 
Meachuel and Lebatei. [R/! The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Keveqel —one of the 72 angels of the zodiac, 
as cited in Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah. 

Kezef— in Jewish legend, an angel of death and 
one of the 5 angels of destruction (along with Af, 
Hemah, Mashhit, and Haron-Peor). Kezef fought 
against Moses in Horeb; and it was Kezef, as the 
angel of death, whom Aaron seized and imprisoned 
in the Holy Tabernacle. [Rf. Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews III, 306.] In the Midrash Tehillim, 
Kezef is the angel of wrath. 


Kfial— one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Khabiel —one of the supervising guards of the 
1st Heaven. He is named in the Pirke Hechaloth. 

Khamael [Camael] 

Kharael —in The Testament of Solomon, an angel 
who, when his name is pronounced, is able to 
exorcise the demon Belbel, as Belbel himself con¬ 
cedes. [Rf The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, 
p. 203.] 

Kharura’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Khasdiel —the name of an angel inscribed on 
a Hebrew amulet, and pictured in The Book of the 
Angel Raziel. Khasdiel appears here along with the 
names of the angels Senoi, Sansenoi, and Samange- 
loph, as well as the names of Adam, Eve, and 
Lilith. See Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 227; 
reproduction on p. 164 . 

Khurdad —the angel of May in ancient Persian 
lore. Khurdad also governed the 6 th day of the 
month. He is one of the amesha spentas, and is 
prayed to at the 56th gate of Paradise as an 
intercessor. [Rf. The Dabistan, p. 164.] 

Kidumiel —one of 70 childbed amulet angels. 
The Book of the Angel Raziel contains the names of 
all 70 of these spirits invoked to protect the new¬ 
born child and its mother against calamity and 
disease. 

Kimos (Kemos)—a secret name for Michael or 
Metatron, as vouched for in The Visions of 
Ezekiel. [Rf. Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah 
Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition.] 

Kinor —one of 3 angels stationed at the upper 
gates of Hell. 

Kipod —an angel like Kinor (q.v.). The other 2 
angels are given as Nagrasagiel (or Nasragiel) and 
Nairyo Sangha, the latter a messenger of Ahura 
Mazda. It was Kipod who conducted Rabbi 
Joshua to the gates of Hell and showed him the 
compartments into which the underworld is 




“Angels Transporting St. Paul to Heaven” by Poussin. Reproduced from Regamey, Anges. 



[168] KIRAMU I KZUIAL 

divided. [Rf. Revelation of Rabbi Joshua ben Levi ; 
Midrash Konen .] 

Kiramu ’1-katibin—the name of 2 recording 
angels in Arabic lore. [See Recording Angel.] 

Kirtabus—genius of languages and one of the 
genii of the 9th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron.] 

Kisael—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 5th heavenly hall. 

Kitreal (Kitriel)—a form of Akatriel (q.v.). 
[Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angdologie.] 

Klaha—one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Kmiel—in Jewish mysticism, an angel of the 
summer equinox, effective as an amulet against 
the evil eye. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] 

Kokabiel [Kakabel] 

Kokaviel—the name of an angel found in¬ 
scribed on the 3rd pentacle of the planet Mercury. 

Kokhabriel [Kakabel] 

Kolazonta (Greek, “the chastiser”)—the des¬ 
troying angel who figures in the Aaron incident 
related in Reider, The Book of Wisdom, 18:22. 
Kolazonta is the “personification of the destroying 
spirit” who in IV Maccabees 7:11 is called an 
angel. 

Komm—mentioned in the Revelation of Rabbi 
Joshua ben Levi. Komm is the angel who refused, 
when summoned, to give Rabbi Joshua a descrip¬ 
tion of Hell. [Rf. M. Gaster, Studies and Texts of 
Folklore.] 

Korniel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the South Wind. Named in Ozar Midrashim II, 
316. 

Korshid—a Mandaean—also a Mazdean— 
archspirit, comparable to Metatron in Jewish 
cabala. [Rf. de Mirville, Pneumatologie.] 

Kotecha—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses an angel of the Seal, conjured in ceremonial 
magic. 


Koustiel—an angel’s name found engraved on 
a camelian in the British Museum (56013). “May 
be a blunder for Uriel,” says Bonner, in Studies in 
Magical Amulets, p. 170. 

Krishna [Krisn Avatar] 

Krisn Avatar (Krishna)—8th of the 10 avatars 
in Vedic lore. [See Avatar.] 

Kshathra Vairya—one of the 6 amesha spentas 
(q.v.). 

Kshiel [Kushiel] 

Kso’ppghiel—a leader of the angels of fury, 
one of the nomina barbara listed in M. Gaster, The 
Sword of Moses. [Cf. Angels of ire.] 

Kunospaston—in occultism, the demon of the 
sea. [Cf. Rahab.] He is a hoar-fish and delights in 
destroying ships. He is also greedy for gold. [Rf. 
Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon.] 

Kuriel [Kyriel] 

Kurmavatar—the “tortoise avatar,” one of 10. 

Kurzi [Angel of the Footstool] 

Kushiel (“rigid one of God”)—one of 7 angels 
of punishment and a “presiding angel of Hell.” 
According to Midrash Konen, Kushiel “punishes 
the nations with a whip of fire.” [Rf. Jewish En¬ 
cyclopedia I, 593; Jellinek, Beth ha-Midrasch.] 

Kutiel—an angel invoked in connection with 
the use of divining rods. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 

Kyniel—an angel serving in the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Kyriel (Kuriel)—one of 28 angels governing 
the 28 mansions of the moon. [R/i Barrett, The 
Magus II.] As v Kuriel, he is one of numerous 
angelic guards of the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. 
Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Kyriotates—in his Karmic Relationships, Rudolf 
Steiner speaks of 3 celestial hierarchies, the 
kyriotates being an order of the 2nd. The triad 
here consists of exusiai (virtues or authorities), 
kyriotates (dominations?) and dynamis (powers). 

Kzuial— an angelic guard stationed in the 4th 
Heaven. [Rf Pirke Hechaloth.] 






“Lucifer” by William Blake. Reproduced from 
Langton, Essentials of Demonology. 



Labarfiel—one of the angelic guards of the 7th 
Heaven. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim I, 119.] 

Labbiel—original name of the angel Raphael. 
The name was changed when, according to Jewish 
legend, Labbiel complied with God’s command 
concerning the creation of man. It should be noted 
here that 2 groups of angels (the angels of truth 
and the angels of peace), not complying with the 
divine command, were burned. [Rf. Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews I, 52ff.] 

Labezerin—in talismanic magic, the genius 
(spirit) of success. Labezerin serves in the 2nd hour 
of the day. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron .] 

Labusi—one of the 5 angels of omnipotence, 
the other 4 being Tubatlu, Bualu, Tulatu, Ublisi. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, p. 85.] 

Lad (Hebrew, “tender age”)—one of the many 
names of the angel Metatron. 

Lahabiel—an angel who assists Raphael in the 
rulership of the 1st day (Samael ruling the 3rd day 
and Anael the 6th). Along with Phaniel, Rahabiel, 


Ariel, and others, Lahabiel used to be invoked as 
an amulet against evil spirits (and perhaps still is), 
as indicated in a late Hebrew charm. [Rf. Thomp¬ 
son, Semitic Magic, p. 161.] 

Lahariel—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
Lahariel assists Michael in the rulership of the 2nd 
day. [Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel; Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans', M. Gaster, Wisdom of the 
Chaldeans, pp. 338ff.] 

Lahash—in rabbinic lore, a great angel who, 
with the aid of Zakun, led 184 myriads of spirits 
to snatch away the prayer of Moses before it could 
reach God. For this attempt at interference with 
the divine will, the 2 angels were punished with 
“60 blows [lashes] of fire.” [Rf Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews III, 434.] Bamberger, Fallen 
Angels, p. 138, cites another form of the same 
legend wherein it is Sammael who metes out the 
punishment on Lahash by “binding him with 
fiery chains, flogging him with 70 stripes of fire, 
and expelling him from the divine presence.” 

Lahatiel (“the flaming one”)—one of the 7 
angels of punishment, as listed in Maseket Gan 


171 



[172] LAILA(H) / LEVIATHA 

Eden and Gehinnom. [R/i Jewish Encyclopedia I, 
593.] In the writings of the cabalist Joseph ben 
Abraham Gikatilla, Lahatiel is the presiding angel 
of the gates of death, which is the designation for 
the 2nd lodge of the 7 lodges in which Hell (arka) 
is divided. According to the Revelation of Rabbi 
Joshua ben Levi, Lahatiel is one of the angels in 
Hell who punishes nations “for cause.” [Rf. M. 
Gaster, Studies and Texts in Folklore .] 

Laila(h) (Leliel, Lailahel, Layla)—the name is 
said to derive from a rabbinic exegesis of the 
word “lailah” (meaning night) in Job 3:3. 
According to The Zohar (Exodus) Lailah is “an 
angel appointed to guard the spirits at their birth.” 
In Jewish legendary lore, Lailah is a demonic angel 
of night, the “prince of conception,” to be com¬ 
pared with Lilith, demoness of conception. How¬ 
ever, in Genesis Rabba 417 and in Sanhedrin 96a 
[Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia I, 588] the story is that 
Lailah fought for Abraham when the patriarch 
battled kings—which would make Lailah a good, 
rather than a wicked, angel. 

Lama—in de Abano, The Heptameron, Lama 
(or La Ma) is an angel of the air, ruler of Tuesday, 
and a resident of the 5th Heaven. He is invoked 
from the west. 

Lamach—an angel who exercises dominion 
over the planet Mars. [Rf. Heywood, The Hier¬ 
archy of the Blessed Angels, p. 215.] 

Lamas (see Nirgal)—one of 'the 4 principal 

Lamenting angel, from an ancient Greek pieta. 

Reproduced from Jameson, Legends of the 

Madonna. 



N 

classes of protecting genii in Chaldean lore, usually 
represented with the body of a lion and the head 
of a man. Cf. cherubim. [Rf. Lenormant, Chaldean 
Magic, p. 121.] 

Latnassu—in Assyrian lore, a kindly spirit 
appealed to at the end of invocations for the 
exorcism of evil spirits. [Rf. Thompson, Semitic 
Magic, p. 45.] According to Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition, p. 156, Lamassu is a 
Babylonian spirit. 

Lamechalal (Lamechiel)—a planetary ruler 
cited in 3 Enoch (Hebrew Enoch). Lamechalal was 
the only angel who, as the reader is assured in 
Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon, could over¬ 
come the female demon called Deceit. 

Lamechiel [Lamechalal] 

Lameck (Lamideck)—a pure angel, invoked in 
black-magic rites, specifically in the conjuration of 
the Sword. [Rf. Grimorium Verum ; Shah, The 
Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Lamediel—an angel of the 4th hour of the 
night, serving under Jefischa. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton .] 

Lamedk—an angel like Lameck (but not to be 
confused with him) who is invoked in the conjura¬ 
tion of the Sword. 

Lamideck [Lameck] 

Larzod—one of the “glorious and benevolent 
angels” invoked in Solomonic conjuring rites for 
imparting to the invocant some of the secret 
wisdom of the Creator. [R/. Gollancz, Clavicula 
Salomonis.] 

Lauday—an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt, as cited in the Grimorium Verum. 

Lau(v)iah—in the cabala, an angel of the order 
of thrones; also of the order of cherubim. More 
correctly, he formerly belonged to these orders. 
Lauviah influences savants and great personages. 
For his sigil, see Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
pp. 260, 267. 

Lawidh—in Islamic apocalyptic lore, a “chief 
of angels.” The sufi Abu Yazid in his mir’aj 


...Lecabel, controls vegetation and agriculture [17 3] 


(ascent) to the 7 Heavens comes upon Liwidh in 
the 2nd Heaven and is there offered “a kingdom 
such as no tongue can describe,” but Abu Yazid 
resists the offer (actually a bribe), knowing it to be 
only a test of his single-minded devotion to God. 
[Rf. Nicholson, “An Early Arabic Version,” etc.] 

Layla [Lailah] 

Lazai (Lazay)—a “holy angel of God” invoked 
in the exorcism of fire. [Rf. Grimorium Verum ; 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon .] 

Lebes —one of the chief angels of the 1st chora 
or altitude. [Rf The Almadel of Solomon.] When 
invoked, Lebes appears carrying a banner with a 
red cross on it. Of the 1st altitude there are 5 chief 
rulers or governors, the other 4 (apart from Lebes) 
being Alimiel, Barachiel, Gabriel, and Hel(l)ison. 

Lecabel —an angel in control of vegetation and 
agriculture, and one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. [For 
Lecabel’s sigil, see Ambelain, La Kahhale Pratique, 
p. 273; Rf. Barrett, The Magus.] 

Lecahel —an angel belonging to the order of 
dominations (dominions). [R/i Ambelain, La 
Kahbale Pratique, p. 88.] 

Ledrion —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
spirits through application of incense and fumiga¬ 
tions. [Rf. Grimorium Verum.] 

Lehachel —one of the rulers of the 72 quinaries 
of the degrees of the zodiac. [Rf. Runes, The 
Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Lehahel —one of the 8 seraphim in the cabala. 
[Rf. Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 88.] 

Lehahiah —once of the order of powers 
(potentates), Lehahiah protects crowned heads and 
makes subjects obedient to their superiors. He is 
(or was, depending on his current status as a holy 
or evil angel) one of the 72 hierarchs bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. [For 
Lehahiah’s sigil, see Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique, p. 273.] 

Lehavah —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 


Lelahel —an angel of the zodiac exercising 
dominion over love, art, science, and fortune. 
His corresponding angel, in cabalistic lore, is 
Asentacer. [For Lelahel’s sigil, see Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, p. 260.] 

Lelahiah —one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Leliel —one of the angelic rulers of the night. 
[See Lailah.] 

Lemanael —in the cabala, the spirit of the 
moon. His corresponding angel is Elimiel ( q.v .). 
[Rf. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, p. 26.] 

Lepha —an angel of the Seal. Lepha is cited in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses as one of the 
invocation spirits in special conjuring rites. 

Leuuiah (Leviah)—one of the 72 angels bearing 
the mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Levanael (Iaraehel)—the spirit of the Moon, 
according to Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of 
Occult Philosophy III. 

Leviah [Leuuiah] 

Leviathan (Hebrew, “that which gathers itself 
together in folds”)—in the Enoch parables, 
Leviathan is the primitive female sea-dragon and 
monster of evil; in rabbinic writings, she (or he) 
is identified with Rahab, angel of the primordial 
deep, and associated with Behemoth (q.v.). Both 
Leviathan and Behemoth are said to have been 
created on the 5th day (see Greek Apocalypse of 
Baruch). In the system ofjustinus, Leviathan is “a 
bad angel.” [Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
feu/s V, 46; The Apocalypse of Abraham 10.] In the 
view of George Barton in the Journal of Biblical 
Literature (December 1912), p. 161, Leviathan is 
“a Hebrew name for the Babylonian Tiamat.” In 
Biblical lore (Job 41:1) Leviathan is the great 
whale. In Psalm 74:14 he is the hippopotamus or 
crocodile, or is so intended. [Cf. Isaiah 27:1 where 
Leviathan is called “that crooked serpent,” an 
epithet which recalls Revelation 12:9, where 
Satan is dubbed “that old serpent.”] In Mandaean 
lore, the final end for all but the purified souls 
is to be swallowed up by Leviathan. 


[174] LIBANEL / LORDS OF SHOUTING 



Signature of the demon Asmodee (Asmodeus) to a deed dated May 29, 1629, and executed in 
the Church of the Holy Cross, in which Asmodee attests to quitting the body of a possessed nun. 
The deed mentions other demons: Gresil, Amand, Beheria, Leviatam (sic), etc. From De Givry, 
Picture Museum of Sorcery, Magic and Alchemy. 


Libanel—the angelic guide of Philip, according 
to Klopstock, The Messiah. 

Liberating Angel—the Shekinah ( q.v .) who 
“delivers the world in all ages” has been referred 
to as the Liberating Angel. She is always close to 
man and “never separated from the just.” The 
Exodus 23:20 passage (“Behold I send an angel 
before thee”) has been applied to the Liberating 
Angel, although it is more commonly applied to 
John the Baptist. [Rf. Waite, The Holy Kabbalah, 
p. 344.] 

Librabis—genius of hidden gold and one of the 
genii of the 7th hour. [R/! Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron .] 

Lifton—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Lights— angels, luminaries. [R/. The Sacred 
Book of the Great Invisible Spirit (one of the finds 
at Nag-Hammadi) and Grant, Gnosticism and Early 
Christianity, p. 44.] 


Lilith—in Jewish tradition, where she origin¬ 
ated, Lilith is a female demon, enemy of infants, 
bride of the evil angel Sammael (Satan). She pre¬ 
dated Eve, had marital relations with Adam, and 
must thus be regarded as our first parent’s 1st wife. 
According to Rabbi Eliezer ( The Book of Adam and 
Eve), Lilith bore Adam every day 100 children. 
The Zohar (Leviticus 19a) describes Lilith as “a 
hot fiery female who at first cohabited with man’ 
but, when Eve was created, “flew to the cities of 
the sea coast,” where she is “still trying to ensnare 
mankind.” She has been identified (incorrectly) 
with the screech owl in Isaiah 34:14. In the cabala 
she is the demon of Friday and is represented as a 
naked woman whose body terminates in a 
serpent’s tail. While commonly regarded as the 
creation of the rabbis of the early Middle Ages 
(the first traceable mention of Lilith occurs in a 
10th-century folktale called the Alphabet of Ben 
Sira), Lilith is in fact drawn from the lili, female 
demonic spirits in Mesopotamian demonology, 
and known as ardat lili. The rabbis read Lilith into 
Scripture as the 1st temptress, as Adam’s demon 
wife, and as the mother of Cain. [Rf. Thompson, 




Semitic Magic ; Christian, The History and Practice 
of Magic.] In Talmudic lore, as also in the cabala 
(The Zohar), most demons are mortal, but Lilith 
and two other notorious female spirits of evil 
(Naamah and Agrat bat Mahlat) will “continue to 
exist and pla gue man until the Messianic day, when 
God will finally extirpate uncleanliness and evil 
from the face of the earth.” In Scholem’s article 
on one of the medieval writers in the magazine 
Mada'e ha Yahadnt (II, 164ff.), Lilith and Sammael 
are said to have “emanated from beneath the 
throne of Divine Glory, the legs of which were 
somewhat shaken by their [joint] activity.” It is 
known, of course, that Sammael (Satan) was once a 
familiar figure in Heaven, but not that Lilith was 
up there also, assisting him. Lilith went by a score 
of names, 17 of which she revealed to Elijah 
when she was forced to do so by the Old Testa¬ 
ment prophet. For a list of Lilith’s names, see 
Appendix. 

Lithargoel —a great angel whose name appears 
in the Coptic The Investiture of the Archangel 
Gabriel ; also in the Acts of Peter. [Rf. Doresse, The 
Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, pp. 235-236.] 

Little Iao —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Liwet —in Mandaean lore, the angel of love 
and invention; also one of the 7 planetary spirits. 
[Rf Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.] 

Lobkir —one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the West Wind. \Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Lobquin —one of the angels of the 5th Heaven 
ruling on Tuesday in the west. Lobquin is subject 
to the East Wind. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Loel —one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Logoi —a designation for angels by Philo in 
his “On Dreams.” It is also the plural form for 
Logos, the “Word” (or Reason). [Rf. Miiller, 
History of Jewish Mysticism.] 

Logos (Greek, the “Word”)—according to 


.. .Lilith, Adam’s first wife [175] 

Philo, Logos is “the angel that appeared to Hagar, 
the cloud at the Red Sea, one of the 3 angels that 
appeared to Abraham (at Mamre, as Justin Martyr 
also taught), the divine form that changed the 
name of Jacob to Israel at Peniel.” In rabbinic 
mysticism, Metatron is the personified Logos. 
Michael and the Messiah have also been identified 
with the concept, as has the Holy Ghost. [Rf. 
Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism.] Philo calls 
Logos (reason) “the image of God, His Angel”; 
also, “the Oldest Angel, who is as though it were 
the Angel-chief of many names; for he is called 
Dominion, and Name of God.” [Rf. Mead, 
Thrice-Greatest Hemes I, pp. 161-162.] 

Loquel —an angel serving in the 1st Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Lords (or lordships)—a celestial order of angels 
mentioned, along with cherubim, powers, thrones, 
in the Apocalypse of the Holy Mother of God (in the 
Ante-Nicene Fathers Library) and in the Arkhangelike 
of Moses. In Enoch II 20:1, lordships is given in 
lieu of dominions (Ephesians 1:21; I Colossians 
1:16). Lords may also be equated with principali¬ 
ties and virtues. Clement of Alexandria quotes 
from the lost Apocalypse of Zephaniah: “And the 
spirit took me up and carried me into the fifth 
Heaven and I saw angels called Lords and their 
diadem was lying in the Holy Spirit, and for each 
of them there was a throne seven times as bright 
as the light of the sun.” [Rf. Caird, Principalities 
and Powers-, Doresse, The Sacred Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Lord of Hosts —Sabaoth, Akatriel, God. On 
his return from a visit to Heaven, Rabbi Ismael 
ben Elisha reported: “I once entered into the 
innermost part [of the sanctuary] to offer incense, 
and saw Akathriel Jah, the Lord of Hosts, seated 
upon a high and exalted throne.” [Rf. Berakoth 30 
(Soncino Talmud).] 

Lord of Lightning [Angel of Lightning] 

Lords of Shouting —also called masters of 
howling (q.v.). The lords of shouting consist of 
1,550 myriads of angels, “all singing glory to the 
Lord.’ v They are led by the angel Jeduthun (q.v.). 
[Rf. Scholem, The Zohar.] It is said that, at dawn, 



[176] LORDS OF THE SWORD / LUMAZI 


because of the chanting of the lords of shouting, 
“judgment is lightened and the world is blessed.” 

Lords of the Sword —the 14 conjuring angels 
as listed in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. They 
are Ariel, Arel, Ta’Aniel, Tafel, Yofiel, Mittron 
(Metatron), Yadiel, Ra’asiel (Raziel), Haniel 
(Anael), Asrael (later repeated), Yisriel, A’shael, 
Amuhael, Asrael. [Rf. Butler, Ritual Magic, p. 41.] 

Lord Zebaot —in Jewish legendary lore, the 
lord of hosts; it is the name that God went by 
when he battled sinners. [Rf. Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews.] 

Los (Lucifer?)—the agent of divine providence, 
“the laborer of ages.” Since his fall (he is one of 
the fallen angels), he has spent 6,000 years trying 
to give form to the world: “I am that shadowy 
Prophet who, 6,000 years ago/Fell from my 
station in the Eternal bosom.” [Rf. Blake, Vala 
(The Four Zoas) and Jerusalem.] 

Lucifer (“light giver”)—erroneously equated 
with the fallen angel (Satan) due to a misreading 
of Isaiah 14:12: “How art thou fallen from heaven, 
O Lucifer, son of the morning,” an apostrophe 
which applied to Nebuchadnezzar, king of 
Babylon (but see under Satan). It should be 
pointed out that the authors of the books of the 
Old Testament knew nothing of fallen or evil 
angels, and do not mention them, although, at 
times, as in Job 4:18, the Lord “put no trust” in 
his angels and “charged them with folly,” which 


would indicate that angels were not all that they 
should be. The name Lucifer was applied to Satan 
by St. Jerome and other Church Fathers. Milton 
in Paradise Lost applied the name to the demon of 
sinful pride. Lucifer is the title and principal 
character of the epic poem by the Dutch Shakes¬ 
peare, Vondel (who uses Lucifer in lieu of Satan), 
and a principal character in the mystery play by 
Imre Madach, The Tragedy of Man. Blake pictured 
Lucifer in his illustrations to Dante. George 
Meredith’s sonnet “Lucifer in Starlight” addresses 
the “fiend” as Prince Lucifer. Actually, Lucifer 
connotes star, and applies (or originally meant to 
apply) to the morning or evening star (Venus). 
To Spenser in “An Hymne of Heavenly Love,” 
Lucifer is “the brightest angel, even the Child of 
Light.” 

Luel —in 15th-century Jewish magical lore, 
an angel invoked in connection with the use of 
divining rods. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition, p. 225.] 

Luma’il —in Arabic lore a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Lumazi —in Assyrian cosmology there were 7 
lumazi, creators of the universe. They may be 
compared with the 7 (otherwise 12) angels of the 
presence (rabbinic), the 7 prajapati (Hindu), and 
the Middoth (of which, however, there were only 
2) in Talmudic writings. 
























































































































































































Michael. A terracotta lunette (c. 1475) by Andrea 
della Robbia. From The Metropolitan Museum of 
Art Bulletin, December 1961. 



Maadim —one of 2 big stars (i.e., angels) that 
Metatron pointed out to Moses in the 4th Heaven. 
Maadim “stands near the moon in order to warm 
the world from the cold,” according to the 
Revelation of Moses. 

Mach —an angel called up in Solomonic con¬ 
juring rites for rendering the invocant invisible. 

Machal —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Machasiel —in both Barrett, The Magus II, and 
de Abano, The Heptameron, one of the angels 
invoked from the south. He resides in the 4th 
Heaven and rules on Lord’s Day. He is listed 
among the intelligences of the sun. [Rf. Malchus, 
The Secret Grimoire of TurieL] 

Machatan (Machator, Macoton)—a Saturday 
angel and one of the powers of the spirits of 
the air, sharing rulership with Uriel, Cassiel, and 
Seraquiel, according to Barrett, The Magus’, The 
Ancient's Book of Magic; and other occult sources. 

Machidiel (“fulness of God”—Malchidiel, 
Malahidael, Malchedael, Melkeial, Melkejal, etc.) 


—governing angel of the month of March; also 
ruler of the zodiacal sign of Aries. [Rf. Camfield, 
A Theological Discourse of Angels, p. 67.] In Enoch I 
Machidiel is called Melkejal: he “rises and rules in 
the beginning of the year” and exercises dominion 
“for 91 days, from spring to summer.” In cabalis¬ 
tic writings, Machidiel (as Melchulael) is one of 
4 angelic personifications of the holy sefira Malkut, 
the other 3 personifications being Sandalphon, 
Messiah, and Emmanuel. In grimoire conjurations, 
Prince Machidiel (as he is referred to) may be 
commanded to send the invocant the maiden of 
his desire; and if the invocant will fix the time and 
place, “the maiden invoked will not fail to 
appear.” 

Mach(k)iel —one of the angelic guards of the 
6th Heaven, according to listing in Pirke Hechaloth. 
Madrid's pentacle is shown in Shah, Occultism, 
p. 77. 

Machmay —in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel 
of the 7th hour of the night, serving under 
Mendrion. 

Machnia (Machniel)—one of the 70 childbed 


179 




[180] MACOTON / MALCHIEL 


amulet angels. As Machniel he is an angelic guard 
of the gates of the South Wind, according to 
listing in Ozar Midrashim. 

Macoton [Machatan] 

Macroprosopus —in the cabala, the 1st of the 
holy sefiroth; he is the “God of concealed form.” 
[Cf. Microprosopus.] 

Madagabiel —one of numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the North Wind. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316.] 

Madan —an angel that exercises dominion over 
the planet Mercury, as cited in Heywood, The 
Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. 

Madiel —in occult lore, a governing archangel 
of the watery triplicity. He is a resident of the 1st 
Heaven and is invoked from the east. [Rf. de 
Abano, The Heptamerotr, Waite, The Lemegeton.] 
Madiel is the angel in Prokofieff’s opera L’Ange 
de feu. [See Angel of Fire.] 

Madimiel (Madiniel, Madamiel)—one of 4 
angels’ names found inscribed on the 1st pentacle 
of the planet Mars, the other 3 being Ithuriel, 
Bartzachiah, and Eschiel. [Rf Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon.] In Mosaic lore, Madimiel 
is one of 7 princes “who stand continually before 
God and to whom are given the spirit-names of 
the planets.” [Rf. Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books 
of Occult Philosophy III.] 

Mador —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 4th 
heavenly hall. 

Madriel —an angel of the 9th hour of the day, 
serving under Vadriel. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Mael —in occult lore, a ruling archangel of the 
water triplicity (cf. Madiel). He is also one of the 
intelligences of the planet Saturn. As a Monday 
angel of the 1st Heaven, he may be invoked from 
the north. 

Magog [Gog and Magog] 

Magirkon —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 


Maguth —an angel of the air operating on 
Thursday. Maguth is a minister to Suth, chief of 
the air angels, all of whom are, in turn, subject to 
the South Wind. [Rf. The Ancient’s Book of Magic; 
de Abano, The Heptameron ; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Mah —in ancient Persian lore, the angel overseer 
of the mutations of the moon. [Rf. Clayton, 
Angelology.] 

Mahadeo (Mahesh)—in Vedic lore, Mahadeo 
(Siva) is one of 11 angels “with matted locks and 
3 eyes” that represent symbolically the sun, moon, 
and fire. Mahadeo also has (or had) 5 heads. [Rf. 
The Dabistan, p. 189.] 

Mahalel and Mahalkiel —angels’ names found 
inscribed on an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Mahanaim (“double host”)—when Jacob de¬ 
parted from Haran, he was accompanied by a 
double host (“Mahanaim”) of angels, each host 
numbering 600,000. The incident is told in Genesis 
32. [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews I, 377.] 

Mahananel —one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the North Wind, as listed in 
Ozar Midrashim II, 316. 

Mahariel (“swift”)—an angel of Paradise 
stationed at the 1st portal; he provides new souls 
for the purified ones. [Rf Ozar Midrashim I, 85.] 

Mahashel —in the cabala, one of 72 angels 
ruling the 72 quinaries of the degrees of the 
zodiac. [Rf Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Mahasiah —one of 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Mahish (Mahash)—in the Bhagavad Gita, a 
mighty angel who, with Brahma .and Vishna, 
sprang from one of the primary properties. [R/. 
The Dabistan, p. 178.] 

Mahka’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Mahniel (“mighty camp”)—another name for 
“Azriel the Ancient.” According to The Zohar 


...Malach Memune, computed the span of man s life [181] 


(Exodus 202a), Mahniel is an angel who commands 
“60 myriads of legions, all winged, some full of 
eyes, some full of ears.” 

Mahonin(m) —in the exorcism at Auch (1618), 
the devil, possessing a noblewoman, gave his 
name as “Mahonin of the 3rd hierarchy and the 
2nd order of archangels,” claiming further that 
his adversary in Heaven was “St. Mark the 
Evangelist.” [Rf. Robbins, The Encyclopedia of 
Witchcraft and Demonology, pp. 128 and 185.] 

Mahzeil —an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf. 
Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouabir.] 

Mahzian —in Mandaean lore, a spirit who 
bestows sight. [Rf Drower, Canonical Prayerbook 
of the Mandaeans.] 

Maianiel —an angel serving in the 5th Heaven; 
he is named and listed in The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses. 

Maion —an angel who exercises dominion over 
the planet Saturn, and is so described in Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. 

Maiphiat —an angel invoked in the exorcism 
of the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Majesties —an order of angels mentioned by 
Tyndale and Cranmer, who give majesties in 
lieu of thrones. [Rf. The Thanksgiving Hymns V, 
where God is addressed as “prince of gods, king of 
majesties.”] Vermes, Discovery in the Judean 
Desert, interprets the term as “probably some 
class of angels” and refers his readers to Jude 8. 

Makatiel (“plague of God”)—one of the 7 
angels of punishment, as cited in Maseket Gan 
Eden and Gehinnom. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia I, 593; 
Jellinek, Beth ha-Midrasch.] 

Makiel —an angel invoked in Syriac incanta¬ 
tion rites. Makiel is grouped with Michael, 
Gabriel, Harshiel, and other spellbinding angels. 
[Rf. The Book of Protection-, Budge, Amulets and 
Talismans.] 

Maktiel —an angel with dominion over trees. 


The name is found in M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses. In the Baraita de Massechet Gehinnom, Mak¬ 
tiel (or Matniel) is one of the angels of punishment 
over 10 nations. He lodges in the 4th compartment 
of Hell. 

Malach ha-Mavet —in rabbinic literature as in 
Koranic lore, the angel of death, identified usually 
as Sammael or Azrael. 

Malach ha-Sopher —an aide to Duma, angel 
of the silence of death. With Malach Memune 
(q.v.), ha-Sopher computed the span of a man’s life. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim 1,92.] 

Malachi or Malachy (“angel of God”)—the 
angel of Jehovah. See Esdras 4, where we find: 
“Malachy, which is called also an angel of the 
Lord.” [Rf. Talmud Hagiga.] The final book in 
the Old Testament is called Malachi. 

Malach Memune (“the appointed one”)—an 
aide to Duma. With Malach ha-Sopher he com¬ 
puted the span of a man’s life. 

Malach Ra —an angel of evil (in the causative 
sense), not necessarily himself evil. (Good angels, 
under orders from God, often perform missions 
or acts commonly regarded as unjust, wicked, etc.) 
[Cf. Angels of Destruction or Angels of Punish¬ 
ment.] 

Malakim (“kings”)—an order of angels equated 
with the virtues. The ruling prince is variously 
designated Peliel, Uriel, Uzziel, Raphael. 

Malaku T-Maut —in the Koran, sura 32, 11, 
the angel of death. He may be equated with or 
identified as Izrael or Azrael. 

Malashiel —in Jewish cabala, the preceptor 
angel ofElijah. [Cf. Maltiel.] 

Malbushiel (fictional, from “malbush,” cloth- 
ing)—in I. B. Singer’s story “The Warehouse” 
(Cavalier, January 1966), 2nd cousin to the angel 
Bagdial. Malbushiel serves as quartermaster in 
one of the “lower heavens.” 

Malchedael [Machidiel] 

Malchiel [Malkiel] 



[182] MALCHIRA / MARFIEL 

Malchira [Malkira] 

Malik (Malec)—in Arabic mythology, a ter¬ 
rible angel who guards Hell. He is assisted by 19 
sbires (zabaniya) or guardians. In the Koran, 
sura 43, 77, Malik tells the wicked who appeal to 
him that they must remain in Hell forever be¬ 
cause “they abhorred the truth when the truth 
was brought to them.” [R/l Hughes, A Dictionary 
of Islatir, Jewish Encyclopedia, “Angelology”; 
Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 
618.] 

Malkiei (Malchiel—“God’s king”)—one of 3 
angelic princes serving under Sephuriron, who is 
last in rank of the 10 holy sefiroth. The other 2 
princes are Ithuriel and Nashriel. In Ozar Midra- 
shim, Malchiel is one of numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the South Wind. 

Malkira (“king of the wicked”)—the surname 
for Sammael in The Martyrdom of Isaiah. [Rf Box, 
introd. to Charles, The Ascension of Isaiah.] 

Malkiyyah —an angel who “serves the blood.” 
The name is found inscribed on amulets as a pro¬ 
tection against hemorrhages; it is mentioned in an 
unpublished Hebrew manuscript referred to by 
Bonner, Studies in Magical Amulets. The name 
occurs also in Ezra 10:31 as Melchiah. 

Malkuth (Melkout, Malchut)—the 10th sefira, 
the En Soph, the Shekinah, soul of the Messiah, 
or Metatron. According to The Zohar, Ezekiel 
saw Malkuth “under the God of Israel by the river 
Chebar.” [Rf. Ezekiel 1:3, 15; 10:15.] Here the 
creatures sighted by the Old Testament prophet 
were the cherubim. 

Malmeliyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Malthidrelis —in Heywood, The Hierarchy of 
the Blessed Angels, an angel who exercises dominion 
over the sign of Aries (the Ram) in the zodiac. 

Maltiel —in the cabala, a Friday angel resident 
in the 3rd Heaven and invoked from the west. 
He is also one of the intelligences of the planet 
Jupiter. In Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews, 
Maltiel is the preceptor angel of Elijah (but see 


Malashiel). In Ozar Midrashim II, 316, Maltiel 
serves as one of the numerous guards of the West 
Wind. 

Maluzim —a holy angel of God invoked in 
goetic rites. [Rf Verus Jesuit arum Libellus and 
Waite, The Book oj Black Magic and of Pacts.] 

Mambe’a —a mighty angel whose name ap¬ 
pears inscribed on a terra cotta devil trap (amulet) 
in Hebrew characters dated circa lst-2nd cen¬ 
turies B.C.E. Mambe’a was invoked as a protective 
spirit (Babylonian) against sorceries. [Rf. Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 288.] A companion 
angel to Mambe’a was Babhne’a. 

Mameroijud —in The Pauline Art, chief angel- 
officer of the 10th hour of the night, serving under 
Jusguarin. [R/ Waite, The Book of Ceremonial 
Magic, p. 70.] 

Mamiel —one of the chief angel-officers of the 
7th hour of the day, serving under the ruler 
Barginiel. 

Mamlaketi —in 3 Enoch (Hebrew Book of 
Enoch), Mamlaketi is an angel whose other name 
is Uzza ( q.v .). 

iLmmon (Aramaic, “riches”)—in occult lore, 
a fallen angel now ruling in Hell as one of the 
arch-demons and prince of tempters. In De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal, Mammon is certified 
as Hell’s ambassador to England. He is equated 
with Lucifer, Satan, Beelzebub, and even with 
Nebuchadnezzar. Mammon is the demon of 
avarice. He “holds the throne of this world,” as 
St. Francesca observed in one of her 93 visions. 
The medieval notion was that Mammon was a 
Syrian god. Gregory of Nyssa took Mammon to 
be a name for Beelzebub. Matthew 6:24 and 
Luke 16:13 speak of Mammon as a power hostile 
to God. He is pictured in Barrett, The Magus, and 
mentioned in Paradise Lost I, 678-681: “Mammon 
led them on/Mammon, the least erected Spirit 
that fell/from heav’n, e’en in heav’n his looks and 
thoughts were always Downward bent.” 

Manah —in Arabic lore, a goddess-angel of 
fertility. Her idol, the oldest known to the Arabs, 



was destroyed on Mohammed’s orders. [Rf. Jobes, 
Dictionary of Mythology Folklore and Symbols.] 

Manakel (Menakel, Menaqel)—according to 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, an angel with 
dominion over aquatic animals. In Runes, The 
Wisdom of the Kabbalah, Menakel is one of the 72 
angels of the zodiac. 

Man Clothed in Linen —applied to Gabriel; 
the expression occurs several times in Ezekiel 
(9:10); also in Daniel (10 and 12). The man clothed 
in linen with a writer’s inkhom by his side is 
associated with the heavenly scribe, and this 
heavenly scribe has been identified as Enoch, 
Michael, and Vretil. [Rf Charles, The Book of 
Enoch, p. 28; The Zohar (Exodus 231a).] In his 
Critical Commentary on the Revelation of St. John, 
p. 266, Charles asserts that the man clothed in 
linen is not to be identified with Gabriel or 
Michael, but should rather be identified as the 
nameless Angel of Peace ( q.v .), the same Angel of 
Peace mentioned in the Testament of Asher (in the 
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs). 

Maneij —a chief officer-angel of the 4th hour 
of the night, serving under Jefischa. [Rf Waite, 
The Lemegeton.] 

Maniel— an angel invoked in Syriac spell¬ 
binding charms. [Rf. The Book of Protection-, 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] 

Manna (Hebrew, “what is this?”)—Justin 
thought manna was the regular food of angels. 
[Cf. Psalm 78:24: “they ate the food of angels” in 
the descent.] Elijah, as we know, was nourished 
during his 40 days in the wilderness (I Kings 19) by 
angel food fed to him by ravens. [Rf. Schneweiss, 
Angels and Demons According to Lactantius, p. 40.] 
Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, quotes Ibn Majah 
as holding that the food of angels consists in “the 
celebrating of God’s glory”; and that the drink of 
angels is “the proclaiming of His holiness.” 

Man of Macedonia —in Acts 16:10 Paul has 
the vision of “the man of Macedonia” as an angel. 
Danielou, The Angels and Their Mission, refers to 
this vision of St. Paul’s, and quotes Origen. 


...Mammon, Hell’s ambassador to England [18 3] 

Mansemat —another name for Mastema (Satan) 
as used in Acts of Philip. [Rf James, The Apocryphal 
New Testament, p. 440.] 

Mantus —in Etruscan religion, one of the 9 
Novensiles, supreme spirits worshipped by this 
ancient people. 

Manu —in Assyro-Babylonian mythology, 
“Manu the Great” was a spirit who presided over 
fate. [Rf. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic.] 

Manuel —an angel governing the zodiacal sign 
of Cancer. Mentioned in Heywood, The Hierarchy 
ofthe Blessed Angels. 

Many-Eyed Ones —the ofanim (wheels), a 
high order of angels equated with the thrones. 
Enoch speaks of the “ofanim of fiery coals.” All 
patriarchs became angels of this order on arriving 
in Heaven, as claimed in rabbinic writings. [Rf. 
Talmud Bereshith Rabba 82:6.] Raphael is usually 
designated chief. Ezekiel 10:20 describes the 
living creatures at the river Chebar as “full of eyes 
round about” and speaks of the “fire that was 
between the cherubim.” Accordingly, but per¬ 
haps incorrectly, the “many-eyed ones” have been 
equated with the cherubim. [Cf. Enoch II, 19-20, 
“the watchfulness of many eyes” as describing 
the fiery hosts of great archangels.] 

Mara —the Satan of Buddhist mythology. 
Arnold in The Light of Asia (VI, 19) speaks of 
Mara’s mighty ones,/Angels of evil,” of whom, 
says Arnold, there were 10—“ten chief Sins.” 

Marax [Forfax] 

Marchosias (Marchocias)—an angel who, be¬ 
fore he fell, belonged to the order of dominations. 
In Hell, where he now serves, Marchosias is a 
mighty marquis. When invoked, he manifests 
in the form of a wolf or an ox, with griffin wings 
and serpent’s tail, as he is pictured in De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal (1863 ed.). He confided to 
Solomon that he “hopes to return to the 7th 
throne after 1,200 years.” For the sigil of this 
spirit, see Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of 
Pacts, p. 176. 

Marfiel —an angel of the 4th hour of the day, 



[184] MARGASH / MASTEMA 

serving under Vachmiel, as noted in Waite, The 
Lemegeton. 

Margash— one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Margesiel —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Margiviel —prince of the face and one of the 
angelic guards of the 4th Heaven. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim 1,117.] 

Mariel —in The Book of Protection, an angel who 
is conjured up in Syriac spellbinding charms. [Rf. 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] 

Marifiel —a chief officer-angel of the 8th hour 
of the night, serving under Narcoriel. [Rf 
Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Marioc(h) or Mariuk —in Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews, the angel who watched over 
the writings of Enoch. With another angel 
(Ariuk), Marioc was placed by God as guardian 
over the immediate descendants of Enoch to see to 
it that his books were preserved. [Rf. Enoch II, 33.] 

Marmarao —a spirit invoked to overcome or 
cure bladder trouble caused by the demon Anoster 
(one of the 36 decani, demons of disease). [Rf. 
Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, 224.] 

Marmarath (Marmaraoth)—in Conybeare, 
The Testament of Solomon, Marmarath is one of the 
7 planetary angels, and the only angel capable of 
overcoming the female jinn of war, Klothod. 

Mamiel —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Marnuel —an angel mentioned in the writings 
of Rabbi Akiba. [Rf Bamberger, Fallen Angels.] 

Marnuthiel —an angel mentioned in the 
writings of Rabbi Akiba. 

Maroch —Waite, The Lemegeton, cites Maroch 
as an angel of the 5th hour of the day, serving 
under Sazquiel. 

Maron —a holy name (of a spirit or an angel) 
by which demons are commanded in Solomonic 


conjurations. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Maroth (Hebrew, “bitterness”—Maroot, Mar- 
out)—with another angel Haroth, Maroth was 
sent down by God “with full commission to 
exercise government over all mankind, and to 
tutor and instruct them.” [Rf. Heywood, The 
Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, p. 289.] Maroth is a 
character in Eastern lore (Persian) taken over by the 
Jews. The Koran also speaks of Maroth as an angel. 

Marou —once a cherub, now a demon. In the 
trial of Urbain Grandier, Marou was cited as one 
of 6 demons who possessed the body of Elizabeth 
Blanchard. [Rf. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal.] 

Martyrs —according to Barrett, The Magus, 
the martyrs are 11th in the 12 orders of the blessed 
spirits, with Gabriel as ruler of the order. 

Mary —the Virgin Mary is spoken of as an angel 
in the Book of John the Evangelist. According to 
James, The Apocryphal New Testament, p. 191, 
Mary is the angel sent by God to receive the Lord, 
who enters her “through the ear,” and who 
“comes forth by the ear.” In the Litany of Loretto, 
Mary is “queen of angels.” 

Masgabriel —in de Abano, The Heptameron, an 
angel resident in the 4th Heaven and invoked 
from the north. Masgabriel rules on Lord’s Day 
(Sunday). 

Mashit(h) (“destroyer”)—an angel appointed 
over the death of children. [Rf. Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews.] In The Zohar he is one of 3 
demons in gehinnom (Hell) who punish those 
who sin by idolatry, murder, and incest. The other 
2 demons are Af and Hemah (q.v.). In Midrash 
Tehillim (commentary on Psalms), Mashit is one of 
5 angels of punishment whom Moses encounters 
in Heaven. 

Masim —one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Maskelli (Maskelli-Maskello). [Zarazaz] 

Maskiel —an angelic guard of the 1st Heaven. 
[Rf Pirke Hechaloth.] 



[18 5] 



A woodcut from the Cologne Bible. Left, the Scarlet Woman seated on seven-headed dragon 
and worshipped by minor kings of the earth. Center (top), angel drops great millstone into the sea. 
Right, angel with key to bottomless pit about to consign to it the devil. Extreme right, closing 
scene of Revelation 14, showing harvest of the world and vintage of the grapes of wrath. From 
Pietures from a Mediaeval Bible. 


Maskim—in Akkadian religion the maskim are 
the 7 great princes of Hell, otherwise known as the 
7 spirits of the abyss, of whom it was said that 
“although their seat is in the depths of the earth, 
yet their voice resounds on the heights,” and that 
they “reside at will in the immensity of space.” 
Mephistopheles is one of the 7. [Rf. Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic; Agrippa’s Electors; and Cony- 
beare’s listing of the underworld planetary rulers 
in The Testament of Solomon.] 

Masleh—in occultism, the angel who “actuated 
the chaos and produced the 4 elements.” In Jewish 
legendary lore, Masleh is the ruler of the zodiac. 
In The Ancient's Book of Magic, “the power and 
influence of Logos descends through the angel 
Masleh into the sphere of the zodiac.” 

Masniel—a governing angel of the zodiac. [Rf 
Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philo¬ 
sophy III.] 

Maspiel—an angelic guard stationed in the 2nd 
Heaven. He is named in Pirke Hechaloth. 


Mass Massiah—in Talmud Shabbath, an angel 
invoked for the curing of cutaneous disorders. 

Mastema (Mansemat)—the accusing angel; 
like Satan, he works for God as tempter and 
executioner; he is prince of evil, injustice, and 
condemnation. Cf The Book of Jubilees and The 
Zadokite Fragments and the Dead Sea Scrolls, 
where Mastema is the angel of adversity, “father 
of all evil, yet subservient to God.” It was Mas¬ 
tema who tried to kill Moses (in the incident 
mentioned in Exodus 4:24ff.) and who hardened 
Pharaoh’s heart (although, according to Midrash 
Abkir, it was Uzza who did this). There is a legend 
that Mastema appealed to God to spare some of 
the demons so that he (Mastema) might execute 
the power of his will on the sons of man. God 
apparently thought this was a good idea and per¬ 
mitted 1 /10th of the demons to remain at large, 
in the service of Mastema. It is also claimed that 
Mastema helped the Egyptian sorcerers when 
Moses and Aaron appeared before Pharaoh 
to perform their magical tricks. [Cf. Beliel; Satan.] 
In The Damascus Document, quoted by Vermes in 







[186] MASTER OF HOWLING 

Discovery in the Judean Desert, an angel of hostility 
is spoken of, and this is applied to Mastema. 

Master of Howling —the angel Jeduthun. [See 
Lord(s) of Shouting.] 

Mastho —in Levi, Transcendental Magic, Mastho 
is called the “genius of delusive appearances.” He 
is one of the spirits of the 10th hour, according to 
a listing in Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Mastinim —a term characterizing the accusing 
angels, of whom Sammael ( q.v .) is chief. In 
Bamberger, Fallen Angels, the mastinim are called 
“the greatest angels of the nations.” In Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews III, 17, mention is made of 
Uzza, tutelary angel of Egypt, as an accusing angel. 
Elijah is characterized as an accusing angel of 
Israel—when, that is, he accuses in behalf of the 
Chosen People. 

Matafiel —as noted in Hechaloth Rahhati, one 
of the 7 angelic guards of the 2nd Heaven. 

Matanbuchus (Mechembechus, Meterbuchus, 
Beliar, Mastema)—in The Martyrdom of Isaiah, 
Testament of Job, and in the Introduction to The 
Ascension of Isaiah, Matanbuchus is referred to as 
the angel of lawlessness, and identified with Beliar: 
“Beliar, whose name is Matanbuchus.” The name 
is believed to be composed of 2 Hebrew words: 
mattan buka, meaning “worthless gift”; or, better, 
a form of the Hebrew mithdabek, “one who 
attaches himself,” i.e., an evil spirit. 

Mataqiel (“sweet”)—one of the 7 angel guards 
of the 1st Heaven, as noted in Hechaloth Rabbati. 

Matarel (Matariel)—in rabbinic and pseud- 
epigraphic lore, the angel of rain. Others so 
designated include Ridya (Ridia), Zalbesael, and 
Batarrel. In 3 Enoch, Matarel is one of the rulers 
of the world. 

Matariel [Matarel] 

Mathiel— in de Abano, The Heptameron, 
Barrett, The Magus, and other occult works, 
Mathiel is an angel serving in the 5th Heaven. He 
is ruler of Tuesday, invoked from the north. 

Mathlai —one of the spirits of the planet 


/ MELCHISEDEC 

Mercury, angel of Wednesday, resident of the 
3rd Heaven—according to de Abano, The Hepta¬ 
meron-, but, according to Barrett, The Magus, 
Mathlai is a resident of the 2nd Heaven, and in¬ 
voked from the east. 

Matmoniel —a “holy minister of God” who 
may be summoned up in Solomonic conjurations 
for procuring to the invocant a magic carpet. 
[Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Matniel [Maktiel] 

Matrona —the Shekinah (q.v.) called “angel of 
the Lord” in The Zohar. 

Matsmetsiyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Mavet —angel of death. [See Malach ha-Mavet.] 

Mavkiel —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Maymon —chief angel of the air, ruler of Satur¬ 
day, and subject to the South Wind. Three angels 
minister to Maymon: Abumalith, Assaibi, and 
Belidet. In de Abano’s works, Maymon is “king 
of the Saturday angels of the air.” 

Mbriel —an angel who rules over winds, 
according to M. Gasster, The Sword of Moses. 

McWilliams, Sandy (fictional)—a bald- 
headed angel in Mark Twain’s Captain Stormfield’s 
Visit to Heaven. 

Meachuel —in occult works, specifically in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, Meachuel 
is one of the 3 angels of the Triune God used for 
conjuring, the other 2 being Lebatei and Ketuel. 

Mebabel —one of the 72 angels of the 72 quina- 
ries of the degrees of the zodiac. Mebabel is in¬ 
voked by those who seek to usurp the fortune of 
others. He is known to protect the innocent. His 
corresponding angel is Thesogar. [See Barrett, 
The Magus-, Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique-, 
Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah .] 

Mebahel— one of the 72 angels bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae. 


...Mehiel, protects professors, orators, and authors [18 7] 


Mebahiah —in the cabala, an angel who exer¬ 
cises dominion over morals and religion; also one 
who helps those desiring offspring. Mebahiah is 
one of the 72 angels bearing the name of God 
Shemhamphorae. His corresponding angel is 
Smat. Mebahiah’s sigil is shown in Ambelain, 
La Kabhale Pratique, p. 289. 

Mechiel —one of the 72 angels of the zodiac, 
according to listing in Runes, The Wisdom of the 
Kabbalah. 

Mediat (Modiat)—king of the angels ruling 
Wednesday; also one of the intelligences of the 
planet Mercury. [Rf de Abano, The Heptameron\ 
Malchus, The Secret Grimoire ofTuriel.] 

Medorin —an angel in the heavenly Paradise. 
[Rf The Zohar (Bereshith 39b, fn.).] 

Medussusiel —as mentioned in Waite, The 
Lemegeton, an angel of the 6th hour of the day, 
serving under Samil. 

Meetatron [Metatron] 

Mefathiel —‘ ‘an opener of doors,” hence, 
according to Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition, Mefathiel is an angel favored of 
thieves and other miscreants. 

Megiddon —a seraph, in Klopstock, The 
Messiah. 

Mehahel —an angel belonging to the order of 
cherubim and cited in Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique. 

Mehaiah —an angel of the order of principali¬ 
ties, as listed in the “L’Arbre de Vie enlesirah” 
chart reproduced in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pra¬ 
tique, facing p. 88. 

Mehalalel —in The Book of Protection, an 
angel invoked in Syriac spellbinding charms. 
[Rf. Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] 

Mehekiel —one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. [R/! 
Barrett, The Magus.] 

Metier (Mithra)—in Mandaean religious lore, 
the yazata or angel presiding over light and justice. 
[Rf. Drower, The Mandaeans of Praq and Pran.] 


Mehiel —in the cabala, an angel who protects 
university professors, orators, and authors. His 
corresponding angel is Astiro. [Rf. Ambelain, La 
Kabbale PTatique.] 

Mehriel —one of the archangels in the cabala. 

Mehuman (“true, faithful”)—one of the 7 
angels of confusion. Mehuman figures in the 
story relating to Esther and Ahasuerus, as told in 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews. 

Meil —a Wednesday angel (one of 3) invoked in 
ceremonial magic rites. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Meimeiriron —in Isaac ha-Cohen’s text, “Em¬ 
anations of the Left Side,” Meimeiriron is the 4th 
of the 10 holy sefiroth, the “personalized Hesed.” 
The “less authentic angel” of this sefira is Zadkiel. 

Mekhapperyah —one of the many names of 
the angel Metatron. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Melahel —one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae, according 
to Barrett, The Magus II. 

Melchi(d)ael —in Waite, The Book of Black 
Magic and of Pacts, and in Grimorium Verum, 
Melchiael is an angelic prince conjured up in 
Solomonic black magic rites. He is efficacious in 
providing the invocant with the woman of his 
desires. 

Melchisedec (or Melchizedek or Melch- 
Zadok—“the god Zedek is my king”)—king of 
righteousness whom pseudo-Dionysius called “the 
hierarch most beloved of God.” Epiphanius in 
his Adversus Heareses calls Melchisedec an angel 
of the order of virtues. According to pseudo- 
Tertullian, Melchisedec is a “celestial virtue of 
great grace who does for heavenly angels and 
virtues what Christ does for man.” [Rf. Legge, 
Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity II, p. 148.] In 
the Bible (Genesis 14), Melchisedec is the fabled 
priest-king of Salem, ancient name for Jerusalem. 
It was to Melchisedec that Abraham gave tithes. In 
Phoenician mythology Melchisedec, called Sydik, 
is the father of the 7 elohim or angels of the divine 
presence. In the gnostic Book of the Great Logos, 
Melchisedec is Zorokothera. Hippolytus refers 


[188] MELCHISEDEC / MENADEL 



Melchisedec, Abraham, and Moses, from the porch of the northern transept of Chartres Cathe¬ 
dral (late 12th century). From E. H. Gombrich, The Story of Art. New York: Oxford University 
Press, 1951. 


to a sect, followers of one Theodotus (probably named Melchizedek who was greater than Christ.” 
the 3rd-century heretics known as the Melchise- In certain occult sources, Melchisedec is identified 
dans), who claimed that there was “a great power as the Holy Ghost. In the Book of Mormon (Alma) 




he is referred to as “the prince of peace.” His sym¬ 
bol is a chalice and a loaf of bread. R. H. Charles 
appends to his edition of Enoch II a fragment 
(“a new form of the Melchizedek myth, the work 
of an early Christian”), wherein Melchisedec 
figures as the supernatural offspring of Noah’s 
brother Nir, who is preserved in infancy by 
Michael, and who becomes, after the Flood, a 
great high priest, the “Word of God,” and king 
of Salem, with “power to work great and glorious 
marvels that have never been.” The term “word 
of God” very likely stems from St. John’s “in the 
beginning was the Word, and the Word was with 
God, and the Word was God.” In Midrash 
Tehillim, commenting on Psalm 76, Melchisedec 
is identified as Shem, one of Noah’s sons. This 
source also contains the legend of Melchisedec 
feeding the beasts in Noah’s ark. The meeting of 
Abraham and Melchisedec (Genesis 14:17-24) 
is pictured in a woodcut in the great Cologne 
Bible (1478-1480) and in Rubens’ famous painting, 
“The Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedec”; 
also in the painting by Dierik Bouts (c. 1415— 
1475). 

Melech —an angel of the order of powers 
invoked in conjuration rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Melek-I-Taus (Taus-Melek)—the peacock an¬ 
gel in Yezidic devil-worshipping religion. The 
name is a paraphrase for the devil in Buddhist lore. 
[Rf. Wall, Devils.] According to Forlong, Ency¬ 
clopedia of Religions, “the Melek-Tawus was once 
an angel or demiurge who created Eve from the 
body of Adam.” [See Taus-Melek.] 

Meleyal or Melejal (“fulness of God”)—in 
Enoch writings, an angel of autumn, ruling 3 
months of the year. [Rf. Enoch I.] 

Melba —chief of the order of flames, and Bud¬ 
dhist counterpart of the seraphim. [R/l Blavatsky, 
The Secret Doctrine II.] 

Melioth —one of 9 angels “that run together 
throughout heavenly and earthly places.” The 9 
angels are named by Beliar and revealed to 
Bartholomew in the Gospel of Bartholomew, p. 177. 


...Memuneh, a dispenser of dreams [18 9] 

Melkejal (Machidiel)—angelic ruler of March. 
“In the beginning of the year,” says Enoch I, 
“Melkejal rises first and rules.” 

Melkharadonin —in gnostic lore, one of 12 
powers engendered by Ialdabaoth. [Rf. Doresse, 
The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Melki—in Mandaean religion, the melki or 
malki are semidivinities (like the uthri) who carry 
out the Will of the Great Life. All are “subordinate 
to the Creator, whose first manifestations they 
were.” A Mandaean legend tells of 2 melki, Zutheyr 
and Zahrun, conjured down from Heaven to aid 
believers in baptismal rites. [Rf. Drower, The 
Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, p. 328.] 

Melkiel —one of the angels of the 4 seasons, 
serving with Helemmelek, Melejal, and Narel. 

Melkoutael —the sefira of Malkuth in the 
Briatic world. [Rf Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique .] 

Membra (logos)—the Word of God; an hypo¬ 
stasis of God; an intermediary (i.e., an angel) of 
God. In Jewish cabala, Membra denotes the divine 
name. [Rf. The Jewish World in the Time of Jesus; 
Lenormant, Chaldean Magic.] 

Memeon —an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Memsiel —a chief officer-angel of the 7th hour 
of the night, serving under Mendrion. [Rf. 
Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Memuneh (“appointed one”)—a deputy angel, 
a dispenser of dreams. Through Memuneh, it is 
said, the universe operates. The plural form is 
memunim. These memunim are the defenders in 
Heaven of their earthly charges. In Jewish cere¬ 
monial magic, the memunim were regarded as 
demons, although Eleazor of Worms insisted they 
were angels. 3 Enoch speaks of the memunim 
as belonging to the class of angels of the Song- 
Uttering Choirs. 

Memunim (plural for Memuneh)—appointed 
ones, a class of angels. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Menadel —an angel of the order of powers, 




[ 190 ] MENAFIEL / METATHIAX 


according to Ambelain; also one of the 72 angels 
of the zodiac, according to Runes, The Wisdom of 
the Kabbalah. Menadel keeps exiles faithful or 
loyal to their native land. His corresponding angel, 
in the cabala, is Aphut. For the sigil of Menadel, 
see Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 273. 

Menafiel —in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel 
of the 11th hour of the day, serving under Bariel. 

Menakel [Manakel] 

Menaqel [Manakel] 

Mendrion —in the cabala [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton] the supreme ruling angel of the 7th 
hour of the night. 

Menerva (Menvra)—one of the Novensiles, 
the 9 supreme spirits or gods of the Etruscans. 

Meniel —one of the 72 angels bearing the name 
of God Shemhamphorae. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Menor —an angel conjured in the exorcism of 
Wax in Solomonic magical operations. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Mentor —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
Wax. Mentioned in the Clavicula Salomonis. [See 
Menor.] 

Menvra [Menerva] 

Mephistopheles (Mephistophiel, “he who 
loves not the light”)—the name, originally 
Hebrew, is derived from “mephiz” meaning 
destroyer, and “tophel” meaning liar. Mephisto¬ 
pheles is a fallen archangel, one of 7 great princes 
of Hell (one of the maskim, q.v.). According to 
Cornelius Agrippa, Mephistopheles “stands under 
the planet Jupiter, his regent is named Zadkiel, 
who is an enthroned angel of the holy Jehovah.” 
[Rf. Dr. Faust’s Hollenzwang, a book of magic.] 
In Seligmann, The History of Magic, Mephisto¬ 
pheles is “a subordinate demon, a fallen angel too, 
and sometimes admitted to the presence of God, 
but he is not the devil.” In secular literature, 
Mephistopheles is either a minion of Satan or a 
stand-in for Satan. In Marlowe’s Dr. Faustus, he is 
a leading character, along with Lucifer, Beelzebub, 


and other devils (the angels in the play, good or 
evil, are not named). In Goethe’s Faust it is 
Mephistopheles who, acting for his overlord Satan, 
seals the pact with Faust. Mephistopheles is also a 
character is Busoni’s uncompleted opera Doktor 
Faust, which was heard for the 1st time in America 
in 1964. Hegel the philosopher saw in Mephisto¬ 
pheles the symbol of “the negative principle.” 

Merasin [Meresin] 

Merattron [Metatron] 

Merciless Angel, The [Temeluch] 

Mercury (Greek, Hermes)—in the cabala, the 
angel of progress, also a designation for Raphael. 
[Rf. Acts 14 :11—12; Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Meresijm —angel of the 1st hour of the day, 
serving under Sammael. [Rf. Waite, The Lemege¬ 
ton.] 

Meresin (Merasin, Meris, Metiris, Merihim, 
Meririm)—a fallen angel, chief of the aerial 
powers, as in Paradise Lost. In Camfield, A Theo¬ 
logical Discourse of Angels, Meresin (spelt Miririm) 
is one of the 4 angels of revelation—which would 
make him a holy angel; however, in Hey wood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, he is lord of 
thunder and lightning in Hell—which, presum¬ 
ably, would make him one of the damned. 

Meriarijm —a chief officer-angel of the night, 
serving under Sarquamish. 

Meririm (Meresin)—in Barrett, The Magus I, 
Meririm is identified as the evil power whom Paul 
in Ephesians calls “the prince of the power of the 
air” (i.e., Satan). Barrett claims that Meririm is 
prince over the angels of whom Revelation speaks 
and “to whom is given to hurt the earth and the 
sea . . . he is the meridian devil, a boiling spirit, a 
devil ranging in the south.” 

Merkabah —angel of the chariot (the cheru¬ 
bim). 

Merkabah Angels —6 classes of angels [Rf 
3 Enoch] closest to, or guardian of, the throne of 
Glory. They include the galgallim, the hayyoth, 
the ofanim, the seraphim. 



...Mephistopheles, one of the great princes of hell [ 191 ] 


Merkaboth (“carriage”)—there were (or are) 
7 merkaboth, corresponding to the 7 Heavens or 
“the actual vision of the divine might.” They are 
to be compared with the middoth or the sefiroth 
(q.v.), and are regarded as personifications of the 
divine attributes, serving before the throne of 
Glory. [Rf. Scholem, Major Trends in Jewish 
Mysticism; Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism; 
Zechariah 6.] 

Merloy —an “inferior” spirit invoked in Solo¬ 
monic magical rites. [Rf. Grimorium Verum; 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 239; 
Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, p. 98.] 

Mermeoth —one of the 9 angels that “run 
together throughout heavenly and earthly places,” 
as cited in the Gospel of Bartholomew in James, 
The Apocryphal New Testament. 

Merod —“a most holy angel” invoked in 
magical operations, as set forth in Waite, The 
Greater Key of Solomon. 

Merof —in occult lore ( The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses), an angel of the Seal, summoned in 
magical rites. 

Meros —an angel of the 9th hour of the day, 
serving under Vadriel. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Merroe —“a most pure angel” invoked in 
Solomonic black magic operations, specifically in 
the conjuration of the Sword. [Rf. Grimorium 
Verum ; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Mesarepim (Mesharethim)—an order of angels 
of the Song-Uttering Choirs, serving under the 
leadership of the angel Tagas. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Meserach [Nisroc] 

Meshabber —in rabbinic legendary lore, the 
angel in charge of the death of animals. [Rf. 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews V, p. 57.] 

Mesharethim [Mesarepim] 

Mesharim—the name of Joseph Caro’s angel, 
through whom Caro received visions and after 
whom he titled his Maggid Mesharim, a book which 
contains a description of these visions. The angel 
served as a personified Mishnah. Caro (1488-1575) 


was doyen of the 15th-century cabalistic Safed 
community in Upper Galilee (Palestine). [Rf. 
Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism, p. 120.] 

Meshulhiel —10th of the averse (unholy) 
sefiroth, as set forth in Isaac ha-Cohen’s text. For a 
list of the 10 sefiroth, both holy and unholy, see 
Appendix. 

Mesriel —an angel of the 10th hour of the day, 
serving under Oriel. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Messenger of the Covenant [Angel of the 
Testament] 

Messiach —an angel invoked in magical opera¬ 
tions. Messiach is named in Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon, p. 107, in connection with the 
invocation “of the water and of the hyssop.” The 
invocant is advised to recite, at the time of the 
operations, versicles out of Psalms 6, 67, 64, and 
102. 

Messiah —equated with Soter, Christ, Savior, 
God. With Metatron, Messiah is designated a 
cherub and guardian angel of Eden armed with a 
flaming sword. He is also the angel of the Great 
Council, angel of the Lord, a sefira in the Briatic 
world (one of the 4 worlds of creation) and ana¬ 
logous to the Logos or Holy Ghost. Paul in 
Colossians 1:16 and Ephesians 1:21 has Messiah 
in mind when he speaks of the angel “raised above 
all principalities and powers, virtues, domina¬ 
tions.” So too Enoch, when he speaks of the 
“head of days.” [For cabalistic references, see 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Mesukiel —one of the 10 holy sefiras (3rd of the 
10). He is to be compared or equated with Machut 
or Malkuth (q.v.); also with En Soph and the 
Shekinah. However, according to Isaac ha-Cohen 
of Soria, in his “Emanations of the Left Side,” 
worlds of horror and destructive imaginings 
spring from Mesukiel, resulting in a double 
emanation, with 7 successive groups of pure 
angels (the holy sefiroth) on one side and 7 camps 
of dark spirits (the evil sefiroth) on the other. [Rf 
Bamberger, Fallen Angels, p. 173.] 

Metathiax —in Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon, one of the 36 decani (i.e., spirits of the 



[192] METATRON / MICHAEL 

zodiac who are demons of disease). Metathiax < 
causes trouble of the reins, and only the holy angel 
Adonael (q.v.) is able to thwart or undo his evil < 

work. \Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, p. 222.] i 

Metatron (Metratton, Mittron, Metaraon, , 

Merraton, etc.)—in noncanonical writings, Meta- ] 

tron is perhaps the greatest of all the heavenly 
hierarchs, the 1st (as also the last) of the 10 arch- ] 

angels of the Briatic world. He has been called , 

king of angels, prince of the divine face or pre- . 

sence, chancellor of Heaven, angel of the covenant, ] 

chief of the ministering angels, and the lesser . 

YHWH (the tetragrammaton). He is charged , 

with the sustenance of mankind. In Talmud and j 

Targum, Metatron is the link between the human 
and divine. In his earthly incarnation he was the 
patriarch Enoch—although Tanhuna Genesis [R/ 
Jewish Encyclopedia I, 94] claims he was originally 
Michael. Talmudic authorities for the most part 
shy away from identifying Enoch with Metatron; 
on the contrary, the tendency is to play down the 
relationship and even to suppress it. In a curious 
rale of the marriage of God and Earth (Elohim 
and Edem), told in the Alphabet of Ben Sira, God 


Metatron (El Shaddai). Reproduced from 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon. 



demands from Earth the “loan” of Adam for 
1,000 years. Upon Earth agreeing to the loan, 
God writes out a formal receipt, and this is wit¬ 
nessed by the archangels Michael and Gabriel. 
The receipt, so the story goes, is on deposit “to 
this day” in the archives of Metatron, the heaven¬ 
ly scribe. Metatron has been variously identified 
as the dark angel who wrestled with Jacob at 
Peniel (Genesis 32); as the watchman is “Watch¬ 
man, what of the night?” (Isaiah 21); as the Logos; 
as Uriel; and even as the evil Sammael. It is said that 
Exodus 23:20 refers to Metatron: “Behold, I send 
an angel before thee, to keep thee in the way and 
to bring thee unto the place which I have pre¬ 
pared” (usually applied to John the Baptist), and 
Exodus 23:22: “My name is in him.” In addition, 
Metatron has been identified as the Liberating 
Angel and the Shekinah (who is regarded in some 
sources as Metatron in his female aspect); in 
Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition (p. 76), 
he is the “demiurge of classical Jewish mysticism.” 
According to the cabala, Metatron is the angel 
who led the children of Israel through the wilder¬ 
ness after the Exodus; in other occult writings he 
is described as the twin brother or half-brother 
of the angel Sandalphon (cf the twin brothers 
Ormuzd and Ahriman in Zoroastrian lore). 
With the possible exception of Anafiel (q-v.), 
Metatron is the tallest angel in Heaven, and the 
greatest, apart from the “eight great princes, the 
honored and revered ones, who are called YHWH 
by the name of their king.” This is according to 
3 Enoch. Jewish legend relates that upon Metatron 
(while still Enoch, a mortal) arriving in Heaven, he 
was transformed into a spirit of fire and equipped 
with 36 pairs of wings as well as innumerable eyes. 
The meaning of the name Metatron has never 
been satisfactorily explained. Eleazor of Worms 
thought it derived from the Latin metator, a 
guide or measurer. Hugo Odeberg advanced the 
hypothesis (3 Enoch, append. 2) that the name 
Metatron originated in Jewish circles and “should 
be regarded as a pure Jewish invention, viz., a 
metonym for the term ‘little YHWH.’ ” Odeberg 
is inclined to interpret the name as meaning “one 
who occupies the throne next to the divine 
throne.” Accordingly Metatron is said to reside 



in the 7th Heaven (the dwelling place of God). 
He appears, when invoked, “as a pillar of fire, his 
face more dazzling than the sun.” Gershom Scho- 
lem, on the basis of The Apocalypse of Abraham, 
believes the name might be a “vox mystica” for 
Yahoel (i.e., God). Metatron has also been 
identified as Isaiah’s suffering servant, the Messiah 
of Christian theology; but see Orlinsky, “The So- 
Called ‘Suffering Servant’ in Isaiah 53.” The 72 
names of God find a match in the 72 (and more) 
names of Metatron—Surya, Tatriel, Sasnigiel, Lad, 
Yofiel, to mention a few. Metatron has also been 
credited with the authorship of Psalms 37:25 
according to Talmud Yebamoth 16b; and the 
authorship, in part, of Isaiah 24:16. In The Zohar 
I, Metatron is spoken of as Moses’ rod, “from 
one side of which comes life and from the other, 
death.” In Eisenmenger, Traditions of the Jews II, 
408, Metatron is indeed the supreme angel of 
death, to whom God daily gives orders as to the 
souls to be “taken” that day. These orders Meta¬ 
tron transmits to his subordinates Gabriel and 
Sammael. That Metatron was considered, at least 
in some sources, mightier than either Michael or 
Gabriel is the view expressed in the Chronicles of 
Jerahmeel. Here the story goes that whereas neither 
of the two great Biblical angels was able to eject 
Jannes and Jambres, the Egyptian wizards, from 
Heaven (whither they managed, it seems, to 
ascend by witchcraft), Metatron was able to accom¬ 
plish their expulsion. In Yalkut Hadash, also, 
Metatron is said to be “appointed over Michael 
and Gabriel.” As for the size or height of Meta¬ 
tron, The Zohar computes it to be “equal to the 
breadth of the whole world.” In rabbinic lore, 
this was the size of Adam before he sinned. One of 
Metatron’s secret names is Bizbul (according to the 
Visions of Ezekiel where, however, the meaning of 
this name is not given). King, The Gnostics and 
Their Remains, p. 15, says of Metatron: “This is 
the Persian Mithra.” Many other sources, sup¬ 
porting this identification, are cited by Odeberg, 
3 Enoch. In Jewish angelology, Metatron is “the 
angel who caused another angel to announce, 
before the Flood, that God would destroy the 
world.” [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, “Metatron,” 
vol. 8.] Among numerous other missions or deeds 


...Metatron, prince of the divine face [19 3] 

credited to Metatron is the staying of Abraham’s 
hand on the point of sacrificing Isaac. But this 
llth-hour intercession has also been imputed to 
Michael, Zadkiel, Tadhiel, and of course to the 
“angel of the Lord,” who is the one designated in 
Genesis 22. Finally, according to Talmud Abodah 
Z'arah 3b, Metatron is the “teacher of prematurely 
dead children in Paradise.” 

Metrator—“a most holy angel” invoked in 
magical operations. The specific conjuration is the 
one “concerning the Needle and other Iron 
Instruments,” during which the invocant is 
advised to recite versicles from Psalms 31, 42. 
[Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 118.] 

Miahel—one of the 72 angels of the 72 quinaries 
of the degrees of the zodiac. [Rf. Runes, The Wis¬ 
dom of the Kabbalah.] 

Mibi —a ministering angel invoked in cabalistic 
rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Michael (“who is as God”)—in Biblical and post- 
Biblical lore, Michael ranks as the greatest of all 
angels, whether in Jewish, Christian, or Islamic 
writings, secular or religious. He derives originally 
from the Chaldeans by whom he was worshipped 
as something of a god. He is chief of the order of 
virtues, chief of archangels, prince of the presence, 
angel of repentance, righteousness, mercy, and 
sanctification; also ruler of the 4th Heaven, 
tutelary sar (angelic prince) of Israel, guardian of 
Jacob, conqueror of Satan (bearing in mind, how¬ 
ever, that Satan is still very much around and un¬ 
vanquished), etc. His mystery name is Sabbathiel. 
In Islamic writings he is called Mika’il. As the 
deliverer of the faithful he accords, in the Avesta, 
with Saosyhant the Redeemer. Midrash Rabba 
(Exodus 18) credits Michael with being the author 
of the whole of Psalm 85. In addition, he has been 
identified with the angel who destroyed the hosts 
of Sennacherib (a feat also ascribed to the prowess 
of Uriel, Gabriel, Ramiel) and as the angel who 
stayed the hand of Abraham when the latter was 
on the point of sacrificing his son Isaac (a feat also 
ascribed to Tadhiel, Metatron, and other angels). 
In Jewish lore (Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews 
II, 303) “the fire that Moses saw in the burning 



[ 194 ] MICHAEL / MIEL 



Michael announces to the Virgin her ap¬ 
proaching death. A predella by Fra Filippo 
Lippi. From Jameson, Legends of the Madonna. 


bush had the appearance of Michael, who had 
descended from Heaven as the forerunner of the 
Shekinah.” Zagzagel ( q.v .) is usually denominated 
the angel of the burning bush. According to 
Talmud Berakot 35, where the comment is on 
Genesis 18:1-10, Michael is recognized by Sarah 
as one of 3 “men” whom Abraham entertained un¬ 
awares. Legend speaks of Michael having assisted 4 
other great angels—Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, 
Metatron—in the burial of Moses, Michael dis¬ 
puting with Satan for possession of the body [Rf. 
Jude 9.] In mystic and occult writings, Michael 
has often been equated with the Holy Ghost, the 
Logos, God, Metatron, etc. In Baruch III, Michael 
“holds the keys of the kingdom of Heaven”— 
which, traditionally, and in the popular image, 
applies more aptly to St. Peter. In Hastings, 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 616, the 
article “Demons and Spirits” speaks of the earliest 
traditions in Muslim lore as locating Michael in the 
7th Heaven “on the borders of the Full Sea, 
crowded with an innumerable array of angels”; 
and after describing Michael’s wings as “of the 
color of green emerald,” goes on to say that he “is 
covered with saffron hairs, each of them containing 
a million faces and mouths and as many tongues 


which, in a million dialects, implore the pardon of 
Allah.” In ancient Persian lore, Michael was 
called Beshter, “one who provides sustenance for 
mankind,” which would equate him with Meta¬ 
tron. [Ilf. Sale, The Koran, “Preliminary Dis¬ 
course.”] Here it is revealed that the cherubim 
were formed from the tears Michael shed over the 
sins of the faithful. Christians invoke Michael as St. 
Michael, the benevolent angel of death, in the 
sense of deliverance and immortality, and for 
leading the souls of the faithful “into the eternal 
light.” To the Jews, according to Regamey, 
What Is an Angel?, Michael is the “viceroy of 
Heaven” (a title applied to the great adversary 
ha-Satan, before the latter fell). With Gabriel, 
Michael is the most commonly pictured angel in 
the work of the classic masters. He is depicted 
most often as winged, with unsheathed sword, 
the warrior of God and slayer of the Dragon (a 
role later apportioned to St. George). As the angel 
of the final reckoning and the weigher of souls 
(an office he shares with Dokiel, Zehanpuryu, and 
others) he holds in his hand the scales of justice. 
Fra Filippo Lippi, in a sketch reproduced on p. 436 
in Jameson, Legends of the Madonna, shows Michael 
kneeling and offering a taper, as the angel who 
announces to Mary her approaching death (it was 
Gabriel who announced the birth of the Virgin’s 
God-child). On p. 433 of the same book an orien¬ 
tal legend is recalled which tells of Michael having 
cut off the hands of “a wicked Jewish high priest” 
who had attempted to overturn the bier of the 
just-deceased Virgin; however, the hands of the 
“audacious Jew” were reunited to his body at 
the intercession of St. Peter. Among the recently 
discovered Dead Sea scrolls there is one titled the 
War of the Sons of Light Against the Sons of Darkness. 
Here Michael is called the “Prince of Light.” 
He leads the angels of light in battle against the 
legions of the angels of darkness, the latter under 
the command of the demon Belial. In Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews, Michael is regarded as the 
forerunner of the Shekinah (q.v.) ; as the angel who 
brought Asenath from Palestine as a wife to 
Joseph; as the one who saved Daniel’s companions 
from the fire; as the intermediary between Mor- 
decai and Either; as the destroyer of Babylon, etc., 




etc. He is also said to have informed the fallen 
angels of the Deluge. When he wept, his tears 
changed into precious stones. In Longfellow’s The 
Golden Legend, Michael is the spirit of the planet 
Mercury and “brings the gift of patience.” In 
secular writings, notably in Dante and Milton, 
Michael figures prominently. In contemporary 
fiction, he serves as archdeacon to Bishop Broug¬ 
ham in Robert Nathan’s The Bishop’s Wife. To 
Yeats, in the latter’s poem “The Rose of Peace,” 
Michael is styled “leader of God’s host.” The latest 
news on Michael is that Pope Pius XII declared 
him to be (in 1950) the patron of policemen. 

Michar [Mikhar] 

Micheu —in gnostic lore, a power (with 
Mikhar) “set over the waters of life.” [Rf. the 
Bruce Papyrus.] 

Microprosopus— “the left side” of the oper¬ 
ative good in cabalistic cosmogony; he was 
formed, it is claimed, out of the 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 
8th, and 9th sefiroth. [Rf. Runes, The Wisdom of 
the Kabbalah.] 

Midael —“a chief and captain” in the celestial 
army. Cited in The Magus as an angel of the order 
of warriors. Cf. Psalms 34-35. Reference to Midael 
is found also in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon. 

Middoth —in the view of Rabbi Nathan 
(Abot), the middoth are the 7 personifications of 
the divine attributes or emanations; they are to be 
compared with the sefiroth ( q.v .). Two of the 
middoth—the angels of mercy and of justice— 
are reputed to have been the principal agents in the 
creation of the world, according to rabbinic 
legend. The other 5 middoth are personifications 
of wisdom, right, love, truth, peace. 

Midrash —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Miel —the angel of Wednesday. [R/". de Abano, 
The Heptameron.] In Shah’s The Secret Lore of 
Magic (p. 294), Miel is cited as one of 3 angels of 
the planet Mercury, the other 2 angels being 
Raphael and Seraphiel. 

Michael. A 6th-century Byzantine mosaic. 

Reproduced from Rdgamey, Anges. 







[196] MIGHTS I MIVON 

Mights —another term for the order of virtues 
( q.v.), as used by Benjamin Camfield in his 
Theological Discourse of Angels. Steiner in his 
The Work of the Angels in Man’s Astral Body equates 
Mights with Dynamis (q.v.). 

Migon —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron enumerated in 3 Enoch. 

Mihael —in the cabala, an angel in control of 
conjugal fidelity and fertility. Ambelain, La 
Kahhale Pratique, lists Mihael as belonging to the 
order of virtues. According to The Magus, he is 
of the 72 angels bearing the name of God Shem- 
hamphorae. 

Miha’il —in Muslim lore, an angel of the 2nd 
Heaven in charge of a group of angels (in the 
guise of eagles) engaged in worshipping Allah. 
\Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 
IV, 619.] 

Mihr (Mihir, Miher, Mithra)—in ancient 
Persian lore, the angel presiding over the 7th 
month (September) and over the 16th day of that 
month. Mihr watched over friendship and love. 
[Rf. Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum.] 
The magi held that, on Judgment Day, 2 angels 
would stand on the bridge called al Sirat (which is 
finer than a hair and sharper than the edge of a 
sword) to examine every person crossing. Mihr 
would be one of those angels, Sorush the other. 
Mihr, representing divine mercy, and holding a 
balance in his hand, would weigh the person’s 
actions performed during his lifetime. If found 
worthy, the person would be permitted to pass on 
to Paradise. If he was found unworthy, then Sorush, 
representing divine justice, would hurl him into 
Hell. [R/ Sale, The Koran, “Preliminary Dis¬ 
course,” p. 64.] 

Mijcol (Mijkol)—an angel of the Seal, used in 
conjuring. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Mikael —an angel who influences the decisions 
of monarchs, nobles, and governors; also useful 
in uncovering conspiracies against states. His 
corresponding angel is Arpien. [Rf. Ambelain, La 
Kahhale Pratique, p. 277.] 


Mikail or Mikhael (Michael)—in Arabic lore, 
Mika’il is a guardian angel invoked in rites of 
exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, 
“Angels.”] 

Mikhar (Mikheus)—in gnosticism, one of the 
celestial powers with dominion over the springs 
of the waters of life (heavenly baptism). [Rf. 
Doresse, The Secret Books of Egyptian Gnosticism, 
p. 85 and 182; cf. Micheu.] 

Mikheus [Mikhar] 

Mikiel —one of the 72 angels in charge of the 
zodiac. [Rf Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Milkiel (Melkeyal, Tamaano—“my kingdom 
is God”)—in The Zohar an angel who rules over 
spring. The name Milkiel, according to Charles, 
The Book of Enoch, is an “inversion” of Helem- 
melek (q.v.). According to Barton, Origin of the 
Names of Angels, Milkiel rules one of the summer 
months and goes also under the names of Tamaani 
and Sun. [Rf. Enoch I, 82:15.] 

Milliel —a Wednesday angel residing in the 3rd 
Heaven, as cited in de Abano, The Heptameron. 
However, according to Barrett, The Magus, 
Milliel resides in the 2nd Heaven. But whatever 
Heaven Milliel resides in, he must be invoked 
from the south. 

Miniel —in occult lore, one of the great lumi¬ 
naries whose chief virtue is that he can, when 
invoked, induce love in an otherwise cold and 
reluctant maid; but for the best results, the invo- 
cant must be sure he is facing south. [Rf. Barrett, 
The Magus.] Miniel is also invoked in spells for the 
manufacture and use of magic carpets. One such 
spell is given in Shah, Occultism (p. 167), and is 
reproduced in the Appendix. 

Ministering Angels (Hebrew, malache ha- 
shareth) —in the judgment of some Talmudists, 
the ministering angels constitute the highest order 
in the celestial hierarchy, and are the “hosts of the 
Lord,” as in the Mekilta of Rabbi Ishmael ; in the 
view of others, the ministering angels are of an 
inferior order or rank and, since they are so nume¬ 
rous, the most expendable. In Talmud Sanhedrin 



...Mirtiel, can induce love in reluctant females [19 7 ] 


it is reported that “the ministering angels roasted 
meat and cooled wine for Adam” during the brief 
while that our 1st parents dwelt in Eden. In 
Yalkut Reubeni and The Book of Adam and Eve, 3 of 
the ministering angels who thus served Adam are 
named: Aebel, Anush, and Shetel. The Testament 
of Naphtali (in the Testament of the Twelve Patri¬ 
archs) speaks of God “bringing down from his 
highest Heaven 70 ministering angels (with 
Michael at their head) to teach languages to the 
70 children that sprang from the loins of Noah.” 
[Cf. Guardian Angels.] In Talmud Hagiga we 
learn that “the ministering angels are daily created 
out of the river Dinur . . . they sing a Hymn and 
thenceforth perish, as it is said, ‘Each morning 
they are new.’ ” 

Ministers —a term for angels, as in Hebrews 
1:7: “He maketh the winds his angels, and the 
flaming fires his ministers.” 

Mirael —a “captain and chief” of the celestial 
armies, invoked in Solomonic magical rites. [ Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 112, and 
Psalms 34-35.] 

Miri —angel of an hour, mentioned and in¬ 
voked by H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) in her poem 
“Sagesse.” Miri is listed in Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique, a source from which the American poet 
drew many of the names of angels found in her 
work. 

Miriael —an angel of the order of warriors. 
According to Barrett, The Magus II, 58, the name 
Miriael derives from Psalms 34 and 35, where the 
expression “angel of the Lord” occurs. 

Misran —genius of persecution and one of the 
genii of the 12th hour, as noted in Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Missabu —in occultism, a ministering angel to 
Arcan, king of the angels of the air serving on 
Monday. [Rf de Abano, The Heptameron; Shah, 
Occultism, p. 49.] 

Missaln— one of the angels of the Moon, 
serving on Monday, and responsive to invoca¬ 
tions in magical rites. [Rf Shah, The Secret Lore of 
Magic, p. 296.] 


Mitatron (Metatron?)—as described in de 
Abano, The Heptameron, a Wednesday angel 
resident of the 3rd Heaven and invoked from the 
west. 

Mithghiiel A’ —one of the angel princes of the 
Hosts of X, as cited in M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses XI. 

Mithra (Mitra, Mihir, Mihr, Ized, etc.)—in 
Vedic cosmology, one of the shining gods, 
analogous to the Judaean-Christian angels. King 
in The Gnostics and Their Remains equates Mithra 
with Metatron ( q.v .). In Persian theology, Mithra 
or Mihr is one of the 28 izeds (spirits) that sur¬ 
round the great god Ahura-Mazda. He “rises from 
a paradise in the east, has 1,000 ears and 10,000 
eyes.” Among Aryans, he is a god of light. In 
Heaven, he assigns places to the souls of the just. 
[Rf The Dabistan, p. 145; Lenormant, Chaldean 
Magic.] 

Mitmon —an angel called on in goetic conjura¬ 
tions. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Miton —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Mitox(t) —a Zoroastrian daeva of the “falsely 
spoken word;” a servant of Ahriman, Persian 
prince of demons. [Rf Grundriss der iranischen 
Philologie III; Seligmann, History of Magic, p. 39.] 

Mitspad —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Mitzrael (Mizrael)—one of the archangels in 
cabalistic lore. Mitzrael induces obedience on the 
part of inferiors toward superiors. He is one of 72 
angels bearing the name of God Shemhamphorae. 
His corresponding angel is Homoth. For the sigil 
of Mitzrael, see Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
p. 289. 

Mitzraim (Hebrew name for Egypt)—the 
guardian angel of Egypt (but see Uzza; also 
Rahab). [Rf. Bamberger, Fallen Angels.] 

Mivon —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 



[198] MIZABU I MURMUR 

Mizabu —a spirit of the 4 quarters of the Uni¬ 
versal Mansions, called on in Monday invocations. 
\Rf. The Secret Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Mizan—an angel invoked in Arabic incantation 
rites. [Rf. Shah, Occultism.] 

Mizgitari —genius of eagles and one of the 
genii of the 7th hour, as noted in Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Mizkun —genius of amulets and one of the 
genii of the 1st hour. Noted in Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Mizumah— in ancient Persian lore, the angel 
who “attended the servants of God and promoted 
the better faith.” [Rf. The Dabistan, p. 126.] 

Mnesinous— in the Revelation of Adam to His 
Son Seth, one of the great celestial powers “who 
are to draw the elect up to Heaven.” [Rf. Doresse, 
The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, p. 182.] 

Moak(k)ibat —in Muslim lore, the recording 
angel, just as Pravuil or Radueriel is in Judaeo- 
Christian lore, or as Nebo or Nabu is in Baby¬ 
lonian lore. The term “al Moakkibat” stands for 
2 guardian angels who, in Arabic legend, write 
down men’s activities. The angels succeed each 
other daily. [Rf. Sale, The Koran, “Preliminary 
Discourse,” IV.] 

Modiel —one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the East Wind, according to listing 
in the Ozar Midrashim II, 316. 

Modiniel —in Jewish cabala, one of the spirits 
of the planet Mars. His corresponding intelligence 
is Graphael. [See Lenormant, Chaldean Magic: Its 
Origin and Development.] 

Moloc(h) (Molech)—a fallen angel in Paradise 
Lost II, 4, where he is described as “the fiercest 
Spirit/That fought in Heav’n; now fiercer by 
despair.” In Hebrew lore, he is a Canaanitish god 
of fire to whom children were sacrificed. Solomon 
built a temple to him [Rf I Kings II, 7.] 

Monadel —one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. 


Monker (Munkar)—one of 2 blue-eyed black 
angels (the other being Nakir) in Arabic demon¬ 
ology. Monker’s special job is to examine the 
souls of the recently deceased so as to determine 
whether they are worthy of a place in Paradise. 
See “A Mandaean Hymn of the Soul” by Schulim 
Ochser, mentioned in Thompson, Semitic Magic. 
[Rf. Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, “Azabu’l- 
Qabr.”] 

Morael (Moriel)—in geonic lore, the angel of 
awe or fear. He rules over the month of Elul 
(August-September). He has the power of making 
everything in the world invisible—according to 
Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, where, 
on p. 161, Morael’s sigil is reproduced. 

Morax [Forfax] 

Mordad —the angel of death in ancient Persian 
lore. [Rf. Sale, The Koran, “Preliminary Dis¬ 
course,” p. 51.] 

Moroni —the Mormon angel of God, son of 
“Mormon, the last great leader of the Nephites.” 
A statue of Moroni tops the 40-foot monument at 
Hill Cumorah, 4 miles south of Palmyra, New 
York, where Joseph Smith claimed he received, 
from the hand of this angel, the gold plates 
containing “the gospel of a new revelation.” [Rf 
the Book of Mormon .] 

Moses —in tannaitic sources, Moses is not 
infrequently referred to as an angel, or as a 
patriarch-prophet who enjoys a status above an 
angel. He is one of 3 humans who “ascended to 
Heaven to perform service” (Enoch, Elijah, 
Moses); but while we know the angelic names of 
Enoch and Elijah (Metatron and Sandalphon) we 
have no angelic name for Moses. True, there is a 
legend ( Midrash Tannaim relates it) that, on 
occasion, Michael assumed the form of Moses. 

Mqttro —an angel (one of the nomina barbara ) 
“that ministers to the son of man.” [Rf. M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses.] 

Mrgioial —an invocation angel (one of the 
nomina barbara), and among the 4 angels appointed 
by God to the Sword who communicated the 



.. .Moroni, gave Joseph Smith the golden plates [19 9] 


divine name to Moses. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword 
of Moses.] 

Mtniel —an angel who exercises dominion over 
wild beasts, just as Behemiel (q.v.) exercises 
dominion over tame beasts. Mtniel shares his 
office with 2 other angels, Jehiel and Hayyel. 

Mufgar —in Pirke Hechaloth an angelic guard 
serving in the 1st Heaven. 

Mufliel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
ahah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Mulciber —in Paradise Lost I, 740ff., Mulciber 
once “built in Heav’n high Towers.” [Cf. Vulcan.] 

Mumiah —in the cabala, an angel who controls 
the science of physics and medicine and is in charge 
of health and longevity. His corresponding angel 
is Atembui. For Mumiah’s sigil, see Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, p. 294. 

Mumol —an angel invoked with Mutuol (q.v.) 
in the consecration of Pen and Ink. 

Munkar [Monker] 


Mupiel (“out of the mouth of God”)—in 
Mosaic incantation rites, an angel invoked for the 
obtaining of a good memory and an open heart. 

Murdad —in ancient Persian lore, the angel of 
July; also the angel governing the 7th day of the 
month. [Rf. Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum 
Persarum.] Where Murdad is equated with Azrael, 
he is the angel who separates the body from the 
soul, at death. 

Muriel (Murriel, from the Greek “myrrh”)— 
angel of the month of June and ruler of the sign 
of Cancer (crab), as cited in Camfield, A Theo¬ 
logical Discourse of Atigels, p. 67. Muriel is also one 
of the rulers of the order of dominations. He is 
invoked from the south and is able to procure for 
the invocant a magic carpet. In addition, he serves 
under Veguaniel as one of the chief angelic officers 
of the 3rd hour of the day. 

Murmur (Murmus)—before he turned into a 
fallen angel, Murmur was partly of the order of 
thrones and partly of the order of angels. This 
“fact was proved after infinite research,” reports 
Spence in An Encyclopaedia of Occultism, p. 119. 
In Hell, Murmur is a great duke with 30 legions 


A woodcut from the Cologne Bible showing the burial of Moses. On left, God, interring the 
Lawgiver. Assisting angels are Michael and Gabriel (or Zagzagel). From Pictures from a Mediaeval 
Bible. 










MUSANIOS I M ZPOPIASAIEL 


[ 200 ] 

of infernal spirits attending him. He manifests in 
the form of a warrior astride a gryphon, with a 
ducal crown upon his head. He teaches philosophy 
and constrains the souls of the dead to appear 
before him for the answering of questions. His 
sigil is shown in Waite, The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts, p. 182. 

Musanios— in gnostic lore, an aeon of the lower 
ranks; yet he serves as a ruler of the realm of the 


invisible. [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics .] 

Mutuol —in The Grand Grimoire, an angel 
invoked in the consecration of Pen and Ink, a 
powerful device for the binding of evil spirits, or 
of exorcising them. [Rf Shah, Occultism, p. 20.] 

Mzpopiasaiel —a leader of the angels of wrath. 
He is so designated in M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses. 







Angel of Eden expelling Adam and Eve. 

Identified as Michael by Milton in Paradise 
Lost, but as Raphael by Dryden in State of 
Innocence. Reproduced from Hayley, The 
Poetical Works of John Milton. 



Naadame —a “prince over all the angels and 
Caesars.” [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Naamah (“pleasing”)—in the cabala, one of 4 
angels of prostitution, all mates of Sammael, the 
other 3 being Lilith, Eisheth Zenunim, and Agrat 
(Iggereth) bat Mahlat. According to Rabbi Isaac, 
the sons of God, specifically Uzza and Azael, were 
corrupted by Naamah. Rabbi Simeon called her 
mother of demons, and Rabbi Hiya believed she 
was the “great seducer not only of men but of 
spirits and demons,” and that, with Lilith, she 
“brought epilepsy to children.” [Rf. The Zohar I, 
55a.] In The Legends of the Jews I, 150, Naamah is 
the mother of the devil Asmodeus by the angel- 
demon Shamdan. In Genesis 4:22, Naamah is a 
mortal, the sister of Tubal-cain. 

Naar (Hebrew, “lad”)—one of the many names 
of the angel Metatron. 

Naaririel (variant of Naar)—an angelic guard 
of the 7th Heaven. 

Nabu (Nebo, “prophet, proclaimer”)—the 


Babylonian prototype of the Judaeo-Christian 
archangel. Nabu was the son and minister of the 
god Marduk and in Sumerian theosophy was 
known as “the angel of the Lord.” As the scribe 
of the book of fate, his emblem is the lamp. He 
was also regarded as one of the recording angels. 
In Akkadian myth, Nabu was the god of the 
planet Mercury. Relating the Eastern divinity to 
Enoch-Metatron, Ginzberg, in The Legends of the 
Jews V, 163, says: “The Babylonian Nebo, 
heavenly scribe, gave Enoch to the Palestinian, 
Metatron to the Babylonian Jews, and nothing 
could be more natural than the final combination 
of Enoch-Metatron.” [Rf. Catholic Encyclopedia I, 
“Angel.”] 

Nachiel (Nakiel, Nakhiel)—in the cabala, the 
intelligence of the sun, when the sun enters the 
sign of Leo. Nachiel’s cabalistic number is 111. 
His corresponding spirit is Sorath (q.v.), according 
to Paracelsus’ doctrine of Talismans. [Rf. Christian, 
The History and Practice of Magic I, 318.] 

Nachmiel —an angelic guard of the gates of the 
South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 317.] 


203 



[204] NACORIEL / NELCHAEL 


Nacoriel —an angel of the 9th hour of the 
night. [See Hanozoz.] 

Nadiel —in Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie, 
the angel of migration; also ruler of December 
(Kislav). [See Haniel.] 

Nafriel —an angelic guard of the gates of the 
South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 317.] 

Nagrasagiel (Nasragiel, Nagdasgiel, Nagazdiel) 
—prince of gehinnom (Hell) who showed Moses 
around when the Lawgiver toured the under¬ 
world. [Rf. Midrash Konen and The Legends of the 
Jews II, 310.] Cf. Sargiel; also the Sumerian- 
Chaldean Nergal. 

Nahaliel (“valley of God”)—an angel presiding 
over running streams. [Rf Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] In Numbers 21:19 Nahaliel is the 
name of a town. 

Nahoriel [Nahuriel] 

Nahuriel —one of 7 angelic guards of the 1st 
Heaven, as listed in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Nairyo Sangha (Persian)—one of 3 angel 
princes of the 3 upper gates of the nether world, 
a messenger of Ahura-Mazda. [Rf. Midrash Konen; 
Jewish Encyclopedia I, 593.] “To Nairyo Sangha 
the souls of the righteous are entrusted.” 

Nakhiel [Nachiel] 

Nakiel [Nachiel] 

Nakir —a black angel in Mohammedan lore. 
[See Monker.] 

Nakriel —one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
11,316.] 

Nanael —in practical cabala, one of the princi¬ 
palities; also one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. Nanael 
exercises dominion over the great sciences, 
influences philosophers and ecclesiastics. His cor¬ 
responding angel is Chomme. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus-, Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Naoutha —the Gospel of Bartholomew, p. 176, 
speaks of Naoutha as an angel with dominion over 


the southwest. He is described as having “a rod 
of snow in his hand” which he “putteth into his 
mouth,” and as quenching the fire “that cometh 
out of his mouth.” 

Narcoriel —an angel of the 8th hour of the 
night. [See Hanoziz.] 

Narel —in Enoch lore, the angel of winter. 

Nariel —according to Barrett, The Magus, 
Nariel governs the South Wind. He is also ruler 
of the noonday winds. “By some called Ariel,” 
says The Magus. 

Naromiel —in occult lore, one of the intelli¬ 
gences of the moon, and ruler of Lord’s Day 
(Sunday). He resides in the 4th Heaven and is 
invoked from the south. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron-, Lenormant, Chaldean Magic; Barrett, 
The Magus.] 

Narsinha —the “man-lion” avatar, one of the 
10 divine incarnations in Vedic lore. He is “lord 
of heroism.” [See Avatar.] 

Narudi —an Akkadian spirit, “lord of the great 
gods,” whose image was placed in houses to ward 
off wicked people. [Rf. Lenormant, Chaldean 
Magic, p. 48.] 

Nasarach (Nisroch)—another form for Nisroc 
( q.v .) used in Isaiah and in II Kings 19:37. 

Nasargiel (Nagrasagiel, Nasragiel)—a great, 
holy, lion-headed angel who, with Kipod and 
Nairyo Sangha, exercised dominion over Hell. 
He is to be compared with the Sumerian-Chaldean 
Nergal. Nasargiel showed Moses around the 
nether realms on orders from God. [Rf. Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews II, 310.] 

Nasharon —an angel prince “over all the angels 
and Caesars.” [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Nashriel —in the text of Isaac ha-Cohen, 
Nashriel is one of 3 sarim (angelic princes) under 
the suzerainty of Sephuriron, the latter ranking as 
10th of the 10 holy sefiroth. The other 2 sarim are 
Ithuriel and Malkiel. 

Nasragiel [Nasargiel] 



Nasr-ed-Din (“Help of faith”)—one of the 7 
archangels in Yezidic devil-worshipping religion. 
For the names of the other 6 archangels, see 
Appendix. 

Nathanael (“gift of God”—Xathaniel, Zathael, 
etc.)—in Jewish legendary lore, Nathanael is the 
6th created angel and one of the 12 angels of 
vengeance. He is lord over the element of fire. He 
is the angel ( The Biblical Antiquities of Philo) who 
“burned the servants ofjair” in the contest between 
God and Baal, saving from fire the 7 men who 
would not sacrifice to the pagan deity. In Waite, 
The Lemegeton, Nathanael is an angel of the 6th 
hour, serving under Samil. He is also one of 3 
angels (with Ingethal and Zeruch) set over hid¬ 
den things. Ferrar, The Uticanonical Jewish Books, 
mentions the legend of Nathanael being sent down 
from Heaven by God to help the warrior Cerez 
defeat the Amorites. 

Natiel —an angel’s name found inscribed on an 
oriental Hebrew charm ( kamea ) for warding off 
evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Nattig —in Chaldean lore, one of the 4 principal 
classes of protecting genii; to be compared with 
the kerubs of Babylonian myth. 

Natzhiriron —in Isaac ha-Cohen’s text, one of 
the 10 holy sefiroth, the personalized angel of 
Netzach. In the cabala, the personalized angel is 
Haniel or Anael. 

Naya’il —in Islamic apocalyptic lore, an angel 
encountered by the sufi Abu Yazid in the 4th 
Heaven during the sufi’s mir’aj (ascent) to all 7 
Heavens. The angel Naya’il offers Abu Yazid “a 
kingdom such as no tongue can describe,” but, 
knowing the offer (actually a bribe) to be only a 
test of his single-minded devotion to God, Abu 
Yazid “pays no heed to it.” [Rf. Nicholson, “An 
Early Arabic Version,” etc.] 

Nbat —a Mandaean “light-being” (angel). [R/ 
Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.] 

Ndmh —angel of the summer equinox invoked 
as an amulet against the evil eye. [Rf. Trachten¬ 
berg, Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 


...Nanael, influences philosophers [205] 

Nebo [Nabu] 

Neciel —one of the 28 angels governing the 28 
mansions of the moon. 

Nectaire (fictional)—in Anatole France, Revolt 
of the Angels, the wondrous flutist. In Heaven, 
according to France, Nectaire was of the order of 
dominations and known as Alaciel. 

Nefilim [Nephilim] 

Nefta (fictional)—an angel (female) loved by 
Asrael in the opera by Francetti. [See Asrael.] 

Negarsanel (Nasargiel)—prince of Hell, “der 
Fiirst des Gehinnom,” as Negarsanel is called in 
the Alphabet of Rabbi Akiba (German translation). 

Negef —a holy angel of destruction invoked in 
ritual magic at the close of the Sabbath. [Rf. 
Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 

Nehinah —an angel invoked in necromantic 
operations. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] 

Neithel —Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah, 
cites Neithel as one of the 72 angels ruling over 
the 72 quinaries of the degrees of the zodiac. 

Nekir —in Arabic lore (drawn from the Talmud, 
according to De Plancy), Nekir is an angel who, 
with Monker and Munkir, interrogates the dead 
in order to discover what god they worshipped 
when alive. Both Nekir and Monker are said to 
have hideous aspects and frightening voices. 

Nelapa —in Barrett, The Magus, a Wednesday 
angel who resides in the 2nd Heaven and is 
invoked from the south in theurgic operations. 

Nelchael —an angel belonging to the order of 
thrones and one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae, according 
to Barrett, The Magus, and Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique. However, he appears to be not a holy 
angel but a fallen one who, in Hell, teaches 
astronomy, mathematics, and geography to his 
fellow demons. His corresponding spirit is known 
as Sith. 



[206] NEMAMIAH / NISROC{H) 



Nergal, one of the four principal protecting 
genii (guardian angels) in Chaldean cosmology. 
From Schaff, A Dictionary of the Bible. 


Nemamiah —in the cabala, an archangel, 
guardian of admirals, generals, and all who engage 
in just causes. He is also one of the 72 bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. [Rf. 
Ambelain* La Kabbale Pratique, p. 289, where 
Nemamiah’s sigil is reproduced.] 

Nememel —one of the 72 angels ruling over 
the 72 quinaries of the degrees of the zodiac. [Rf. 
Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah .] 

Nephilim (Nephelin, Nefilim)—in Hebrew 
lore, the nephilim stood for giants of primeval 
times; also as fallen angels, or their offspring (the 
“sons of God” who cohabited with the daughters 
of men, as in Genesis 6). Closely related were the 
emim (“terrors”), the rephaim (“weakeners”), the 
gibborium (“giants”), the zamzummim (“achiev¬ 
ers”), etc. [Rf. Enoch 7; De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal ; Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews', Num¬ 
bers 13:33.] Head of the nephilim was Helel (q.v.). 
According to the 9th-century writer Hiwi al 
Balkhi, the nephilim were the builders of the 
Tower of Babel. [Rf. Saadiah, Polemic against Hiwi 
al Balkhi, pp. 54—56.] 

Nephonos —one of the 9 angels that “run 
together throughout the heavenly and earthly 
places.” The 9 angels are named by Beliar and 
revealed to Bartholomew in the Gospel of Bartholo¬ 
mew, p. 177. 


Neqael (Nuqael)—an evil (i.e., fallen) archangel 
included in the Enoch listings. The name is 
actually a corruption or variant of Ezeeqael. 

Nergal (“great hero,” “great king,” “king 
death”)—in Babylonian mythology, Nergal (or 
Nirgal or Nirgali) is a planetary ruler of the week. 
To the Akkadians he was a lion-headed god; to 
the Chaldeans, one of 4 principal protecting genii 
(guardian angels). He was also the god of Kutha, 
as in II Kings 17:30, and answered to Baal as a 
deity of Hades. [Rf Forlong, Encyclopedia of 
Religions .] In Sumerian-Chaldean-Palestinian lore, 
Nergal is ruler of the summer sun. In gnosticism 
he is king of Hades (as in Scripture). In occultism 
he is chief of secret police in the nether regions. 
He is also credited with being a god of pestilence, 
war, fever, as well as the spirit of the planet Mars 
and one of the governors of the 12 signs of the 
zodiac. In Le Clercq’s collection, Nergal is 
figured on a bronze medallion: obverse, lion¬ 
headed; verso, wings and clawed feet. In De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal, he is “an honorary 
spy in the service of Belzebuth.” See picturization 
from Schaff, A Dictionary of the Bible. 

Neria(h) (“lamp of God”)—one of the 70 
childbed amulet angels. 

Neriel —probably the same as Neria. In The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses, Neriel is listed 
among the 28 angels who govern the 28 mansions 
of the moon. 

Nesanel —in Mosaic incantation rites, Nesanel, 
along with the angels Meachuel and Gabril, is 
summoned to free or purge the invocant of all sin. 

Nestoriel —an angel of the 1st hour of the day, 
serving Sammael. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton .] 

Nestozoz —chief officiating angel of the 3rd 
hour of the night, serving Sarquamich. 

Nethahel— in Runes, The Wisdom of the 
Kabbalah, one of the 72 angels ruling over the 72 
quinaries of the degrees of the zodiac. 

Netoniel —in black magic, an angelic name 
found inscribed in Hebrew characters on the 1st 
pentacle of the planet Jupiter. [Rf. Shah, The 


...Nergal, chief of Hell's secret police 


Secret Lore of Magic, Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Netzach (“victory, firmness”)—the 7th of the 
10 holy sefiroth (emanations of God). The 
personalized angel of Netzach is Haniel (Anael) of 
the order of elohim. 

Netzael [Netzach] 

Nibra Ha-Rishon —one of the emanations of 
God (i.e., a sefira). According to Muller, History 
of Jewish Mysticism, Nibra Ha-Rishon must be 
ranked among the highest angelic beings and to 
be compared with Makon, Logos, Sophia, 
Metatron. 

Nichbadiel —one of numerous angelic guards • 
of the gates of the South Wind. [See Ozar Mid- 
rashim II, 317.] 

Nidbai —in Mandaean mythology, one of 2 
guardian uthri (angels) of the River Jordan; the 
other guardian angel is Silmai or Shilmai. [Rf. 
Drower, The Canonical Prayerhook of the Man- 
daeans, and The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.] 

Nilaihah (or Nith-haiah)—Ambelain, La Kab- 
bale Pratique, lists Nilaihah as a poet-angel of the 
order of dominations. He is invoked by pronounc¬ 
ing any of the divine names along with the 1st 
verse of Psalm 9. He is in charge of occult sciences, 
delivers prophecies in rhyme, and exercises 
influence over wise men who love peace and 
solitude. His sigil is figured on p. 273 of Ambe- 
lain’s work. 

Nine Angels That Rule the Nine Hierarchies 
in Heaven —1. Merattron or Metatron (over the 
seraphim); 2. Ophaniel (over the cherubim); 
3. Zaphkiel (over thrones); 4. Zadkiel (over domi¬ 
nations); 5. Camael (over powers); 6. Raphael 
(over virtues); 7. Haniel (over principalities); 
8. Michael (over archangels); 9. Gabriel (over 
angels). [Rf. Barrett, The Magus.] 

Ninety-nine Sheep —comprising the world 
of the angels. Methodius of Philippi, Convivia 3, 6, 
writes: “We must see in the 99 sheep a representa¬ 
tion of the powers and the principalities and the 
dominations.” Origen, Cyril of Jerusalem, and 
Gregory of Nyssa wrote to the same effect. 


[207] 

Ninip —in Babylonian theosophy, chief of the 
angels (i.e., chief of the igigi). [Rf Catholic 
Encyclopedia, “Angels”; Mackenzie, Myths of 
Babylonia and Assyria.] 

Ninth Heaven —the home of the 12 signs of 
the zodiac, according to Enoch II; but see 
Eighth Heaven. In Hebrew, the 9th Heaven is 
called kukhavim. 

Nirgal (Nirgali)—one of the 4 principal classes 
of protecting genii (i.e., guardian angels) in 
Chaldean lore. Usually represented as spirits in the 
form of lions with men’s heads. [Rf. Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic, p. 121.] See Nergal. 

Nisah [Netzach] 

Nisan —a Talmudic angel mentioned in Hyde, 
Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum. 

Nisroc(h) (“the great eagle”)—originally an 
Assyrian deity, worshipped by Sennacherib (II 
Kings 19:37). But, according to Milton ( Paradise 
Lost VI, 447), Nisroc is a ruling angel of the order 
of principalities. In occult lore, he is regarded as 
a demon, serving as chief of cuisine in the House 
of Princes (in Hell). See illustration from Schaff, 
A Dictionary of the Bible. Nisroc is equated 
with Chemos, Baal-Peor, Meserach and Arasek. 

Nisroch, an Assyrian deity worshipped by Sen¬ 
nacherib (II Kings 19, 37). From Schaff, A 

Dictionary of the Bible. 




[208] NITHAEL / N’ZURIEL YHWH 



The nine orders of the celestial hierarchy. A 14th-century conception. From Hans Werner 
Hegemann, Der Engel in der deutschen Kunst. Munich: R. Piper, 1950. 

Nithael —in the cabala, an angel formerly of that now, in Hell, he governs emperors and kings, 

the order of principalities. Barrett, The Magus, also civil and ecclesiastical personages of the 

claims that Nithael is, despite his fall, still one of highest rank. For Nithael’s sigil, see Ambelain, La 

the 72 angels bearing the name of God Shem- Kabbale Pratique, p. 289. 

hamphorae. The prevailing belief is that Nithael 

joined Satan during the rebellion in Heaven and Nithaiah (Nith-Haiah) [Nilaihah] 







Nitibus—a genius of the stars, cited in Levi, 
Transcendental Magic. In Apollonius ofTyana, The 
Nuclemeron, Nitibus is an angel of the 2nd hour. 

Nitika —a genius of precious stones; he presides 
over the 6th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, The 
Nuctemeron-, Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

N’Mosnikttiel —a leader of the angels of rage. 
Cited in Jewish mysticism tracts. [Rf. M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses.] 

Noaphiel —an angel whose name is inscribed 
in Hebrew characters on the 5th pentacle of the 
planet Saturn. In conjuring Noaphiel, the invocant 
is advised (for best results) to recite a versicle from 
Deuteronomy 10. 

Nogah —one of 2 big stars (i.e., angels) that 
Metatron pointed out to Moses in the 4th Heaven. 
Nogah “stands above the sun in summer to cool 
the earth.” [Rf. Revelation of Moses.] 

Nogahel —one of the princes “who stand con¬ 
tinually before God and to whom are given the 
spirit names of the planets.” [Rf. Cornelius 
Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy III.] 

Noguel —in the cabala, a spirit of the planet 
Venus. His corresponding intelligence is Hagiel. 
[Rf Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, p. 26.] 

Nohariel —an angelic guard of the East Wind. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Noriel (“fire of God”)—in The Zohar (Exodus 
147 a), one of angels symbolized by special colors; 
in the case of Noriel, “by the gold of brass, lit 
with orange.” [Rf. Divine Pymander of Hermes 
Trismegistus.] In Ozar Midrashim (II, 316), Noriel 
is one of the angelic guards of the gates of the East 
Wind. 

Novensiles —the 9 great deities of the Etruscans 
who controlled thunderbolts. Their names were 
Tina, Cupra, Menrva (Menerva), Summanus, 
Vejovis (Vedius), Sethlans, Mars, Mantus, Ercle 


.. .Nithael, governs emperors and kings [209] 

(Hercle). In his The Case Against the Pagans 
(Adversus Nationes), Amobius reports that, accord¬ 
ing to Granius, the Novensiles are the Muses; 
according to Cornificius, they watch over the 
renewing of things; according to Maniliits, they 
are the gods to whom alone Jupiter gave power 
to wield his thunderbolts. 

Nudriel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 3rd 
heavenly hall. 

Nukha’il and Nura’il —in Arabic lore, guard¬ 
ian angels invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. 
Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Nuriel (“fire”)—angel of hailstorms in Jewish 
legend. Moses encountered Nuriel in the 2nd 
Heaven. When he issues from the side of Hesed 
(kindness), Nuriel manifests in the form of an 
eagle, an eagle that, when issuing from the side 
of Geburah (force), is Uriel. In The Book of 
Protection, Nuriel is characterized as a “spell¬ 
binding power” and is grouped with Michael, 
Sliamshiel, Seraphiel, and other great angels. 
According to The Zohar I, Nuriel governs Virgo. 
He is 300 parasangs tall and has a retinue of 50 
myriads of angels “all fashioned out of water and 
fire.” The height of Nuriel is exceeded only by 
the erelim; by the watchers; by Af and Hemah; 
and of course by Metatron, who is the tallest 
hierarch in heaven—excepting, perhaps, Had- 
raniel and Anafiel. In gnostic lore, Nuriel is one of 
7 subordinates to Jehuel, prince of fire. [Rf King, 
The Gnostics and Their Remains, p. 15; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews II, 306 and V, 418.] As a 
charm for warding off evil, Nuriel is also effective. 
His name is found engraved on oriental amulets, 
as noted by Schrire, Hebrew Amulets. 

N’Zuriel Yhwh —one of the 8 highest ranking 
angel princes of the Merkabah, all of whom, it 
seems, occupy stations superior to Metatron. ]Rf 
3 Enoch.] 



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The Olympic spirits and angels of the seven 
planets along with their sigils and other signs. 
From Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic. 



Obaddon —another form for Abaddon. In 
Klopstock, The Messiah, Obaddon is a seraph and 
companion to Ithuriel ( q.v .). In canto VII of 
Klopstock’s work, Obaddon is titled the “minister 
of death.” [Cf. this with Abaddon (Apollyon), 
called in Revelation 9:10 the “angel of the bottom¬ 
less pit.”] 

Obizuth —a winged female dragon who is put 
to flight by the archangel Bazazath (q.v.). 

Och —in occultism, the angel who governs the 
sun (but see entry “Angel of the Sun” for other 
hierarchs designated as rulers of this “planet”). 
Och gives 600 years of perfect health (if, that is, 
the invocant lives that long). Och is also ruler of 
28 of the 196 Olympian provinces in which Heaven 
is divided. He is cited as a mineralogist apd “prince 
of alchemy.” For Och’s sigil, see Budge, Amulets 
and Talismans, p. 389. In this work one finds Och 
credited with ruling 36,536 legions of spirits. For 
additional mention of Och, see the works of 
Cornelius Agrippa. 

Octinomon (Octinomos)—a “most holy angel 
of God” invoked in the conjuration of the Reed. 


Oertha —angel of the north. “He hath a torch 
of fire and putteth it to his sides, and they warm 
the great coldness of him [so] that he freeze not 
the world.” [Rf. Gospel of Bartholomew, p. 176.] 

Oethra —one of the 9 angels that “run together 
throughout heavenly and earthly places.” Beliar 
names these 9 angels to Bartholomew on the 
latter’s inquiry as to their identity. [ Rf. Gospel of 
Bartholomew, p. 177.] 

Ofael —a Tuesday angel of the 5th Heaven, 
invoked from the south. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron .] 

Ofaniel or Ofan (Ofniel, Ophan, Ophaniel, 
Yahriel)—eponymous chief of the order of ofanim 
(thrones). Ofaniel is said to exercise dominion over 
the moon and is sometimes referred to as “the 
angel of the wheel of the moon.” In 3 Enoch, he 
has 16 faces, 100 pairs of wings, and 8,466 eyes. 
He is “one of the 7 exalted throne angels who carry 
out the commands of the powers.” [Rf. Almadel 
of Solomon ; The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 
“By the ancient sages,” says Rashi, commenting 
on Ezekiel 1:20, “Ophan, prince of this order, is 


211 



[212] OFANIM I ORE’A 

regarded as identical with Sandalphon.” [R/] 
glossary to C. D. Ginsburg, The Essenes and The 
Kabbalah.] 

Ofanim (Ophanim, literally “wheels,” “many¬ 
eyed ones”)—in Merkabah lore, the ofanim (later 
called galgallim) are equivalent to the order of 
thrones. Enoch speaks of the “ofanim of the fiery 
coals.” In The Zohar, the ofanim rank higher than 
the seraphim. In Mirandola’s scheme, they are 
placed 6th in the 9-choir hierarchic order. While 
Ofaniel is the eponymous head, Rikbiel and 
Raphael are also denoted chief. The sefira Wisdom 
is represented, among the angelic hosts, by the 
ofanim, says Ginsburg, The Essenes and The 
Kabbalah, p. 90. Milton associates the ofanim with 
the cherubim. [Rf. West, Milton and the Angels.] 

Ofiel —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
[Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel ; Budge, Amulets 
and Talismans, p. 225.] 

Ofniel [Ofaniel] 

Og-a descendant of the fallen angels; the son 
of Ahijah, the grandson of Semyaza, and the 
brother of Sihon. In Jewish tradition, Og was an 
Amorite giant slain in the ankle by Moses. In 
Numbers 21:33, Og is king of Bashan who is 
delivered into the hands of Israel by God. How¬ 
ever, there is a legend that Og was in the Flood 
and was saved from it by climbing to the roof of 
the ark. Palit ( q.v .) is another name for Og. [See 
Gog and Magog.] 

Ogdoas —in gnosticism, the ogdoas constitute 
a group of the highest heavenly powers. In the 
view of Basilides, a noted gnostic writer, the 
ogdoas compose “the world of the great archons.” 
In Hellenic lore, the 8th Heaven is called ogdoas, 
and is the dwelling place of divine wisdom. 

Ohazia —a prince of the face and one of the 
angelic guards of the 3rd Heaven. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim I, 117.] 

Oirin —in Chaldean cosmology, angelic watch¬ 
ers over the kingdoms of the earth. ( Cf. irin.) 
[Rf. The Book of the Sacred Magic of Abra-Melin, 
The Mage, p. 208.] 


Ol —one of the angels of the 12 signs of the 
zodiac. Ol represents the sign of Leo and is in 
control of it. He is also regarded as one of the fiery 
triplicities. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Oldest Angel —the Logos (Reason or the 
Word) is called by Philo the “oldest Angel, 
Dominion, God’s likeness.” [Rf. Mead, Thrice- 
Greatest Hermes I, 137, 161-162.] 

Olivier —an ex-prince of the order of arch¬ 
angels, as noted in Michaelis, Admirable History of 
the Possession and Conversion of a Penitent Woman. 
[Rf. Garinet, History of Magic in France; De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal III.] 

Olympian Spirits —in the Arbatel of Magic, a 
ritual magic work of the 16th century, the 
Olympian spirits dwell in the air and in inter¬ 
planetary space, each spirit governing a number 
of the 196 provinces in which the universe is 
divided. There are (or were) 7 of these great 
hierarchs: Araton or Aratron, Bethor, Phaleg, 
Och, Hagith, Ophiel (or Orifiel), Phul. [Rf. 
Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism.] The Olympian 
spirits were also known as the Stewards of Heaven. 

Omael —an angel who multiplies species, 
perpetuates races, influences chemists, etc. Omael 
is (or was) of the order of dominations and is 
among the 72 angels bearing the mystical name 
of God Shemhamphorae. Whether Omael is fallen 
or still upright is difficult to determine from the 
data available. He seems to operate in both 
domains (Heaven and Hell). [Rf. Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique.] 

Omeliel (Omeliei)—one of the 4 angelic names 
inscribed in Hebrew characters on the 3rd pentacle 
of Saturn. The circle of evocation (where the name 
Omeliel occurs) is reproduced in Shah, The 
Secret Lore of Magic, p. 54. 

Omiel —an angel who “mixed” with mortals 
before the Deluge, as noted in Schwab, Vocabulaire 
de VAngelologie. 

Omophorus —in Manicheanism, a “world¬ 
supporting angel.” He carries the earth on his 
shoulders, like another Atlas. [See Splenditenes.] 



On —in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 
an angel or a divine name invoked in the conjura¬ 
tion of the Reed. In The Book of Black Magic and 
of Pacts, On is a demon invoked in Monday 
conjurations addressed to Lucifer. 

Onafiel —an angel governing the moon, 
according to Longfellow, The Golden Legend (late 
editions). In earlier editions of this work, the angel 
governing the moon is given by Longfellow as 
Gabriel. Onafiel appears to be a coinage of Long¬ 
fellow’s, through his inadvertent transposition of 
the letters f and n, in setting down Ofaniel. 

Onayepheton (Oneipheton)—the name of a 
spirit by which God will summon the dead and 
raise them to life again. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon .] 

Oniel —perhaps the same as Onoel. Equated 
with Hutriel (q.v,). Oniel is supervisor of the 5th 
division of Hell, where Ahab dwells, Ahab being 
one of the few “who have no portion in the world 
to come.” [Rf. Midrash Konen; Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews IV, 188; Revelation of Rabbi 
Joshua ben Levi.] 

Onoel (Oniel, Hamiel, Haniel, Anael)—in 
gnostic lore, Onoel is one of the 7 archons. Origen 
cites him as hostile, a demon, who manifests in 
the form of an ass. In the list given by Origen, 
however, Gabriel and Michael are included among 
the 7 archons. [Rf. Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon', Grant, Gnosticism and Early Christianity, 
Mead, Thrice-Greatest Hermes (I, 294); Origen, 
Contra Celsum.] 

Onomatath—one of 9 angels that “run to¬ 
gether throughout the heavenly and earthly 
places,” as cited in the Gospel of Bartholomew, p. 
117, where the names of the 9 angels are named 
by Beliar and revealed to Bartholomew. 

Onzo —“a fair angel of God” invoked in the 
exorcism of Wax. [Rf. Clavicula Salomonis.] 

Ophan— identified by the ancient sages as the 
angel Sandalphon ( q.v.). 

Ophaniel [Ofaniel] 


... Ophis, befriended Adam and Eve [213] 

Ophanim (ofan(n)im)—a term in Hebrew for 
the order of cherubim (q.v.). 

Ophiel —one of the 7 Olympian spirits (or one 
of 14 such spirits). Ophiel rules the planet Mer¬ 
cury. As an angel of the order of powers, he can be 
invoked. As many as 100,000 legions of lesser 
spirits are under his command. In Cornelius 
Agrippa’s works, Ophiel’s sigil is shown; his name 
appears also on the Necromantic Bell ofGirardius, 
which is rung to summon the dead. [Rf. Grillot, 
Witchcraft, Magic and Alchemy, fig. 144; the 
Arbatel of Magic.] 

Ophiomorphus —in Ophitic (gnostic) lore, the 
serpent Ophiomorphus is a name for the Hebrew 
devil Sammael. [Rf. Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of 
Christianity II, p. 52.] 

Ophis (“serpent”)—“head of the rebellious 
angels”—so described by the Assyrian author 
Phercies and quoted by Barrett in The Magus', also 
referred to in Butler, Ritual Magic. Ophis was 
revered by the ophites as a symbol of divine 
wisdom who, in the form of a serpent, befriended 
Adam and Eve in Eden, persuading them to eat of 
the forbidden fruit (as a service to man). In Barrett, 
The Magus II (opposite p. 46), Ophis is pictured as 
a demon. 

Opiel —an angel invoked in love charms, 
according to Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation 
Texts from Nippur. 

Or —a great angel invoked in exorcism rites, 
specifically in the invocation at fumigation, as 
noted in Grimorium Verum. 

Orael —one of the intelligences of the planet 
Saturn. 

Oraios (Oreus)—in gnosticism, one of the 7 
archons that figure in the Ophitic system. [Rf. 
Catholic Encyclopedia, “Gnosticism.”] 

Oranir —chief prince of the 9 angels of the 
summer equinox, and effective as an amulet 
against the evil eye. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition.] 

Ore’a —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 4th heavenly hall. 



[ 214 ] 



Toome’s conception of an angel of the order of cherubim. From Heywood, The Hierarchy 
of the Blessed Angels. 





Oreus (Oraios, Horaios)—in Phoencian myth¬ 
ology, one of the 7 elohim (angels) of the divine 
presence, creators of the universe. According to 
Irenaeus, Oreus is one of the 7 archons in the 
Ophitic system. Origen, Contra Celsum, believes 
that the name Oreus derives from the art of 
magic. 

Oriares (Narel)—an angel governing the 
season of winter. 

Oribel—variant for Uriel as one of the angels 
reprobated by Pope Zachary in 745 C.E. [R/l Hugo, 
The Toilers of the Sea; Heywood, The Hierarchy of 
the Blessed Angels.] 

Oriel (Auriel, “light of God”)—one of the 70 
childbed amulet angels; also one of the angelic 
rulers of the 10th hour during daylight. In Malache 
Elyon, Oriel is called the angel of destiny. [Rf The 
Book of the Angel Raziel; Budge, Amulets and 
Talismans.] 

Orifel [Orifiel] 

Orifiel (Oriphiel, Orifel, Orfiel, Orphicl)—in 
Pope Gregory’s listing, Orifiel is one of the 7 
archangels. Elsewhere he is cited a prince of the 
order of thrones and (in Cornelius Agrippa, The 
Third Book of Philosophy) an angel with dominion 
over the planet Saturn. In Hebrew cabala, according 
to Eliphas Levi, Orifiel, like Saturn, is the angel of 
the wilderness. In Waite, TheLemegeton, Orphiel (so 
spelt) is one of the 7 regents of the world and an 
angel of the 2nd hour of the day serving under 
Anael. In Paracelsus’ doctrine of Talismans, 
Orifiel is a chief Talisman and replaces one of the 
planetary genii of Egypt. Orifiel is also cited here 
as an angel of Saturday. In secular lore, Long¬ 
fellow, The Golden Legend, gives Orfiel as the angel 
governing the planet Saturn, although, in the 1st 
edition of this work, the angel is given as Anachiel. 
Orifiel appears as a character in Remy de Gour- 
mont’s play Lilith. In Cabell, The Devil's Own 
Dear Son, he is a “time-serving archangel.” [Rf 
Christian, The History and Practice of Magic I, 317.] 

Origin of Angels—angels were conceived of 
as existing before the creation of the world (Job 


...Orion, St. Peter’s guardian angel [215] 

38:7; Ambrose in “Ministrations and Communion 
with Angels”; Origen; Ketab Tamin 59; Yalkut 
Hadash lib). In later Judaism, angels are said to 
have been created on the 1st day of Creation (The 
Book of Jubilees 2:1; Enoch II, 29:3; Baruch III, 21; 
Augustine); on the 2nd day of Creation ( Bereshith 
Rabba 1:5; Pirke Rabbi Eliezer, 3; Enoch II ; Targum 
Yerushalmi; Rabbi Jochanan; Isaac of Corbeil); 
on the 4th day of Creation (Ibn Anas); and on the 
5th day of Creation ( Genesis Rabbah, Rabbi 
Haninah). No authorities have thus far come to 
light favoring the 3rd day of Creation. 

Oriockh (Ariukh)—in Enoch II, God instructs 
his 2 angels, Oriockh and Mariockh, to guard the 
books authored by Enoch. The name Orioc is 
found in Genesis 14:1 and 9; also in Daniel 2:14, 
but not as the name of an angel. 

Orion—in Klopstock, The Messiah, Orion is 
St. Peter’s guardian angel. Eliphas Levi finds an 
identity between Orion and Michael. [Rf. Semy- 
aza for a symbolic connection between that fallen 
seraph and the constellation called Orion (the 
hunter) by the Greeks.] 

Oriphiel [Orifiel] 

Ormael—an angel of the 4th hour of the night, 
serving under Jefischa. [R/l Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Ormary—an angel of the 11th hour of the day, 
serving under Bariel. 

Ormas—an angel of the 10th hour of the day, 
serving under Uriel. 

Ormazd (Ormuzd)—in Zoroastrian lore, the 
supreme power of good, the prince of light and 
twin brother of Ahriman, the latter being prince 
of darkness and evil; both are supreme, each in his 
own realm. This dualism was rejected by Jews and 
Christians alike in their espousal of monotheism, 
where evil exists only on the sufferance of God. 
Ormazd is sometimes represented as a bearded 
man attended by angels. 

Ormijel—angel of the 4th hour of the day, 
serving under Vachmiel. 

Ormisiel—angel of the 2nd hour of the night, 
serving under Farris. 



[216] OROIAEL / OZAH 

Oroiael —in gnostic lore, one of 4 great 
luminaries identified with Uriel or Raguel by 
Irenaeus. [Rf. Apocryphon ofJohn.] 

Oromasim —one of the 3 princes of the world, 
the other 2 being Araminem and Mitrim, accord¬ 
ing to The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Orphaniel —in occult lore, “a great, precious 
and honorable angel, ruler of the 1st legion.” His 
star is Luna. He is invoked in Monday conjura¬ 
tions. [Rf The Ancient’s Book of Magic; The Secret 
Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Orphiel [Orifiel] 

Orus (or Horus)—a fallen angel in Milton’s 
Paradise Lost I, 478. 

Osael —a Tuesday angel resident of the 5th 
Heaven. He is invoked from the south. [Rf 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Oseny —in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, a cherub (also called a seraph) summoned 
in ceremonial magic. 

Osgaebial —an angelic ruler of the 8th hour of 
the day; he commands “a great cloud of attending 
spirits.” [Rf Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Osiris —a fallen angel in Paradise Lost I, 478. 
Milton derived him from Egyptian mythology, 
where Osiris, a great divinity and husband of Isis, 
is slain by his brother Typhon. 

Otheos —“a most holy name invoked for dis¬ 
covering treasure,” according to Waite, The 
Book of Black Magic and of Pacts. In The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses, Otheos is a spirit of the 
earth used by cabalists in conjuring rites. 

Othriel —a spirit invoked in magical opera¬ 
tions. [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] 

Otmon— in Merkabah lore, a name for 
Metatron “when he seals the guilty in Israel.” 
[Rf. 3 Enoch, 43.] 

Ou —variant for Uriel. The angel Ou appears 
in The War Between the Sons of Light and the Sons 


of Darkness, a copy of which was found among 
the recently discovered Dead Sea scrolls. 

Ouestucati —a female angel of an hour who 
comes from the Hesperides and brings the sea 
wind. She is called “the lady of the chaste hands” 
by H.D. (Hilda Doolittle) in the latter’s poem 
“Sagesse.” In the cabala, Ouestucati is the corres¬ 
ponding angel of Iehuiah (q. v.). 

Oul —a special aide to the angel Dalquiel in the 
3rd Heaven. [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelo- 
logie.] 

Oumriel —angel of service residing in the 4th 
Heaven. [Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Angelologie.] 

Ourpahil (Ourpail)—an angel in Mandaean 
tradition. [Rf. Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des 
Coupes de Khouabir .] 

Ouza (Uzza)—in the Midrash Petirat Mosheh, 
which contains a dialogue between God and the 
soul of Moses, God is reminded that “the angels 
Ouza and Azael came down from Heaven and 
were corrupted [through cohabiting with the 
daughters of men], but that Moses was not cor¬ 
rupted,” the reason for Moses remaining pure was 
that, after God had revealed Himself to the Law¬ 
giver, the latter abstained from intimacy with his 
wife. In Exodus 19:15, it will be recalled, husbands 
were exhorted to “come not at your wives” so as 
to keep themselves clean preparatory to meeting 
with their Lord on the mount. All this seems 
inconsistent with the traditional and prevailing 
belief among Jews that conjugal union, far from 
being a contaminating act, is a holy one, blessed 
by the Shekinah herself. 

Overseer of Light —the angel Jeu ( q.v.). 

Overshadowing Cherub —the king Nebu¬ 
chadnezzar or the Prince of Tyre was called the 
“overshadowing cherub” (Ezekiel 28:16). He is 
slain by God. [Rf. “Select Demonstrations of 
Aphrahat” in Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. 
13, p. 355.] 

Ozah (Uzah)—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron in Sefer ha-Heshek listing. 





Christopher Beeston’s conception of an 
angel of the order of powers. From Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. 



Pa’aziel—in 3 Enoch, a name for the angel 
Metatron. 

Pabael—one of the spirit messengers of the 
moon. Probably the same as Pabel. 

Pabel —an angel of the 4th Heaven ruling on 
Lord’s Day. Pabel must be invoked when the 
invocant faces west. [Rf. de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron.J 

Pachdiel (“fear”)—chief angelic guard of the 
4th Heaven, according to a listing in Pirke 
Hechaloth. 

Pachriel—one of the 7 great angels appointed 
over the 7 Heavens, as cited in 3 Enoch, 17. Every 
one of these angels, including Pachriel, “is 
accompanied by 496,000 myriads of ministering 
angels.” 

Padael (Phadihel)—one of numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the West Wind, as cited in 
Ozar Midrashim II, 316. 

Padiel (Phadihel)—one of the 70 childbed 
amulet angels named in The Book of the Angel 


Raziel. Padiel is the angel who appeared to 
Samson’s parents (see Jewish Quarterly Review, 
1898, p. 328). [Rf. Judges 13.] 

Paffran—in occultism, a Tuesday angel of the 
air, serving under the rule of Samax. 

Pagiel—an angel petitioned in ritual prayer for 
fulfilment of the invocant’s desires. Pagiel is cited, 
along with other “great and glorious spirits,” in 
Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. 

Pahadiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed in the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Pahadron—in Jewish mysticism, the chief angel 
of terror. Pahadron governs the month of Tishri 
(September-October). [.R/l Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition, p. 99.] 

Pahaliah—an angel invoked to convert heathens 
to Christianity. He rules theology and morals and 
is one of the angels bearing the mystical name of 
God Shemhamphorae. Pahaliah’s corresponding 
angel is Sothis. [Rf Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
p. 264.] 


219 



[220] PAIMON I PATROZIN 

Paimon (Paymon, “tinkling sound”)—before 
he fell, Paimon was an angel of the order of 
dominations. In Hell he is a great king, obedient 
only to Lucifer. Under Paimon are 200 legions of 
spirits “part of them of the order of angels, part 
potentates [powers].” When invoked he appears 
in the form of a young woman mounted on a 
dromedary, with a crown upon his head, as he is 
pictured in Dictionnaire Infernal (1863 ed.), p. 521. 
On special invocations he is accompanied by 2 
great princes of the underworld, Bebal and 
Abalam, according to Wierus, Pseudo-Monarchia. 
For Paimon’s sigil, see Waite, The Book of Black 
Magic and of Pacts, p. 168. 

Palalael—to be distinguished from Palaliel, 
both serving as angelic guards of the gate of the 
West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Palatinates—a term for one of the 9 hierarchic 
orders; a variant for the order of powers, as given 
in a spell or conjuration in The Greater Key of 
Solomon for conferring the gift of invisibility on 
the conjuror. [Rf. Shah, Occultism, p. 161.] 

Palit (“the escaped”)—in Jewish legend, Palit 
is a name for Michael when Michael escaped from 
the grip of Sammael (Satan) at the time the latter 
was hurled from Heaven. [Rf. Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews I, 231.] The Midrash Tehillim 
gives Og as another name for Palit. Still another 
form, Praklit, appears in Rabbinic Philosophy and 
Ethics. 

Palpeltiyah—one of the many names of 
Meta tr on. 

Paltellon—an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, p. 94.] 

Paltriel—an angelic guard of the 5th Heaven, 
as listed in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Pammon—angel of the 6th hour of the night, 
serving under Zaazonash. [Rf. Waite, The Leme- 
geton, p. 69.] 

Panael—one of the angelic guards of the North 
Wind. He is to be distinguished from Paniel, 
another angel in the same service. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316.] 


Panaion—in the view of Scholem, Jewish 
Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic 
Tradition (p. 63), Panaion is “possibly another 
name for Metatron.” Rabbi Ishmaelin Lesser Hecha¬ 
loth speaks of seeing “Panaion the Archon, one of 
the highest servants, and he stands before the 
throne of glory.” 

Pancia—a “most pure angel” invoked in 
ceremonial magic, specifically in the conjuration of 
the Sword. [Rf Grimorium Verum.] 

Paniel—an angel’s name found engraved on a 
charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. A guard of 
the North Wind. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Papsukul—in Chaldean lore, an angelic mes¬ 
senger of the greater gods. [Rf Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic, p. 120.] Possibly a variant for 
Papukkal. 

Paradise—in his Adversus haereses I, i, Irenaeus 
quotes the gnostic Valentinians: “They say that 
Paradise, which is above the 3rd Heaven [i.e., in 
the 4th Heaven] is virtually a 4th angel.” The 
Apocalypse of Moses locates Paradise in the 3rd 
Heaven, as does Enoch II. [Rf Newbold, “The 
Descent of Christ in the Odes of Solomon,” 
Journal of Biblical Literature, December 1912.] 

Paraqlitos (Paraclete)—in the Falasha Anthol¬ 
ogy, the guardian angel of the sorrows of death. 

Parasiel—an angelic name inscribed in Hebrew 
characters on the 1st pentacle of the planet Jupiter. 
Parasiel is lord and master of treasures. [Rf. Shah, 
The Secret Lore of Magic, p. 56.] 

Parasim (Parashim)—an order of angels or 
celestial horsemen [Cf Pegasus] of the Song- 
Uttering Choirs, under the leadership of Tagas or 
Radueriel. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] “When, it is said, the 
time comes for the recital of the divine song—the 
qedusha—the parashim ‘do rage’ in the general 
commotion and excitement of the occasion.” 

Parasurama—the 6th of the 10 avatars (divine 
incarnations) in Vedic theosophy. Parasurama was 
known also as Chirangivah the Immortal. 

Pariel—an angel’s name inscribed on an oriental 



Hebrew charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. [Rf. 
Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Pariukh (Mariokh)—one of 2 angels (the other 
is Ariukh) appointed by God to serve as guardian 
of the Enoch literature. [R/l Enoch II and 3 Enoch.] 

Parallel—angel of the 3rd hour of the day, 
serving under Veguaniel. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton, p. 67.] 

Parshiyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Partashah—one of the many names of Lilith. 
[R/l Hanauer, Folk-Lore of the Holy Land, p. 325.] 

Partsuf (pi. partsufim or parzupheim, “the 
godhead”)—in cabalistic lore, Partsuf is the 
countenance of God inherent in the sefiroth. The 
5 chief partsufim who “dwell in the world of 
aziluth” are: 1. Ariukh Anpin (long face or long 
suffering) or Attika Kaddisha (holy ancient one); 

2. Abba (the partsuf of Hochma or Wisdom); 

3. Imma (the partsuf of Binah or Understanding), 
who is a feminine manifestation; 4. Zeir Anpin 
(the Impatient, the Holy One); 5. Shekinah 
(another female, counterpart of God). [Rf. King, 
The Gnostics and Their Remains-, Scholem, Major 
Trends in Jewish Mysticism.] 

Parvardigar—angel of light in ancient Persian 
theogony. [Rf. The Dabistan, p. 15.] In Arabic 
lore, the angel of light was Rab-un-maw. 

Parymel—in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, an angel of the throne invoked in conjuring 
rites. He is one of 15 such angels. For their names, 
see Appendix. 

Parziel—an angelic guard of the 6th Heaven, 
according to a listing in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Paschar (Psachar)—one of the 7 exalted throne 
angels “which execute the commands of the 
potentates,” as reported in The Book of the Angel 
Raziel. Also cited in de Abano, The Heptameron; 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses-, and Corne¬ 
lius Agrippa’s works. In the Pirke Hechaloth, 
Paschar is one of the 7 angelic guards of the 
curtain or veil of the 7th Heaven. [Rf. Ozar 
Midrashim I, 110.] 


...Parasim, celestial horsemen [221] 

Pasiel—in ceremonial magic, the angel that 
exercises dominion over the zodiacal sign of 
Pisces (the fishes). In Jewish cabala, Pasiel is the 
angel of Hell (arka)—that is, he is ruler over 
Abaddon, the 6th lodge of the 7 divisions into 
which Hell is divided, according to Joseph ben 
Abraham Gikatilla. 

Pasisiel—in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Paspassim—in hechaloth lore, an angel who 
assists Metatron (q.v.) in reciting the Shema. [R/l 
3 Enoch, introd.] 

Pastor—an angel petitioned in magic conjura¬ 
tions for the fulfilment of the invocant’s desires. 
[Rf. Malchus, The Secret Grimoirc of Turiel.] 

Pasuy—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merkabdh), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 4th heavenly hall. 

Patha (Pathiel)—an angel invoked at the close 
of the Sabbath. [R/ Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic 
and Superstition.] 

Pathatumon (Pathtumon, Patheon, Pathu- 
maton)—in Solomonic invocations, a name for 
God; a name Moses invoked to cause darkness to 
fall over Egypt; a name Solomon used to bind 
demons. [Rf. Waite, The Book of Black Magic and 
of Pacts; Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomoti.] 

Patheon [Pathatumon] 

Pathiel (“the opener”; see Patha)—In Ozar 
Midrashim (I, 106), Pathiel is one of the angels that 
bear the mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Patriarchs—in the glossary to Vol. 2 of the 
5-vol. 1956 Soncino Zohar, it is said that all Jewish 
patriarchs are transformed into great angels on 
their arrival in Paradise (as was specifically the case 
of Enoch and Elijah) and constitute one of the 3 
highest grades in the celestial hierarchy. Not so, 
says Universal Jewish Encyclopedia (I, 314), which 
claims that such a belief was never part of Jewish 
thought. 

Patrozin—an angel of the 5th hour of the 
night, under the rule of Abasdarhon. [Rf. Waite, 
The Lemegeton.] 




[222] PATSPETSIYAH / PHALEC 


Patspetsiyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Patteny —a ministering angel summoned in 
cabalistic rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Paula (fictional)—a female angel mentioned in 
Daniels, Clash of Angels. 

Pazriel (Sidriel)—in 3 Enoch, one of the great 
archangels and prince of the 1st Heaven, sharing 
the post with Gabriel, Sabrael, Asrulyu, and others. 

Peacock Angel, The [Taus-Melek] 

Pedael (“whom God delivers”)—in Jewish 
mysticism, the angel of deliverance. [Rf. Abelson, 
Jewish Mysticism, p. 127.] 

Pedenij —an angel of the Seal, as recorded in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Peliel —chief of the order of virtues and the 
preceptor angel of Jacob. Peliel alternates with 
Zekuniel as 2nd of the 10 holy sefiroth (q.v.). [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus', also the tracts of Isaac 
ha-Cohen of Soria.] 

Penac —an angel serving in the 3rd Heaven, as 
cited in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Penael —in de Abano’s occultism, a Friday 
angel residing in the 3rd Heaven and invoked from 
the north. He is also one of the messengers of the 
planet Venus. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II; Malchus, 
The Secret Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Penarys —angel of the 3rd hour of the night, 
serving under Sarquamich. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton .] 

Penat —a Friday angel residing in the 3rd 
Heaven (like Penael) and one of the intelligences 
of the planet Venus. 

Penatiel —an angel of the 12th hour of the day, 
serving under Beratiel. 

Pendroz —an angel of the 7th hour of the 
night, serving under Mendrion. 

Peneal —an angel serving in the 3rd Heaven. 

Peneme [Penemue] 


Penemue (“the inside”)—in Enoch lore, one 
of the fallen angels who “taught mankind the art 
of writing with ink and paper,” an art which was 
condemned as evil and corrupting. Penemue also 
taught “the children of men the bitter and the 
sweet and the secrets of their wisdom.” He is one 
of the curers of stupidity in man, and is mentioned 
in Bereshith Rabba. Variants: Penemuel, Tamuel, 
Tamel, Tumael. 

Peniel (“face of God” ’; see Penuel, Fanuel)—in 
the writings of Moses Botarel, de Abano, Barrett, 
etc., Peniel is the angel Jehovah, the dark antago¬ 
nist, the one who wrestled with Jacob [Rf. 
Genesis 32.] It should be noted that The Zohar 
identifies the antagonist as Sammael. In the 
cabala generally, Peniel is a Friday angel, resident 
of the 3rd Heaven, and (like Penemue) a curer of 
human stupidity. In Genesis, Peniel is a place— 
the hallowed place where God revealed himself to 
Jacob face to face. 

Penitent Angel, The [Abbadona] 

Penpalabim —a “most holy angel” invoked in 
the conjuration for hidden treasure. [Rf Verum 
Jesuitarum Libeltus; Waite, The Book of Black Magic 
and of Pacts.] 

Penuel [Peniel] 

Peor [Chemos] 

Peri —in Arabic lore, the Peri are fallen angels 
under the sovereignty of Eblis. In Persian myth, 
they are beautiful but malevolent spirits, also 
fairylike beings begotten by fallen angels and 
excluded from Paradise until penance is accom¬ 
plished. Mohammed, it is said, sought to convert 
them. [Rf. Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism.] 

Periel —a name fpr Metatron in the enumera¬ 
tion of more than 100 of his names listed in 3 
Enoch, 43. 

Permaz —an angel of the 2nd hour of the night, 
serving under Farris. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Permiel —an angel of the 4th hour of the day, 
serving under Vachmiel. 

Perrier —an ex-prince of the order of princi- 




A peri (Persian angel) of the 16th century. Minia¬ 
ture, from Horizon, November 1960. 


palities. [Rf. Garinet, History of Magic in France ; 
De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal III.] 

Pesagniyah —in The Zohar (Exodus 201b), a 
supervisory angel of the south in charge of the 
keys of the ethereal spaces. When prayers of 
persons in deep sorrow ascend, Pesagniyah 
kisses such prayers and accompanies them to a 
higher region. 


[ 223 ] 

Pesak —in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merkahah), 
an angelic guard stationed at the 5th heavenly hall. 

Peshtvogner —in Gurdjieff, All and Everything, 
Beelzebub’s Tales to his Grandson, Peshtvogner is an 
arch-cherub whose title or other name is “All— 
Quarters-Maintainer.” He decrees the sprouting of 
horns on the head of Beelzebub. 

Petahel —a “most holy angel” invoked in 
magical rites at the close of the Sabbath. [Rf 
Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 520; Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition .] 

Petahyah —in The Zohar (Exodus 201b), the 
chief in charge of the northemly region of 
Heaven, “appointed over that side to which 
prayers offered for deliverance from enemies 
ascend.” If such prayers are found worthy, 
“Petahyah kisses them.” 

Phadahel [Phadihel] 

Phadihel (Padael)—in Jewish legend, the angel 
sent to Manoah’s wife (who conceived and bore 
Samson). [Rf. The Biblical Antiquities of Philo.] He 
is also said to be the angel that appeared to Abra¬ 
ham, Jacob, and Gideon (Genesis 32:29; Judges 
13:3-18; Luke 13:34). 

Phaiar —an angel invoked in the conjuration of 
the Reed. [Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon.] 

Phakiel —with another genius named Rahdar, 
Phakiel controls the sign of the Crab in the zodiac. 
[Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic; Prince of Darkness, 
p. 177.] 

Phaldor —genius of oracles. [Rf Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron.] 

Phalec (Phaleg)—ruling prince of the order of 
angels. Phalec is also the governing spirit of the 
planet Mars (and hence often referred to, as he is 
by Cornelius Agrippa, as the war lord). Of the 
106 Olympic Provinces, Phalec has dominion over 
35. His d for invocation, is Tuesday. According 
to Agrippa, Heaven has 196 provinces, with 7 
supreme angels governing them, of whom Phalec 
is one. The sigil of Phalec is given in Budge, 



[224] PHALGUS / PHOENIXES 

Amulets and Talismans, p. 389. In white magic, Phatiel—angel of the 5th hour of the night, 

Phaleg is one of the 7 stewards of Heaven. serving under Abasdarhon. 


Phalgus—as noted in Levi, Transcendental 
Magic, Phalgus is the genius of judgment. In 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron, he is the 
genius of the 4th hour of the day. 

Phamael (Phanuel)—this “corrupt” spelling of 
Phanuel occurs in Baruch III. 

Phanuel (Uriel, Raguel, Fanuel, Ramiel, etc.— 
“face of God”)—the archangel of penance and 
one of the 4 angels of the presence, the other 3, as 
usually given, being Michael, Gabriel, and Ra¬ 
phael. In Enoch I Phanuel “fends off the Satans” 
and forbids them “to come before the Lord of 
spirits to accuse them who dwell on earth.” 
Phanuel is also identified as the Shepherd in the 
Shepherd of Hermas. In Enoch I (40) Phanuel is 
equated with Uriel. Says Charles: “In the later 
Judaism we find Uriel instead of Phanuel,” that is, 
as one of the 4 angels of the presence. In IV Ezra, 
Phanuel is equated with Ramiel (Jeremiel) or 
Hieremihel, or Eremiel (the last named in the 
Apocalypse of Sophonias). In the Sibylline Oracles 
he is “one of the 5 angels who know all the evils 
that men have wrought.” As Phaniel, our angel is 
invoked, in an early Hebrew amulet, against evil 
spirits. [Rf Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. 161; 
Baruch III.] In Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism, 
we find Phanuel identified with Uriel. Ethiopians 
celebrate a holy day of the “archangel Fanuel” on 
the 3rd day of Taxsas. [Rf. Falasha Anthology.] 

Pharmaros [Armaros] 

Phamiel—an angel of the 12th hour of the day, 
serving under Beratiel. 

Pharzuph—genius of fornication, angel of lust. 
The meaning of the word in Hebrew is “two- 
faced” or “hypocritical.” See Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron, where Pharzuph is one of the 
genii of the 4th hour. In Bereshith Rabba it is the 
“angel of lust” (not named) that presents itself to 
Judah at the crossroads in order to entice the patri¬ 
arch to “observe” his daughter-in-law Tamar 
and to mate with her (Genesis 38). [See Angel of 
Lust ; Schiekron.] 


Phenex (Phenix, Phoenix, Pheynix)—an angel 
now serving in Hell who “hopes to return to the 
7th throne after 1,200 years,” as he confided to 
King Solomon. [Rf Waite, The Lemegeton.] In the 
nether regions Phenex 1 is a great marquis, a poet, 
and commands 20 legions of spirits. Spence, 
Encyclopaedia of Occultism, reports that Phenex was 
formerly of the order of thrones and that this “was 
proved after infinite research.” In Baruch III, 6, the 
phoenix is the bird that circles before the sun to 
receive the rays on its outspread wings so as to 
preserve living things from being consumed. It is 
the same bird that awakens from slumber all the 
cocks on earth. A parallel may be cited (in Indian 
lore) in the bird Gadura “who carried Aruna on 
its back and placed him in front of the sun where 
he acted as charioteer and screened the world from 
the sun’s consuming rays.” 

Phinehas—in Judges 2:1, “the angel of the 
Lord [who] came up from Gilgal” and whose 
countenance “when the Holy Ghost rested upon 
it, glowed like a torch.” [Rf. Midrash Leviticus 
Rabba I, et seq.] 

Phoenixes—in Enoch lore, the Phoenixes and 
the Chalkydri are angels of a high order, classed 
with the seraphim and cherubim. They are des¬ 
cribed as “elements of the sun” and as attending 
the chariot of that “planet” (in early occult and 
apocryphal writings the sun was classed as a planet, 
one of 7). The Phoenixes, like the Chalkydri, 
dwelt in the 4th or 6th Heaven, and were 12- 
winged. Enoch II, 19, speaks of 7 phoenixes sighted 
in the 6th Heaven, where their song, with which 
they greeted the rising of the sun, was celebrated 
for its sweetness. Their color, according to Pliny, 
was purple. “To such creatures in literature,” 
writes Charles in his note to chapter 12 of Enoch II, 
“this seems to be the only reference”—i.e., the 
only reference to these creatures jointly as angels. 
Dr. K. Kohler in “The pre-Talmudic Haggada” 
(Jewish Quarterly Review, 1893, pp. 399-419), 
quoting from an old mishna, Massecheth Derech 
Eretz, calls to mind a legend that the phoenixes 



[ 225 ] 



“The Pillared Angel” by Diirer illustrating Revelation 10:1-5, “And I saw another mighty 
angel come down from heaven, clothed with a cloud . . . and his feet as pillars of fire.” From 
Willi Kurth, The Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Diirer. New York: Dover Publications, 1963. 




















[ 226 ] PHORLAKH / PRIMEUMATON 


referred to, in Enoch, were of a class of birds 
that went alive into Paradise. [Cf sun birds in 
Baruch III.] 

Phorlakh (Furlac)—angel of earth. The name 
Phorlakh is found inscribed on the 7th pentacle 
of the sun. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon .] 

Phorsiel —angel of the 4th hour of the night, 
serving under Jefischa. 

Phronesis (“prudence”)—in gnosticism, one of 
4 luminaries emanated from the divine will. [Rf. 
Eleleth.] 

Phul (Phuel)—lord of the moon and ruler of 7 
of the Olympian Provinces. As a Monday angel, 
Phul is to be invoked only on Monday. In the 
cabalistic works of Cornelius Agrippa, Phul’s sigil 
is given. There he is called “lord of the powers of 
the moon and supreme lord of the waters.” [Rf. 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 389, for Phul’s 
sigil.] 

Pi-Hermes —equated with the angel Raphael. 
In hermetics, Pi-Hermes is the genius of Mercury 
and head of the order of archangels. [Rf. Christian, 
The History and Practice of Magic I, 68.] 

Pihon —a name for the angel Metatron “when 
opening the doors through which the prayers of 
men are admitted into the celestial abode.” Meta¬ 
tron is called Sigron when he shuts the doors. 
[Rf introd., 3 Enoch.] 

Pi-Joh (Pi-Ioh)—equated with Gabriel. In 
hermetics, Pi-Joh is the genius of the moon and 
head of the order of angels. 

Pilaiael —one of numerous angels guarding the 
gates of the West Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Pillared Angel —the angel “clothed with a 
cloud” (Revelation 9). He has one foot on the sea, 
the other on land; with his right hand he supports 
Heaven, swearing “time shall be no more.” 
The passage is illustrated in a woodcut in the 
Cologne Bible. 

Pilot Angel —in the Purgatorio, an un¬ 
named angel called by Dante “God’s angel” 


ferries souls destined for Purgatory from the 
south of the Tiber. It is this angel who greets 
Dante and Virgil at the start of their journey. 

Pi-Re —equated with Michael. In hermetics, 
one of the 7 planetary genii (archangels) and head 
of the order of virtues. 

Pisqon —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. [See Appendix.] 

Pistis Sophia (“faith,” “wisdom”)—a female 
aeon, one of the greatest in gnostic lore. She is 
said to have procreated “the superior angels.” 
It was Pistis Sophia who sent the serpent to entice 
Adam and Eve. |R/. Mead, Pistis Sophia.] Accord¬ 
ing to the Texts of the Saviour, she is the daughter 
ofBarbelo ( q.v.). 

Pi-Zeus —genius of Jupiter and head of the 
order of dominations. [See Zachariel.] 

Plague of Evil Angels —according to Rabbi 
Eliezer, of the plagues visited on the ancient 
Egyptians, one was the “Plague of Evil Angels.” 
Rabbi Akiba also spoke of this plague and called 
it “the fifth plague.” [Rf. Form of Services for the 
First Two Nights of Passover, Hebrew Publishing 
Co., New York, 1921.] 

Plesithea —in gnosticism, the “mother of 
angels,” a virgin pictured with 4 breasts. [Rf. 
Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Pniel —in geonic lore, an angel who exercises 
rulership over one of the months of the year. [Rf. 
Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 
99.] 

Poicl —an angel of the order of principalities. 
He rules over fortune and philosophy; he is also 
one of the 72 angels of the zodiac. His correspond¬ 
ing angel is Themeso. Barrett, The Magus II, 
lists Poiel as one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. His sigil 
is reproduced in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 
289. 

Poma —a Friday angel serving in the 3rd 
Heaven and invoked from the south. [Rf de 
Abano, The Heptameron; The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 



...Powers, see that order is imposed on heavenly pathways [ 227 ] 


Poro —an angel of the order of powers, invoked 
in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses.] 

Porosa —a Friday angel of the 3rd Heaven, like 
Porna, invoked from the south. [ Rf. Barrett, 
The Magus II.] 

Posriel (Hadriel?)—an angel in charge of the 
6th division of Hell. It is in this division of the 
underworld that the prophet Micah may be found. 
[R/l Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews IV, 53, and 
VI, 214.] 

Poteh (Purah)—the prince (sar, angel) of 
forgetting. Poteh is invoked in necromantic rites 
by Jews at the close of the Sabbath. [Rf Trachten- 
berg, Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 

Potentates —an alternate term for the order of 
powers. In Paradise Lost V, Milton speaks of 
“Seraphim and Potentates and Thrones.” 

Powers (potentates, authorities, dynamis)—the 
Septuagint first applied the term powers ( dynamis) 
to an angelic order, equivalent to the Greek con¬ 
cept of the Lord’s Hosts. [Rf. Caird, Principalities 
and Powers, p. 11.] Dionysius placed the powers 
3rd in the 2nd triad of the celestial hierarchy; he 
equated the powers (incorrectly) with the sera¬ 
phim. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus.] According to 
Fludd, Sammael is chief of the order of powers, 
although Camael is commonly so designated. 
In hermetics, the chief is Ertosi. The principal 
task of the powers is to see to it that order is 
imposed on the heavenly pathways. “The 
powers,” says Dionysius, “stop the efforts of 
demons who would overthrow the world.” 
In Pope Gregory’s view, the powers preside over 
demons. Philo Judaeus classified the 6 highest 
powers in the following manner: divine logos, 
creative power, sovereign power, mercy, legisla¬ 
tion, and punitive power. St. Paul’s references in 
the various Epistles denote that, to this Apostle 
to the Gentiles, the powers are (or could be) evil. 
In Excerpts of Theodotus, the powers are said to be 
“the first of created angels.” Milton in Paradise 
Lost XI, 221, uses the term as the equivalent of the 
order of guards (XII, 590). 


Powers of Glory —a term for angels in The 
Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs (Judah 25), 
where it is equated with the angel of the pres¬ 
ence, the sun, moon, and stars, as one of the 
heavenly luminaries. 

Prajapati —to be compared with the Rishis 
who are, it is said, the 7 or 10 Vedic spirits from 
whom all mankind is descended. They are also to 
be compared with the 7 angels of the presence and 
the 7 (or 6) amesha spentas in Zoroastrian lore. 

Praklit [Palit] 

Pralimiel —an angel of the 11th hour of the day 
serving under Bariel. [Rf. Waite, TheLemegeton.] 

Pravuil (Vretil)—designated as the “scribe of 
the knowledge of the Most High” and as “keeper 
of the heavenly books and records.” [See Radu- 
eriel.] According to Enoch II, 22:11, Pravuil is 
“quicker in wisdom than the other archangels.” 
He is mentioned only once in the Enoch writings. 

Praxil —an officer angel of the 2nd hour of the 
night, serving under Farris ( q.v.). [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Preceptor Angels —in Jewish cabala, each of 
the great patriarchs had his special angelic coun¬ 
selor and guide, viz.: Adam: Raziel; Shem: 
Jophiel (Yopliiel); Noah: Zaphkiel; Abraham: 
Zidekiel (Zadkiel); Isaac: Raphael (also preceptor 
angel of Toby the Younger); Joseph, Joshua, and 
Daniel: Gabriel; Jacob: Peliel (Pehel); Moses: 
Metatron; Elijah: Malashiel or Maltiel (Elijah 
himself became an angel: Sandalphon); Samson: 
Camael (Gamacl); David: Cerviel (Gerviel, 
Gernaiul); Solomon: Michael. 

Preil —an angel (called “le grand”) in Mandaean 
lore. [Rf Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes 
de Khouabir .] 

Prenostix —angel of the 6th hour of the night, 
serving under Zaazonash. 

Primeumaton —a spirit invoked in the exor¬ 
cism of water. [Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of 
So/omou.] “By this name [Primeumaton] Moses 
caused hail in Egypt” and “swallowed Corah, 



[228] 

Dathan and 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Prince of Alchemy [Och] 

Prince of Angels—usually Christ, as in “prin- 
ceps angclorum,” an expression used by Lactantius. 

Prince of Cherubim—Cherubiel and/or 
Gabriel; but also, originally, Satan. [Rf. Parente, 
The Angels, p. 47.] 

Prince of Conception [ Lailah] 

Prince of Darkness—in Jewish legendary lore, 
the prince of darkness is the prince (angel) of 
death, who is Satan. He is also Belial (q.v.). 

Prince of Death—in the infernal regions the 
prince of death is (in occult writings) Euronymous, 
bearer of the Grand Cross of the Order of the Fly; 
but the prince of death is, first and foremost, 
Satan. [Rf. Hebrews 2:14-15.] 

Princedoms—another term for the order of 
principalities. [Cf. Milton’s Paradise Lost V: 
“Thrones, Dominations, Princedoms,” etc.] 

Prince of the Face—otherwise prince of the 
presence. Among the great hierarchs answering 
to this title are Michael, Akatriel, Fanuel (Phanuel), 
Raziel, Uriel, Metatron, Yefefiah, Suriel, Sandal- 
phon, etc. 

Prince of Fire—Nathanel, called “lord of fire.” 
[Rf. King, The Gnostics and Their Remains, p. 15.] 
Jehuel is also referred to as prince of fire. In the 
infernal empire, the prince of fire is Pluto. [See 
also Atuniel; Grimorium Per uni, and other goctic 
tracts.] 

Prince of Hades (or Prince of Hell)—Raphael, 
so called in The Book of Enoch, 22. As“presiderovcr 
Tartarus,” Uriel would qualify here. [See also 
Negarsanel; Rf. Ginzbcrg, The Legends of the Jews 
V, 71.] 

Prince of Heavenly Hosts [Michael] 

Prince of Light—Michael, so characterized 
in the Dead Sea scroll. War of the Sous of Light 
against the Sons of Darkness. The Manual of Disci¬ 
pline speaks of the prince of light who, in man, 


contends constantly with the angel of darkness 
(i.e., the spirit of perversion). He is Uriel, accord¬ 
ing to Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews. 

Prince of Peace (Angel of Peace)—the title 
is usually associated with Jesus; but it has also 
been applied to Melchisedec (q.v.). 

Prince of Persia—Dubbiel, who was worsted 
in battle with Michael [Rf. Daniel 10:13]. 

Prince of the Power of the Air—according 
to Paul, Ephesians 1, the title applies to Satan; 
but it applies also to Wormwood, Meririm, and 
other spirits of comparable stature. 

Prince of the Presence [Angel of the Presence] 

Prince of the Time of Iniquity—Satan is so 
characterized in the Epistle of Barnabas. 

Prince of the World—a designation for Meta¬ 
tron ( q.v .). 

Prince of this World—in the Fourth Gospel, 
Jesus calls Satan the “prince of this world” (John 
12:31). Loisy, The Birth of the Christian Religion, 
speaks of the prince of this world as having “the 
function of the principalities and powers spoken 
of in the Epistles; but [that] his character is per¬ 
ceptibly different.” In his Kabbalistic Conclusions, 
Mirandola wrote: “The letters of the name of the 
evil demon who is the prince of this world are the 
same as those of the name of God Tetragrammaton 
—and he who knows how to effect their trans¬ 
position can extract one from the other.” 

Principalities (or Princedoms)—one of the 9 
orders of the celestial hierarchy and usually ranked 
1st in the 3rd triad. The principalities are protectors 
of religion; they also, as Dionysius declares, 
“watch over the leaders of people” and presuma¬ 
bly inspire them to make right decisions. Accord¬ 
ing to Barrett, The Magus, the principalities “are 
called by the Hebrews elohim”-—which is a doubt¬ 
ful equivalent. The chief ruling angels of the order 
include Requel, Anael, (Haniel), Cerviel, Nisroc. 
The last-named is characterized by Milton in 
Paradise Lost VI, 447 as “of principalities the 
prime.” In Egyptian hermetics, the head of the 
order of principalities is Suroth. [Rf. Christian, 


PRINCE OF ALCHEMY / PSYCHOPOMPOI 
Abiram.” [Rf. Numbers 16:16; 



...Pronoia, provided the nerve tissue for Adam's body 


The History and Practice of Magic, vol. I, p. 68.] 
As far back as the 2nd century c.e., St. Ignatius 
Martyr (d. 107), touching on the ranks of angels in 
“Epistle to the Trallians,” spoke of the “hierarchy 
of principalities.” 

Principals—in the gnostic Paraphrase of Shetn, 
3 principals (or primordial powers) are listed: 
Light, Darkness, and “An Intermediary Spirit.” 
[Rf Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics, p. 151.] 

Prion—a “high, holy angel of God” invoked 
in magical rites, specifically in the conjuration of 
the Reed. [Rf. Waite, The Book of Ceremonial 
Magic, p. 175; Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon. p. 116.] 

Procel [Crocell] 

Progenie of Light—a term used for angels, 
as in Milton’s Paradise Lost V, 600. 

Pronoia—in gnosticism, a great archon or 
power who, according to legend, assisted God in 
fashioning Adam. Pronoia provided the nerve 
tissue. [Rf. Apocryphon of John ; Doresse, The Secret 
Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, pp. 204-205.] 
The Arabic legend of God sending 4 great angels 
to fetch 7 handfuls of earth for the creation of 
Adam has been referred to in the entry under 
Israfel. The Iranians believed that each of the 
planets (and here Pronoia is regarded as one of 
these planets) had a hand in fashioning our first 
parent. Bar-Khonia affirms that “this myth had 
been borrowed from the Chaldeans.” [SeePthahil.] 

Propator—an aeon who remains motionless on 
the constellation of the chariot (the Merkabah). 
Propator is master of the Pole and is surrounded 
by his decans and myriads of angels. He is desig¬ 
nated pro-Father and the aeon who dwells in the 
zenith of Heaven with the aeon Sophia beside 
him. [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics.] 

Protoctist Angels—the first “operating 
angels” responsible for delivering the Torah to 
man through the lesser angels. [R/] Clement of 
Alexandria, Prophetic Eclogues ; Danielou, The 
Angels and Their Mission .] 


[229] 

Pruel—an angelic guard of the gates of the 
South Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Pruflas—a fallen angel, formerly of the order 
of thrones and partly also of the order of angels. 
[Rf. Wierus, Pseudo-Monarchia Daemonium.] 

Prukiel—an angel invoked in Syriac charms, 
along with Michael, Gabriel, Harshiel, and othei; 
spellbinding angels, as cited in The Book of Pro¬ 
tection. 

Prunicos—in Ophitic (gnostic) lore, the 
supreme celestial power, by some called Sophia. 
[Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian 
Gnostics, p. 212.] 

Prziel—an evil angel employed in conjuring 
rites against an enemy. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword 
of Moses.] 

Psachar (Paschar)—one of 7 angelic princes of 
power, the others being Kalmiya, Boel, Asimor, 
Gabriel, Sandalphon, Uzziel. [Rf. Pirke Hecha- 
loth .] 

Psdiel—an evil angel employed in conjuring 
rites against an enemy. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword 
of Moses.] 

Psisya—in The Book of the Atigel Raziel, one of 
the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Psuker—an angel of the 6th Heaven who has 
Uzziel under him as officiating, ministering angel. 
[Rf. Schwab, Vocabulaire de 1’Angelo logic ; West, 
“The Names of Milton’s Angels,” Studies in 
Philology XLVII (April 1950), p. 220.] 

Psyche—in gnosticism, the name of Valen¬ 
tinus’ demiurge (q.v.). 

Psychopomp (us)—Elijah (Sandalphon) in Par¬ 
adise is the psychopomp who leads the pious to 
their appointed places. [Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews, p. 589; cf. Hermes Psychopompus in 
Greek mythology.] 

Psychopompoi—soul-escorting angels (with 
Elijah-Sandalphon at their head) who accompany 
the souls after bodily death toward their heavenly 
abode. Michael is also regarded as a guide of the 
psychopompoi. 



[230] PTHAHIL / PYTHON 

Pthahil—the Mandaean demiourgos; an angel 
ruling the lesser stars; said to have been an “assis¬ 
tant to the Lord of Life at Creation.” Pthahil 
created Adam’s body but could not give it life. 
He is also denoted a prince of evil, seeking support 
from planets and demons. [See Pronoia.] 

Pucel [Crocell] 

Purah (Puta, Poteh)—an angel invoked in 
magical rites at the close of the Sabbath. Isaac 
Luria associates Purah with Esau-Samuel. In 
Jewish legendary lore, Purah is the lord of 
oblivion, the angel of forgetfulness. In Isaac 
Bashevis Singer’s “Jachid and Jechidah,” one of 
the tales in his Short Friday (1964), Purah is des¬ 
cribed as an angel “who dissipates God’s light.” 

Puriel [Puruel] 

Purson (Pursan, Curson)—before he fell, 
Purson was an angel of the order of virtues and 
partly also of the order of thrones. This fact, 
reports Spence in Encyclopaedia of Occultism (p. 
119), “was proved after infinite research.” Be that 
as it may, Purson is now a king in the nether 
regions with 22 legions of spirits to do his bidding. 
His appearance is that of “a man with a lion’s face, 
carrying a viper in his hand and astride a bear.” 
He knows the past and future, and can discover 
hidden treasure. The seal of Purson is figured in 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 201. 

Puruel (Pusiel, “fire”)—the “fiery and pitiless” 
angel who “probes the soul,” as described in the 
apocalyptic Testament of Abraham. G. H. Box in his 


edition of this work believes that Puruel is a 
Graecized form of the angel Uriel. 

Purusha—the cosmic spirit in Sanskrit lore. 
He is the 1st cause, itself being uncaused. Compare 
with the cabalistic En Sof, the “unimaginable 
creator of the universe.” [Rf Gaynor, Dictionary of 
Mysticism .] 

Pusiel (Puruel)—one of the 7 angels of punish¬ 
ment, as listed in Maseket Gan Edem and Gehinnom. 
In the Revelation of Rabbi Joshua ben Levi, Pusiel is 
equated with Hadriel, and dwells in the 6th 
compartment of Hell. 

Puziel—an evil angel cited in M. Gaster, The 
Sword of Moses. He is employed in conjuring rites 
against an enemy. 

Pymander—the nous of the supreme God, the 
Logos, the Word made manifest, the ideal arche¬ 
type of all mankind. [Rf. The Divine Pymander of 
Hermes Trismegistus .] 

Python—the 2nd of the 9 archangels or arch¬ 
demons in the evil hierarchy. Python is “prince of 
the lying spirits.” [Rf. Camfield, A Theological 
Discourse of Angels.] In Greek mythology, Python 
is the monster serpent, hatched from the mud of 
Deucalion’s deluge, that lurked in a deep cleft 
of Parnassus; he was wounded and finally killed 
by the arrows of the sun god Apollo. [Rf 
Encyclopaedia Britannica, “Dragon”; Summers, 
The History of Witchcraft and Demonology, Red- 
field, Gods I A Dictionary of the Deities of All Lands.] 








The saintly throng in the form of a rose by 

Dore. Illustrations to Canto 31 of Dante’s 
Paradiso. From Dante, The Divine Comedy, 
translated by Lawrence Grant White. 



Qaddis (pi. qaddisin, “holy ones”)—one of 2 
angels who, with the twin irin, constitute the 
judgment council of God. 

Qaddisin—in Merkabah lore, the 2 qaddisin 
are ranked, along with the twin irin, higher than 
the seraphim. The 4 of these judgment angels are— 
to quote from 3 Enoch —“greater than all the 
children of Heaven, and none their equal among 
all the servants [of God]. For each one of them is 
equal to all the rest together.” 

Qadosch—an angel invoked in the conjuration 
of Ink and Colors. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon .] 

Qafsiel (Qaspiel, Qaphsiel, Quaphsiel)—an 
angel with dominion over the moon. In 3 Enoch 
Qafsiel is guardian of the 7th heavenly hall. (Cf. 
Atrugiel). In ancient Hebrew charms, Qafsiel is 
invoked to drive away enemies by tying the 
charm, written in bird’s blood, to the foot or wing 
of a dove and then bidding the dove to fly away. 
If it flics away, that is a sign that the enemy is in 
flight also. [Rf. Thompson, Semitic Magic, p. 817.] 


Qalbam—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Mid- 
rashim II, 316.] 

Qamamir Ziwa—in Mandaean lore, an angel 
of light. [Cf. Raphael.] 

Qamiel—an angelic guard of the South Wind. 

Qaphsiel [Qafsiel] 

Qangiel Yah—a name of Metatron, cited in 
3 Enoch. 

Qaniel—one of numerous angelic guards of the 
gates of the South Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Qaus—an angel invoked in Arabic conjuring 
rites. [Rf. Shah, Occultism, p. 152.] 

Qemuel (Kemuel, Camael)—an angel who was 
destroyed by God (in Jewish legendary lore, he is 
destroyed by Moses) when he tried to prevent the 
Lawgiver from receiving the Torah at the time 
God promulgated it. On th?t occasion Qemuel led 
angels in opposition to the number of 12,000. [Rf. 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de l'Angelologie ; Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews.] 


233 



[234] QUAPHSIEL / QUORIEL 



Enthroned Madonna (Queen of the angels) 
flanked by four archangels (presumably Michael, 
Gabriel, Raphael, Uriel). Ancient mosaic in Sant- 
Apollinare-Novo at Ravenna. From Jameson, 
Legends of the Madonna. 


Quaphsiel [Qafsiel] 

Queen of Angels —in Catholicism, the queen 
of angels (“regina angelium”) is the Virgin Mary. 
In the cabala, it is the Shekinah; in gnosticism, it 
is Pistis Sophia. [Rf. Voragine, The Golden Leg¬ 
end.] 

Quelamia —one of the 7 exalted throne angels 
residing in the 1st Heaven “which execute the 
commands of the potentates” (according to The 
Book of the Angel Raziel). [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron; Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of 
Occult Philosophy III.] 

Quoriel—an “inferior spirit” serving Vachmiel, 
ruler of the 4th hour of the day. Quoriel is in¬ 
voked in ritual magic of the Pauline Art. [Rf. 
Waite, The Book of Ceremonial Magic, p. 67.] 











“Angel of Eden” (Raphael or Michael) by 
Diirer, expelling Adam and Eve from their 
earthly paradise. From 'Willi Kurth, The Complete 
Woodcuts of Albrecht Diirer. New York: Dover 
Publications, 1963. 



Raahel—one of the 72 angels ruling over the 
72 quinaries of the degrees of the zodiac. [Rf. 
Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Raamicl (“trembling before God”)—an angel 
with dominion over thunder. In some occult 
sources, Raamiel is referred to as a fallen angel. 
[See Ramiel.] 

Ra’asiel X (Rashiel; Sui’el)—in M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses, Ra’asiel X is an angel invoked 
in ritual magic. 

Rabacyel—one of the 3 ruling princes of the 
3rd Heaven. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Rabdos (“staff”)—a mighty luminary who 
is able to stop the stars in their courses; now a 
demon who throttles people. Rabdos can be sub¬ 
dued only by the power of the angel Brieus. [Rf. 
Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon ; Shah, The 
Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Rabia—one of the 10 uthri (angels) in Mandaean 
lore; the uthri accompany the sun on its daily 
course. 


Rab-un-Naw—an angel of light in Arabic 
lore, equated with the Persian Parvardigar (q.v.). 

Rachab [Rahab] 

Rachel (“a ewe”)—in the cabala, the Shekinah 
when “re-organized” as the Celestial Bride on her 
way to reunification with God. She is one of the 4 
matriarchs, rulers of a province in Heaven re¬ 
served for the daughters, wives, and sisters of the 
great Hebrew patriarchs. [Rf Scholem, Major 
Trends in Jewish Mysticism; Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews V, 33.] 

Rachiel—in the cabala, one of the angelic 
luminaries concerned with human sexuality 
(Masters, Eros and Evil). In Barrett, The Magus II, 
Rachiel is one of the 3 angels of Friday (the other 
2 being Anael and Sachiel). Also, one of the pre¬ 
siding spirits of the planet Venus—according to 
The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. In Ozar Midra- 
shim I, 86, Rachiel is an angel of the order of 
ophanim (q.v.). 

Rachmiah—one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. [Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel; Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans .] 


237 



[238] RACHMIEL / RAMIEL 

Rachmiel (“mercy”)—in rabbinic tradition, 
the angel of mercy (cf. Gabriel). He is also one of 
the 70 childbed amulet angels and an administer¬ 
ing angel invoked in ceremonial rites. [Rf. Universal 
Jewish Encyclopedia, p. 314; The Book of the Angel 
Raziel. ] In Ozar Midrashim II, 316, Rachmiel is 
included among the angelic guards of the gates of 
the East Wind. 

Rachsiel —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. 

Rad’adael —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Radueriel (Radweriel H’)—identified or 
equated with Dabriel, Vretil, Pravuil, etc., as the 
heavenly register and recording angel. Radueriel 
is included occasionally among the 8 great judg¬ 
ment princes of the throne whose rank is superior 
to Metatron’s. He is the angel of poetry, master of 
the muses. Of Radueriel it was said, “out of every 
word that goeth forth from his mouth a song- 
uttering angel is born.” [Rf. Talmud Hagiga, 13a.] 
Note: since God alone is credited with the creation 
of angels, this power and privilege to do likewise 
makes Radueriel unique among his fellow hier¬ 
archs—except for Pistis Sophia, who is claimed to 
be, in 3 Enoch, the “procreator of the superior 
angels.” Another exception is Dynamis ( q.v .). 

Rael —in occultism, a Wednesday angel resid¬ 
ing in the 3rd Heaven. He is also one of the intelli¬ 
gences of the planet Venus. When conjuring up 
Rael, the invocant must face north. [Rf de Abano, 
The Heptameron ; The Secret Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Raftma’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Ragat —in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, an angel (cherub or seraph) summoned in 
cabalistic conjuring rites. 

Ragiel [Raguel] 

Raguel (Raguil, Rasuil, Rufael, Suryan, Akra- 
siel—“friend of God”)—one of the 7 archangels 
listed in the Enoch writings. Raguel is an angel of 


earth, a guard of the 2nd (or 4th) Heaven. He 
“takes vengeance on the world of luminaries,” 
which is interpreted to mean that, for cause, he 
brings other angels to account. Great as Raguel is, 
he was reprobated at a church council in Rome in 
745 C.E., along with other high-ranking angels, 
Uriel among them. In Hugo, The Toilers of the 
Sea, Raguhel (so spelt) is a demon who “passed 
himself off as a saint” whom Pope Zachary in 
745 c.e. “unearthed and turned out of the saintly 
calendar, along with two other demons called 
Oribel and Tobiel.” [See Tubuas.] In The Revela¬ 
tion of John, Tischendorf, who edits this New Testa¬ 
ment apocryphon, gives an extract from the 
termination of MS. E: “Then shall He send the 
angel Raguel, saying: Go and sound the trumpet 
for the angels of cold and snow and ice, and bring 
together every kind of wrath upon them that 
stand on the left.” This would occur after the 
separation of the sheep from the goats. In gnostic¬ 
ism, Raguel is equated with Thelesis, another great 
angel (q.v.). According to Enoch II, Raguel (as 
Raguil or Rasuil or Samuil) is the angel who trans¬ 
ported Enoch to Heaven while the antediluvian 
patriarch was still in the flesh—an incident alluded 
to in Genesis 5 : 24. The feat of transporting 
Enoch is also credited to Anafiel (q.v.). In The 
Masque of Angels (one-act opera produced in 
February 1966 at St. George’s Church in New 
York), Raguel was cast as one of the principalities. 

Raguhel [Raguel] 

Rahab (“violence”; in Hebrew sar shel yam, 
“prince of the primordial sea.”)—In Job 26:12; 
Psalms 37:4, Rahab designates Egypt as an earthly 
power of evil; also as “an angel of insolence and 
pride” (Isaiah 51:9). In the Talmudic Baba Batra 
74b, Rahab is called the “angel of the sea.” (In 
occult lore the demon of the sea is Kupospaston.) 
[See Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon, where 
Kupospaston is a hore-fish and delights in over¬ 
whelming ships.] According to legend (Ginzberg, 
The Legends ofthe Jews V, 26), Rahab was destroyed 
by God for refusing to separate the upper and 
lower waters at the time of Creation; and was 
destroyed again for trying to hinder the Hebrews 
from escaping the pursuing hosts of Pharaoh 



at the time of the crossing of the Red (Reed) Sea. 
Another legend relates that Rahab restored to 
Adam the mystical Sefer Raziel (The Book of the 
Angel Raziel) after it had been cast into the sea by 
envious angels. [Cf. legend of the sacred book, 
containing all knowledge, that Raphael is said 
to have given Noah.] The Babylonian Talmud 
regards Rahab, Leviathan, Behemoth, and the 
Angel of Death as identical or interchangeable. 
[Rf. Midrash Genesis Rahha 283; Talmud Sanhe¬ 
drin 108b.] In Blake’s Jerusalem, Rahab emerges as 
the Great Whore, triple goddess (sic) of Heaven, 
earth, and Hell. In Blake’s Vala or The Four Zoas 
(Night the 8th), Rahab, as “representative of 
Urizen’s mysteries unclothed, sits among the 
judges at the trial of Jesus.” This Rahab is not to 
be confused with the Rahab of Joshua 2, the harlot 
ofjericho, grandmother of David and, it might be 
said, ancestress of all future quislings, whom Dante 
nevertheless, in his Paradiso, canto 9, places in 
Heaven among the elect. 

Rahabiel—an angel invoked in a late Hebrew 
charm, along with Phaniel, Ariel, Lahabiel, 
Raphael. [Rf. M. Gaster, Proceedings of the Society 
of Biblical Archeology, p. 339.] 

Rahatiel [Rahtiel] 

Rahaviel—in hechaloth lore {Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 2nd 
heavenly hall. 

Rahdar—with the aid of a brother genius 
called Phakiel, Rahdar governs the sign of the Crab 
in the zodiac. [Rf Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 
413.] 

Rahmiel (Rachmiel, Rahamael)—angel of 
mercy; also, one of the angels of love. For other 
angels of love, see Zadkiel, Zehanpuryu, Theliel, 
Anael (Haniel). Rahmiel may be invoked as an 
amulet against the evil eye. As Rhamiel, he is St. 
Francis Assisi who, like Enoch and Elijah, was 
transformed into an angel upon his arrival in 
Paradise. [Rf Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation 
Texts from Nippur, p. 97; The Douce Apocalypse; 
Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, pp. 
99,140; Schrirc, Hebrew Amulets.] 


...Radueriel, the angel of poetry [239] 

Rahtiel (Rahatiel—“to run”)—in Jewish 
legendary lore, the angel of constellations, like 
Kakabel. He is the angel who, after Metatron 
names the stars to Rabbi Ishmael, “enters them 
in counted order,” as related in 3 Enoch, 46. [See 
also Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews I, 140.] 

Rahzeil—an angel in Mandaean theosophy. 
[Rf Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouabir.] 

Rakhamel—an angel whose name appears in 
Hebrew characters on the 5th pentacle of the 
planet Saturn. When conjuring Rakhaniel, the 
invocant should recite a versicle from Deutero¬ 
nomy (preferably 10:17). 

Ramael [Ramiel] 

Ramal—one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Ramamel—one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Ram Avatar (Rama or Ramachandra)—the 
7th of the 10 avatars in Vedic Lore. [See Avatar.] 

Ramiel (Remiel, Phanuel, Uriel, Yerahmeel, 
Jeremiel, etc.)—in the Syriac Apocalypse of Baruch 
(3rd section) Ramiel is the angel who, as presider 
over true visions, provides Baruch with an inter¬ 
pretation of the vision Baruch saw and speaks of. 
In this vision, Ramiel appears as the angel who 
destroys Sennacherib’s hosts—a feat credited also 
to Uriel, Michael, Gabriel, and other redoubtable 
hierarchs. Ramiel is chief of thunder (as is Uriel); 
and he has charge of the souls that come up for 
judgment on the last day (as has Zehanpuryu). 
In the Enoch writings, Ramiel or Remiel is both 
a holy angel and a fallen one ( Enoch I, 6, and I, 20). 
In verse 20, Ramiel is a leader of the apostates; 
in verse 6, he is one of the 7 archangels standing 
before God’s throne. In Paradise Lost VI, Ramiel, 
along with Ariel and Arioc, is overcome by 
Abdiel in the 1st day of fighting in Heaven. To 
Milton, therefore, Ramiel, being on the side of 
Satan, is evil. In the Sibylline Oracles II, 2, 5, 
Ramiel is “one of 5 angels who lead the souls of 
men to judgment,” the 5 angels cited being 
Arakiel, Ramiel, Uriel, Samiel, and Aziel. A 



[240] RAM IZAD / RAPHAEL 

number of Milton scholars (Keightley and Bald¬ 
win among them) have long believed that Milton 
coined Ramiel as well as Ithuriel, Zophiel, and 
Zephon. The names of these angels, however, 
have come to light in early apocryphal, apocalyp¬ 
tic, Talmudic sources; hence, Milton (who was 
familiar with such sources) had no need to invent 
these angels. 

Ram Izad— in ancient Persian lore, an angel to 
whom services were paid. [Rf. The Dahistan, p. 
156.] 

Ram Khastra (Ram Khvastra)—the Parsi 
equivalent of the Mandaean uthri (angel) Ayar 
Ziwa, who “brings the sounds’’ or “stirs the air.” 
[Rf. Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran.] 

Rampel —an angel exercising dominion over 
deep waters and mountain ranges. [Rf. M. Gaster’s 
The Sword of Moses.] In The Alphabet of Rabbi 
Akiba the angel of mountains (unnamed) is in¬ 
cluded among the “splendid, terrible, and mighty 
angel chiefs” who passed before God to rejoice in 
the 1st Sabbath. 

Raphael (“God has healed”)—of Chaldean 
origin, originally called Labbiel. Raphael is one 
of 3 great angels in post-Biblical lore. He first 
appears in The Book of Tobit (a work external 
to the Hebrew canon, apocryphal in Protestant 
Scripture, canonical in Catholic). In The Book of 
Tobit, Raphael acts as companion and guide to 
Tobit’s son Tobias who journeys to Media from 
Nineveh. It is only at the end of the journey that 
Raphael reveals himself by name as “one of the 7 
holy angels” that attend the throne of God. 
[See woodcut in the Cologne Bible (1478-1480), 
picturing various incidents in the story.] In 
Enoch I, 20, Raphael is declared to be “one of the 
watchers” ( q.v .). In Enoch I, 22, Raphael is a guide 
in sheol (i.e., the underworld). In Enoch I, 40, he is 
“one of the 4 presences, set over all the diseases and 
all the wounds of the children of men.” [Cf 
Rabbi Abba in The Zoharl: “Raphael is charged to 
heal the earth, and through him .. . the earth 
furnishes an abode for man, whom also he heals 
of his maladies.”] According to gamatria (cabala) 
and Yoma 37a, Raphael is one of the 3 angels that 


visited Abraham (Genesis 18), the other 2 angels 
identified usually as Gabriel and Michael. Raphael 
is credited also with healing Abraham of the pain 
of circumcision, the patriarch having neglected 
to observe this rite earlier in life. In The Legends of 
the Jews I, 385, Raphael is the angel sent by God 
to cure Jacob of the injury to his thigh when 
Jacob wrestled with his dark adversary at Peniel 
(the adversary having been identified variously 
as Michael, Metatron, Uriel, Sammael or God 
Himself.) Another legend ( Sefer Noah) claims 
it was Raphael who handed Noah, after the flood, 
a “medical book,” which may have been the 
famous Sefer Raziel (The Book of the Angel Raziel). 
Among other high offices, Raphael is the regent 
of the sun (Longfellow refers to him as the 
angel of the sun), chief of the order of virtues, 
governor of the south, guardian of the west, 
ruling prince of the 2nd Heaven, overseer of the 
evening winds, guardian of the Tree of Life in the 
Garden of Eden, one of the 6 angels of repentance, 
angel of prayer, love, joy, and light. Above all, 
he is, as his name denotes, the angel of healing 
( cf. Aslepios, ancient Greek god of healing). He is 
also the angel of science and knowledge, and the 
preceptor angel of Isaac. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus 
II.] Raphael belongs to at least 4 of the celestial 
orders: seraphim, cherubim, dominions (or domi¬ 
nations), powers. According to Trithemius of 
Spanheim, the 15th-century occultist, Raphael 
is one of the 7 angels of the Apocalypse. He is also 
numbered among the 10 holy sefiroth. And while 
he is not specifically named as the angel who trou¬ 
bled the waters at the pool in ancient Bethesda 
(John 5), he is generally so credited. [Rf Summers, 
The Vampire in Europe.] Curiously enough (be¬ 
cause, perhaps, Raphael has been called a guide in 
Hell) an ophite diagram represents Raphael as a 
terrestrial daemon with a beastlike form (!) and is 
associated with 3 other angels: Michael, Suriel, and 
Gabriel in the same guise. [Rf. Legge, Forerunners 
and Rivals of Christianity II, p. 70.] In the canvases 
of such masters as Botticini, Lorrain, Pollajuolo, 
Ghirlandaio, Titian, and Rembrandt, Raphael is 
variously pictured holding a pilgrim’s staff and a 
fish (Tobit) ; as a winged saint supping with Adam 
and Eve; as the “sociable archangel” (Paradise 




Raphael descending to earth. An illustration for Paradise Lost. From Hayley, The Poetical Works 
of John Milton. 






[242] RAPID I REHAUEL 

Lost V); as a “six-winged seraph”; and as one of 
the 7 angels of the presence. Reference to these 7 
angels of the presence is made by Blake in his 
“Milton.” In the off-Broadway play Tobias and 
the Angel, Raphael is represented as a scoffing 
and jesting angel “knocking sense into the head of 
Tobias.” The file on Raphael is inexhaustible, but 
one additional legend may be worth repeating 
here: it is taken from Conybeare, The Testament 
of Solomon. When Solomon prayed to God for 
help in the building of the Temple, God answered 
with the gift of a magic ring brought to the 
Hebrew king personally by Raphael. The ring, 
engraved with the pentalpha (5-pointed star), had 
the power to subdue all demons. And it was with 
the “slave labor” of demons that Solomon was 
able to complete the building of the Temple. 

Rapid, The —an order of angels, “one of the 
10 classes in Talmud and Targum,” according to 
Voltaire in “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils.” 

Raquiel —one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrash- 
im II, 316.] 

Rasamasa —with Vocabiel, a brother spirit, 
Rasamasa controls the sign of Pisces in the zodiac. 
[Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Rasesiyah—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Rash (Rashin Rast)—the angel minister of 
justice in the service of Mithra. [Rf. The Dabistan, 
p. 145.] 

Rashiei (Zavael)—an angel who exercises 
dominion over whirlwinds and earthquakes. [Cf 
Su’iel.] 

Rashin Rast [Rash] 

Rasuil [Raguel] 

Rathanael —an angel “who sits in the 3rd 
Heaven.” The Testament of Solomon is authority 
for the fact that Rathanael is the only angel who 
is able to frustrate the machinations of the female 
demon Enepsigos. [R/". 3 Enoch 17.] 

Ratsitsiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 


abah ), an angelic guard stationed at the 1st of the 
6 heavenly halls. 

Ratziel [Raziel] 

Ratzuziel —an angelic guard of the 3rd Heav¬ 
en. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 1,116.] 

Raum (Raym)—before he fell, Raum was of the 
order of thrones. In Hell, he is a great earl and 
manifests in the form of a crow. His mission or 
office is to destroy cities and subvert the dignities 
of men. He commands 30 legions of infernal 
spirits. His sigil is figured in Waite, The Book of 
Black Magic and of Pacts, p. 178. Raum also answers 
to the name of Haborym and is pictured in De 
Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal (1863 ed.) with 3 
heads—man, cat, viper. 

Ravadlediel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Mer- 
kabah), an angelic guard stationed at the 5th 
heavenly hall. 

Raziel (“secret of God,” “angel of mysteries” 
—Ratziel, Akrasiel, Gallizur, Saraqael, Suriel, etc.) 
—the “angel of the secret regions and chief of the 
Supreme Mysteries.” [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses.] In the cabala, Raziel is the personification 
of Cochma (divine wisdom), 2nd of the 10 holy 
sefiroth. In rabbinic lore, Raziel is the legendary 
author of The Book of the Angel Raziel (Sefer 
Raziel), “wherein all celestial and earthly know¬ 
ledge is set down.” The true author is unknown 
but he has been commonly identified as Eleazer of 
Worms or Isaac the Blind, medieval writers. 
Legend has it that the angel Raziel handed his 
book to Adam, and that the other angels, out of 
envy, purloined the precious grimoire and cast it 
into the sea, whereat God ordered Rahab, pri¬ 
mordial angel/demon of the deep, to fish it out 
and restore it to Adam—which Rahab obediently 
did, although it should be pointed out that before 
this, Rahab had been destroyed. The Book of the 
Angel Raziel finally came into possession of, first, 
Enoch (who, it is said, gave it out as his own work 
i.e.. The Book of Enoch); then of Noah; then of 
Solomon, the latter deriving from it, according to 
demonographers, his great knowledge and power 
in magic. [Rf. De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal .] 
From a midrash (Ginzberg, The Legends of the 



Jews I, 154-157) it develops that Noah learned 
how to go about building the Ark by poring over 
the Raziel tome. \Rf Jastrow, Hebrew and Baby¬ 
lonian Traditions .] In Targum Ecclesiastes 10, 20, 
it is reported that “each day the angel Raziel, 
standing on Mount Horeb, proclaims the secrets 
of men to all mankind.” Searching further in the 
cabala, one learns that Raziel is one of 10 (actually 
one of 9) archangels in the Briatic world, which is 
the 2nd of the 4 worlds of creation. In this Briatic 
world each sefira is allotted an archangel to 
govern it, the chief being Metatron, the others 
being, apart from Raziel, Tzaphkiel, Tzadquiel, 
Kamael, Michael, Haniel, Raphael, Gabriel, and 
Sandalphon—as we find in a listing by Macgregor 
Mathers. [Rf. Westcott, The Study of the Kabalah, 
pp. 54-55.] According to Maimonides in his 
Mishna Thora, Raziel is chief of the order of erelim 
(q.v.) ; also, the herald of deity and preceptor angel 
of Adam. In further connection with The Book 
of the Angel Raziel, The Zohar I, 55a, reports that 
in the middle of the book there occurs a secret 
writing “explaining the 1,500 keys [to the mystery 
of the world] which were not revealed even to the 
holy angels.” The noted 13th-century cabalist 
Abraham ben Samuel Abulafia wrote under the 
name of Raziel (also under the name of Zechariah). 

Razvan —in Arabic lore, the “treasurer of 
Paradise,” and the “porter of Heaven.” [Rf. 
The Dabistan, p. 385.] 

Razziel —an angel of the 7th hour of the night, 
serving under Mendrion. [Rf. Waite, The Leme- 
geton .] 

Reapers— a designation for angels in Matthew 
13:29: “and the reapers are the angels.” Henry 
Vaughan, the English poet, concludes his poem 
“The Seed Growing Secretly” with the line 
“Till the white winged Reapers come.” In Long¬ 
fellow’s poem “The Reaper and the Flowers!! the 
Reaper is the angel of death, Azrael. 

Recabustira —a prayer addressed to Recabus- 
tira (for providing the invocant with a magic 
carpet) is made by gradually reducing the name 
thus: Cabustira, Bustira, Stira, Ira, etc. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 


. ..Raziel, angel of the secret regions [243] 

Recording Angel —Pravuil, Vretil, Radueriel, 
Dabriel (the same angel under different forms). 
In Arabic tradition, the recording angel is 
Moakkibat. But there is the tradition of 2 record¬ 
ing angels called Kiramu ’1-katibin who attend 
every believer, one recording the good deeds, the 
other the evil deeds. When the believer dies, his 
record is conveyed by the recording angels to 
Azrael, angel of death. In Babylonian lore, the 
recording angel is Nabu or Nebo. “To marry 
is to domesticate the Recording Angel,” says 
R. L. Stevenson in Virginihus Ptierisque. [Rf. 
Hughes, A Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Rectacon— an angel invoked in the benedic¬ 
tion of the Salt. Rectacon is mentioned in the 
grimoires and tracts of Sblomonic magic. 

Rectores Mundorum —in Chaldean myth¬ 
ology, the divine regents or powers that order the 
world below. [Rf. Aude, Chaldean Oracles of 
Zoroaster. ] 

Red Angel, The —an angel so named in Marc 
Chagall’s celebrated canvas titled “Descent of the 
Red Angel.” [See Angel of Fire.] 

Regent —in Paradise Lost V, 698, a fallen angel 
under Satan’s command, He is either head of, or 
one of, the regent powers that fought in the Great 
Revolt. 

Regents —an order of angels mentioned in 
Paradise Regained I, 117. 

Region —an angel invoked for special uses in 
ceremonial magic, specifically in the conjuration 
of the Sword. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton ; Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Rehael —an angel of the order of powers. He 
rules over health and longevity, and inspires 
respect for one’s parents. Rehael is one of the 72 
angels bearing the mystical name of God Shem- 
hamphorae. His corresponding angel is Ptechout. 
[Rf. Barrett, The Magus II; Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique.] 

Rehauel —in Runes, The Wisdom of the Kab¬ 
balah, one of the 72 angels of the zodiac. 







Round of the Angels by Fra Angelico, detail from The Last Judgment. Reproduced from 
Regamey, Anges. 


" 5 ^§fej»T 





Rehel —an angel who battles against the 
enemies of religion. His corresponding angel is 
Phupe. [Rf. Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique .] 

Reiiel —an angel of the order of dominations. 
Reiiel is also one of the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Reivtip (Rirvtip)—in Mosaic incantation rites, 
an angel who serves the angel-prince Alimon 
(q.v.). 

Rekhodiah —one of the 4 angel names found 
inscribed on the 2nd pentacle of the sun. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Relail —in Arabic lore, governor of the 5th 
Heaven. [R/. Moore, The Loves of the Angels.] 

Remiel (Ramiel, Rumael, etc.)—one of the 7 
archangels who attend the throne of God, as 
stated in Enoch I, 20. He is called Jeremiel or Uriel 
in various translations of IV Esdras, and described 
as “one of the holy angels whom God has set over 
those who rise” (from the dead). He is the same 
angel (given as Ramiel) who, in The Apocalypse of 
Baruch, destroys the army of Sennacherib. See 
Enoch II, and Geffckcn, Sibylline Oracles II, 215. 

Rempha —in Egyptian theogony, chief of the 
order of thrones and genius of time. In hermetics, 
Rempha is one of the 7 planetary genii and the 
genius (archangel) of Saturn. [Rf. Christian, The 
History and Practice of Magic I, 317; II, 475; see 
Orifiel.] 

Reno —the corresponding angel for the angel 
Vehuel ( q.v .). 

Reprobated Angels —at a church council in 
Rome, 745 c.e., under Pope Zachary, 7 high 
angels were reprobated: Uriel, Raguel, Inias, 
Adimus, Simiel (Semibel), Tubuael (Tubuas), and 
Sabaothe (Saboac). The bishops Clement and 
Adalbert, who taught the veneration of these 
angels, were convicted of heresy. It was the rash 
of newly coined angels that prompted the Church 
at that time to forbid invoking or venerating 
angels other than those named in the Bible 
(Michael, Gabriel, Raphael). The trouble, how¬ 
ever, dated earlier than the 8th century, for in the 


...Ribbotaim, the angel chariots of God [245] 

4th-5th centuries, Eusebius and Theodoret tried, 
without success, to put a stop to the practice. [Rf. 
Regamey, What Is an Angel? p. 119.] 

Requel —in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, a ruling prince of the order of principalities. 
In other sources the ruling prince of the order is 
given as Nisroc ( Paradise Lost), Anael, Cerviel, etc. 

Requiel —one of the 28 angels governing the 
28 mansions of the moon. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus.] 

Reschith Hajalalim (Rashith ha-Galgalim)— 
in Jewish cabala, Reschith is a ministering spirit 
through whom “the essence of divinity flows.” 
He guides the primum mobile, a task or office 
usually linked with Metatron. [Rf. Heywood, The 
Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] 

Resh (Rash?)—an Indo-Persian angel men¬ 
tioned in Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum 
Persarum. 

Retsutsiel [Rezoziel] 

Revealing Angel, The —in the Koran, sura 51, 
50, the revealing angel is spoken of as “a plain 
Warner from Him,” but is not identified by name. 

Rezoziel —an angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven 
mentioned in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Rhamiel (Rahmiel)—the angelic name of 
St. Francis of Assisi as the angel of mercy. St. 
Francis has also been referred to as the angel of the 
apocalypse. As such he warns the winds not to 
complete the destruction of the world “until the 
elect should be gathered.” The Douce 

Apocalypse.] 

Rhaumel —a Friday angel resident in the 5th 
Heaven and invoked from the north [Rf Barrett, 
The Magus]. 

Ribbotaim —angels used as chariots by God. 
These would be the cherubim (q.v.). [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Richol —an angel of the order of powers, 
summoned in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Riddia (Ridya, Ridjah, Mathariel—“the irriga- 



[246] RIDWAN / RUMAN 

tor”)—prince of rain in command of the element 
of water. Riddia is said to reside between 2 
abysses. In Hebrew lore, he is described as an angel 
who, when invoked, shows himself in the form of 
a 3-year-old heifer with cleft lips. [Rf. Talmud, 
Yoma 21a.] 

Ridwan—in Islamic tradition, an angel placed 
at the entrance to the earthly paradise. [Rf. 
Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 
618.] It is in this role, as the archangelic guardian 
of the Garden of Eden, that Ridwan appears in 
Remy de Gourmont’s play, Lilith. 

Ridya [Riddia] 

Riehol—in the cabala, governor of the zodiacal 
sign of Scorpio; in this office Riehol is assisted by 
Saissaiel. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Riff (fictional)—a cherub in Daniels, Clash of 
Angels. 

Rifion—in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
ahah), an angelic guard stationed at the 5th 
heavenly hall. 

Rigal—-one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
For a list of all 70, see Appendix. 

Rigziel—in Isaac ha-Cohen’s text, “Emanations 
of the Left Side,” Rigziel is 8th of the 10 holy 
sefiroth. 

Rikbiel YHWH —an angel appointed over the 
divine chariot (i.e., Merkabah) or wheels; also 
chief of the order of galgallim, of which there are 
6 other ruling angels. In Enoch lore, Rikbiel ranks 
higher than Metatron, which would make him 
one of the great crown princes of heavenly 
judgment (there being 8 such, according to 
Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews 1,139.) 

Rimezin—an angel of the 4th hour of the 
night, serving under Jefischa. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Rimmon (Hebrew, “roarer” or “exalted”)—a 
fallen archangel, now an “inferior demon.” 
Rimmon was originally an Aramaean deity wor¬ 
shipped at Damascus; also an idol of Syria. In 
occultism he is the devil’s ambassador to Russia. 


In Bates’ The Bible Designed to Be Read as Living 
Literature (p. 1262, glossary) “Elisha allowed 
Naaman the Syrian to bow down with his master 
in the house of Rimmon.” Thus, to bow down in 
the house of Rimmon implies “to conform to a 
reprehensible custom to save one’s life.” To the 
Semites, Rimmon was the god of storms, the 
Akkadian name being Im (Forlong, Encyclopedia 
of Religions). His emblem is the pomegranate. The 
Assyrians called him Barku (lightning) and the 
Kassites named him Tessub. In Babylonian myth, 
Rimmon was the thunder god, pictured with a 
trident. 

Rishis—to be compared with the Prajapati 
( q.v ,). The Rishis are the 7 or 10 Vedic spirits from 
whom it is claimed all mankind is descended. They 
may also be compared with the 7 angels of the 
presence and the 7 (or 6) amesha spentas in 
Zoroastrian lore. 

Risnuch—genius of agriculture, according to 
Levi, Transcendental Magic. In Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron, Risnuch is one of the 
genii of the 9th hour. 

Riswan (Rusvon)—in the Odes of Hafiz 
(Ode 586), the gatekeeper of Heaven. Hafiz’ 
reference is to “dread Riswan’s throne.” 

Riyiel—in the cabala, one of the 72 angels of 
the zodiac. 

Rochel—an angel who finds lost objects. 
Rochel’s corresponding angel is Chontare. Rochel 
also figures among the 72 angels bearing the 
mystical name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Roelhaiphar—an angel whose name is found 
inscribed on the 5th pentacle of Saturn. When 
Roelhaiphar is invoked, the invocant should, for 
the best results, recite a versicle from Deuteronomy 
10:17. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Rofael [Raphael] 

Rofocale—more usually called Lucifuge Rofo- 
cale, prime minister in the infernal regions, 
according to the Grand Grimoire. Rofocale has 
control over all the wealth and treasures of the 
world. His subordinate is Baal (a king, ruling in 



...Rimmon, the devil’s ambassador to Russia [247] 


the east). Two other subordinates are Agares (one 
of the dukes in Hell and formerly of the angelic 
order of virtues) and Marbas. 

Rogziel (“wrath of God”)—one of the 7 angels 
of punishment, as listed in Maseket Gail Edem and 
Gehinnom. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, 593.] 

Rombomare —corresponding angel for Lau- 
viah. 

Romiel —in geonic (Middle Ages) lore, an 
angel assigned to rulership over one of the months 
of the year. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] 

Rorex —in Conybeare, The Testament of 
Solomon, a spirit (angel) invoked to counteract the 
power of Alath (demon of disease, one of the 
infernal decani). 

Rosabis —genius of metals and one of the genii 
of the 11th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, The 
Nuctemeron.] 

Rosier —a former lesser-rank angel of the order 
of dominations, now officiating in Hell. [Rf. 
Michaelis, Admirable History of the Possession and 
Conversion of a Penitent Woman.] 

Roupa’il— an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf. 
Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouabir .] 

Rsassiel —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Ruah Piskonit —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Ruba’il —in Islamic lore, an angel of the 7th 
Heaven in charge of a group of angels (in the guise 
of men) engaged in worshipping Allah. [Rf. Hast¬ 
ings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 619.] 

Rubi (fictional)—the 2nd angel, a cherub, in 
Moore’s The Loves of the Angels. 

Rubiel —as cited in De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal, an angel (along with Uriel and Barachiel) 
invoked in games of chance. For good results, 
the name Rubiel, when prayed to, must be in¬ 
scribed on virgin parchment. 

Ruchiel —an angel appointed over the wind. 
[Rf. 3 Enoch, 14.] 


Rudiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 3rd 
heavenly hall. 

Rudosor —an angel of the 6th hour of the night, 
serving under Zaazonash. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Rufael —another form of the angel Raphael, or 
a corruption of Raguel (q.v.). According to 
Enoch I, 68:4, Rufael spoke with Michael con¬ 
cerning the fallen angels. 

Rugziel (Dalkiel)—an angel who operates 
in the 7th compartment of Hell in the “punish¬ 
ment of 10 nations.” [Rf Baraita de Massechet 
Gehinnom.] 

Rubiel —in Jewish legendary lore, the angel 
governing the wind. He is mentioned as one of 
the great luminaries in Heaven who, “when they 
encounter Metatron, tremble before him and 
prostrate themselves.” [Rf Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews I, 140.] 

Rumael (Ramiel)—one of the fallen angels in 
the Enoch listings. 

Ruined Archangel —an epithet used by Milton 
in Paradise Lost I, 593, to describe Satan in his fallen 
state: “his form had yet not lost/All her Original 
brightness, nor appear’d/Less than Arch Angel 
rum d. 

Riders —in the Septuagint, the term is used to 
denote an order of the celestial hierarchy. Usually 
equated with the order of dominations. Caird in 
Principalities and Powers, p. 11, uses rulers as a 
translation of the Greek “&px 0V£ S-” John of 
Damascus, in Exposition of the Orthodox Faith II, 
lists rulers (where customarily “principalities” 
appears) as 1st of the last triad in the 9-fold division 
of the celestial hierarchy. 

Ruman —in Islamic lore, a special angel of the 
lower regions who requires of all the deceased that 
come before him to write down the evil deeds 
they performed on earth and for which they were 
consigned to Hell. Ruman then delivers the 
deceased to the angels Munkar and Nakir (q.q.v.) 


[248] RUMIEL / RUYA’IL 

for punishment. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia ; Hastings, 
Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics IV, 617.] 

Rumiel —an angelic guard of the 6th Heaven; 
also one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. [Rf. 
Pirke Hechaloth', The Book of the Angel Raziel; 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 225.] 

Rumjal (Rumael?)—an evil, fallen archangel, 
one of the original 200 that were seduced by Satan 
into rebellion, according to Enoch I. 


Rusvon (Riswan)—an angel who holds the keys 
to the Muslim earthly paradise. [See De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal-, Cf. Ridwan.] 

Ruwano —a ministering angel invoked in con¬ 
juring rites. [R/i The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Ruya’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 






“Prince of the Power of the Air” (Satan) by 

Dore. Reproduced from Langton, Satan, A 
Portrait. 



Sa’adiya’il—in Islamic religious lore, an angel 
of the 3rd Heaven in charge of a group of angels 
(in the guise of vultures) engaged in worshipping 
Allah. [Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and 
Ethics IV, 619.] 

Saaphiel—angel of hurricanes, mentioned in 
Sefer Yetzirah (The Book of Formation). 

Saaqael (Sarakiel, Suriel?)—in Enoch I, an angel 
of the presence. 

Sabaoc—one of the 7 reprobated angels at the 
trial which took place in a church council in Rome, 
745 c.e. Other angels reprobated at the same trial 
included Uriel, Raguel, Simiel. [Rf Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels; see Repro¬ 
bated Angels.] 

Sabaoth (Tsabaoth, Ibraoth, “hosts”)—one of 
the 7 angels of the presence; one of the divine 
names in gnostic and cabalistic lore. In the Ophitic 
(gnostic) system, Sabaoth is one of the 7 archons, 
creators of the universe. 

Sabaoth Adamas—in the Texts of the Saviour, 
Sabaoth Adamas is an evil power, ruler of the 


wicked aeons; he is mentioned also in the Coptic 
Pistis Sophia. 

Sabathiel (Sabbathi)—in Jewish cabala, a spirit 
(intelligence) of the planet Saturn. He receives the 
divine light of the holy spirit and communicates 
it to the dwellers in his kingdom. In Mosaic lore, 
Sabathiel is one of 7 princes “who stand continu¬ 
ally before God, and to whom are given the 
spirit-names of the planets.” [Rf. Cornelius 
Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy III.] 

Sabbath—an angel (so named) who sits on a 
throne of glory in Heaven, the chiefs of orders of 
angels doing him honor. He is the lord of the 
Sabbath. 

Sabbathi [Sabathiel] 

Sabiel—the 1st of the personalized angels of the 
10 holy sefiroth. In Montgomery, Aramaic 
Incantation Texts from Nippur, Sabiel is an angel 
who is invoked in ritual rites. 

Sablil —according to Levi, Transcendental Magic, 
a genius who runs down thieves. Levi’s authority 
is Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron. In the 


251 



[252] SABRAEL / SAGR.4S 

latter work, Sablil is one of the spirits or genii of 
the 9th hour. 

Sabrael (Sabriel)—one of the 7 archangels, as 
noted in Conybeare, The Testament of Solomon, 
and in 3 Enoch. Sabrael is chief of the order of 
tarshishim (“the brilliant ones,” equated with the 
order of virtues), sharing the post with Tarshiel— 
according to Maseket Azilut. Sabrael is also guard 
of the 1st Heaven. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, 
“Angelology.”] In occultism, Sabrael is the only 
angel who can overcome the demon of disease, 
Sphendonael. 

Sabtabiel—in the cabala, an angel invoked in 
necromantic rites. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic, 

p. 281 .] 

Sachiel (“covering of God”)—an angel of the 
order of hashmallim (cherubim). Sachiel is resident 
of the 1st Heaven (in some sources, the 6th 
Heaven). He is a Monday (or Thursday or Friday) 
angel, invoked from the south (also from the 
west). In addition, he is a presiding spirit of the 
planet Jupiter. In goetic lore, he is called a servitor 
of the 4 sub-princes of the infernal empire. His 
sigil is shown facing p. 105 of Barrett, The Magus 
II. 

Sachiel-Melek—in the cabala, a king of the 
underworld hierarchy governing priesthoods and 
sacrifices. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 307.] 

Sachluph—a genius in control of plants and 
one of the genii of the 2nd hour, as listed by 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Sacriel—in occult lore (Barrett, The Magus II, 
etc.) an angel serving in the 5th Heaven. He rules 
on Tuesday and is invoked from the south. 

Sadayel—one of 3 archangels (the other 2 being 
Tiriel and Raphael) whose name is found inscribed 
in a pentagram on a ring amulet. [Rf. Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans .] 

Sadial (Sadiel)—in Islamic lore, an angel 
governing the 3rd Heaven. [Rf. De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal ; Clayton, Angelology.] 

Saditel—an angel of the 3rd Heaven in the 
listing of Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of 


Occult Philosophy III. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses, p. 139.] 

Sadqiel—in M. Gaster, Wisdom of the Chal¬ 
deans, a ruling angel of the 5th day. 

Sadriel—an angel of order. [Rf Charles, 
Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testa¬ 
ment.] In the Masque of Angels, a one-act opera 
produced in New York in February, 1966 at St. 
George’s Church, Sadriel was cast as the company 
clerk. 

Saelel—in the cabala, one of the 72 angels in 
control of the zodiac. 

Saeliah [Seeliah] 

Safkas—one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Safriel—an angelic guard of the 5th Heaven. 
Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 116.] He is said to be 
effective as a charm ( kamea ) for warding off the 
evil eye. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Sagansagel [Sagnessagiel] 

Sagdalon—governor, with Semakiel, of the 
sign of Capricorn in the zodiac. 

Sagham—according to Levi, Transcendental 
Magic, Sagham is ruler with Seratiel of the sign 
of Leo in the zodiac. 

Sagiel—an angel of the 7th hour of the day, 
serving under Barginiel. [Rf. Waite, The Leme- 
geton.] 

Sagmagigrin—one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Sagnessagiel (Sasniel, Sagansagel, Sasnigiel, 
etc.)—prince of wisdom and chief of the angelic 
guards of the 4th hall of the 7th Heaven. Sagnes¬ 
sagiel is one of the many names of Metatron, as 
listed in 3 Enoch. In the Baraita de Massechet 
Gehinnom, Sagansagel (so written), during a talk 
with Rabbi Ishmael in Heaven, showed the latter 
the holy books wherein the decrees for Israel are 
spelt out. 

Sagras— with another angel named Saraiel, 



253 



Head of a sorrowing angel by Filippino Lippi (1457-1504). Reproduced from Regamey, Anges. 




[254] SAGSAGEL / S AM( M)AEL 

Sagras governs the sign of the Bull (Taurus) in the Saktas —one of the many names of the angel 

zodiac. Metatron. 


Sagsagel [Zagzagel] 

Sahaqiel —angelic ruler of the sky, according 
to 3 Enoch. 

Sahariel (Asderel)—an angel invoked in 
Syriac spellbinding charms. Sahariel governs the 
sign of Aries (Ram) in the zodiac. [Rf. Prince of 
Darkness (a witchcraft anthology), p. 177; The 
Book of Protection ; Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] 

Sahiviel —angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven, 
mentioned along with numerous other such 
guards in Ozar Midrashim 1,116. 

Sahon —in the cabala, one of the angels of the 
Seal; also a planetary angel. 

Sahriel —one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Sahtail (Sahteil)—an angel in Mandaean lore. 
[Rf. Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouahir.] 

Saint Francis —pictured as an angel of mercy 
(with wings) as well as the angel of the Apocalypse. 
[R/i Bonaventura, Life of Saint Francis.] In his 
role of angel of the Apocalypse, Saint Francis 
warns the winds not to complete the destruction 
of the world—not until “the elect should be 
gathered.” [ See Rhamiel.] 

Saints —an order of angels in Jewish Talmud 
and Targum, according to Voltaire, “Of Angels, 
Genii, and Devils.” A term for angels, as in the 
Authorized Version of Psalms 89:7, where “coun¬ 
cil of the holy ones” is translated into “assembly 
of saints.” 

Saissaiel —with Riehol (a brother genius), 
Saissaiel governs the sign of Scorpio. [Rf. Levi, 
Transcendental Magic, p. 413.] 

Sakniel —one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the West Wind, as cited in Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316. 

Sakriel (Samriel)—a porter angel of the 2nd 
Heaven. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 


Salamiel (Satanail, Satomail)—a great angel, 
prince of the grigori (q.v.). Though the grigori 
dwell in Heaven, a certain number of them are 
malign. A legend has it that Salamiel rejected the 
Lord and is now a fallen angel. [Rf. Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews 1,133.] 

Salatheel (Sealtiel, Sealthiel, Salathiel—“I have 
asked God”)—one of the 7 great ministering arch¬ 
angels, rulers of the movements of the spheres. 
With Suriel (Suriyel), Salatheel conducted Adam 
and Eve from the top of a high mountain, where 
Satan had lured them, to the cave of treasures (as 
reported in The Book of Adam and Eue). Ezra IV 
refers to him as Salathiel. In secular writings, there 
is a romance by the Rev. George Croly (published 
in 1829, again in 1900, under the title Tarry Thou 
Till I Come) in which the Wandering Jew is the 
name of a 16th-century Venetian called Salathiel 
ben Sadi. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic\ Barnhart, 
The New Century Handbook of English Literature, 
p. 960.] 

Salbabiel —an angel invoked in Aramaic love 
charms. [Rf. Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation 
Texts from Nippur.] 

Salem —the guardian angel of St. John; 
probably Melchizedec, who was the legendary 
king of Salem (i.e., Jerusalem). [Rf. Klopstock, 
The Messiah, notes to canto vii.] 

Salemia —in Esdras II, one of the 5 “men” 
(angels) who transcribed the 204 books dictated 
by Ezra. 

Salilu s —in magical arts [Rf. Levi, Transcen¬ 
dental Magic] a genius who opens sealed doors. In 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron, Salilus is a 
genius of the 7th hour. 

Sallisim —in 3 Enoch, an order of angels within 
the order of the Song-Uttering Choirs, the latter 
being under the direction of Tagas (q.v.). 

Salmael (Samael)—a prince of one of the angelic 
orders. Salmael used to accuse Israel on Yom 



...Sammael, father of Cain, “first of the art critics” [25 5 ] 


Kippur, calling for the annihilation of the Jews 
(forerunner of a genocide like Hitler?). Salmael is 
equated with Samael and Azazel. He has also been 
identified as Jacob’s dark antagonist at Peniel, as 
have other angels. [Rf. Bamberger, Fallen Angels, 
pp. 284-285.] 

Salmay (Zalmaii, Samaey)—in the Grimorium 
Verurn, one of the “holy angels of God” invoked 
in ceremonial magic rites, specifically in the 
benediction of the Salt. [Rf, Waite, The Book of 
Ceremonial Magic, p. 175.] 

Salmia—an angel petitioned in ritual prayer, 
along with other “great and glorious spirits” for 
the fulfilment of the invocant’s desires. [Rf. 
Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Turiei] 

Salmon—an angel of the 6th hour of the night, 
serving under Zaazonash. [Rf Waite, The 
Lemegeton, p. 69.] 

Salpsan—a son of Satan, according to the 
Gospel of Bartholomew, in James, The Apocryphal 
New Testament. 

Salun—an angel petitioned in ritual prayer. 
[Rf. Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Turiei, p. 36.] 

Samaey [Salmay] 

Sam(m)ael (Satanil, Samil, Satan, Seir, Sal¬ 
mael, etc.)—a combination of “sam” meaning 
poison and “el” meaning angel. In rabbinic 
literature, Samael is chief of the Satans and the 
angel of death. In the Secrets of Enoch (Enoch II) he 
is the prince of demons and a magician. Samael 
has been regarded both as evil and good; as one of 
the greatest and as one of the foulest spirits opera¬ 
ting in Heaven, on earth, and in Hell. On the one 
hand he is said to be chief ruler of the 5th Heaven 
(in Jewish legendary lore his residence is usually 
placed in the 7th Heaven), one of the 7 regents of 
the world served by 2 million angels; on the other 
hand, he is “that great serpent with 12 wings that 
draws after him, in his fall, the solar system.” [Cf 
Revelation 12.] Samael is also the angel of death 
(one of a number of such angels) whom God sent 
to fetch the soul of Moses when the Lawgiver’s 
days on earth had come to an end. Talmud 


Yalkut I, 110, speaks of Samael as Esau’s guardian 
angel. Sotah 10b speaks of Samael as Edom’s sar 
(angelic prince guardian). In the Sayings of Rabbi 
Eliezer, Samael is charged with being the one (in 
the guise of a serpent) who tempted Eve, seduced 
her, and became by her the father of Cain. In The 
Zohar (Vayishlah 170b), Samael is the dark angel 
who wrestled with Jacob at Peniel, although 
Michael, Uriel, Metatron, and others have been 
identified as this antagonist. Samael is also equated 
with the satan (i.e., the adversary) who tempted 
David to number Israel [Rf. I Chronicles 21]. 
Targutn Jonathan to the Prophets renders Genesis 3:6 
as: “And the woman saw Samael the angel of 
death.” This verse is translated in the Paraphrase 
of Job, 28:7, as: “the path of the Tree of Life which 
Samael, who flies like a bird, did not know, and 
which the eye of Eve did not perceive.” In Waite, 
The Holy Kabbalah, p. 255, Samael is characterized 
as the “severity of God” and is listed as 5th of the 
archangels of the world of Briah. Here he corres¬ 
ponds to the sefira Geburah. Cornelius Agrippa, 
Three Books of Occult Philosophy, equates Samael 
with the Greek god Typhon. Baruch III, 4, men¬ 
tions “the angel Sammael.” In Charles, The 
Ascension of Isaiah IV, 7, occurs this passage: “And 
we ascended to the firmament, I and he [i.e., 
Isaiah and his escorting angel, a very glorious one, 
not named—but compare with the angel that 
Abraham encounters in the Apocalypse of Abraham], 
and there I saw Sammael and his hosts, and there 
was great fighting therein and the angels of Satan 
were envying one another.” It is clear here that 
Sammael and Satan are interchangeable. In 
Longfellow’s extensive poem, The Golden Legend, 
when the rabbi asks Judas Iscariot why the dogs 
howl at night, the answer is: In the Rabbinical book 
it sayeth / The dogs howl when, with icy breath,/Great 
Sammael, the Angel of Death,/Takes through the 
town his flight. In fiction, “Red Samael the 
Seducer,” father of the hero, is a character in 
Cabell, The Devil’s Own Dear Son. Cabell calls 
Samael the “youngest and most virile of the 72 
princes of Hell, a red-headed rogue who had made 
his reputation some centuries ago with both Eve 
and Lilith.” To Cabell, Samael belongs to the 
order of seraphim and is “first of the art critics.” 



[25 6] SAM AH A’ IL / SANTRIEL 


Samaha’il —in Muslim tradition, an angel in 
the 6th Heaven in charge of a group of angels (in 
the guise of boys) engaged in worshipping Allah. 
[Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 
IV, 619.] 

Samandiriel (Smandriel)—in Mandaean lore, a 
spirit of fertility who receives prayers; and who 
keeps such prayers until the time comes when he 
believes they should be acted on. See Yus(h)amin. 
[Rf Drower, The Canonical Prayerhook of the 
Mandaeans, p. 272.] 

Samangaluf (Smnglf, Samangeloph)—accord¬ 
ing to pseudo-Sirach, one of the 3 angels who 
brought Lilith back to Adam in the pre-Eve days, 
after a long separation. A Hebrew amulet, show¬ 
ing the seal of Samangaluf and taken from The 
Book of the Angel Raziel, is reproduced in Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 225. 

Samas —a master spirit in Babylonian and 
Chaldean occultism. Samas figures as one of the 
signs (the sun) of the zodiac. [Rf Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic; Seligmann, The History of Magic.] 

Samax —chief of the angels of the air and ruling 
angel of Tuesday. His ministering angels are 
Carmax, Ismoli, and Paffran. [Rf de Abano, The 
Heptameron; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Samax Rex —as recorded in a book of Eliza¬ 
bethan black magic, a spirit of evil. [Rf Butler, 
Ritual Magic, p. 256.] 

Sambula —in Arabic lore, an angel invoked in 
conjuring rites. [Rf Shah, Occultism .] 

Samchia (Samchiel)—one of the 70 childbed 
amulet angels. For a list of all 70, see Appendix. 

Samchiel [Samchia] 

Sameon —in Waite, The Lemegeton, an angel of 
the 6th hour of the day, serving under Samil. 

Sameron —an angel of the 12th hour of the 
day, serving under Beratiel. 

Sameveel —one of the fallen angels, listed in 
Enoch I. 

Samhiel —in the cabala, an angel invoked to 
cure stupidity. [Rf Botarel, Mayan Hahochmah; 
Enoch /.] 


Sam Hii (Shorn Hii)—in Mandaean lore, one 
of the 4 malki (uthri or angels) of the North Star. 
The name means “creation of life.” 

Samiaza(z) [Semyaza] 

Samiel —in the Apocalypse of Peter (also in 
James, The Apocryphal New Testament) Samiel is 
an “immortal angel of God.” In The Book of 
Protection, he is grouped with Michael, Gabriel, 
and other spellbinding angels. However, accord¬ 
ing to Voltaire in his “Of Angels, Genii, and 
Devils,” Samiel is one of the leaders of the fallen 
angels, and hence evil. To Voltaire, apparently, 
Samiel was another form for Samael, prince of 
evil. In Bar-Khonai, The Book of Scholia, Samiel 
is described as “blind, malformed, and evil.” 

Samil —an angel ruler of the 6th hour, with a 
vast concourse of serving spirits under him. [Rf 
Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Samjaza [Semyaza] 

Samlo —in gnosticism, one of the great 
luminaries or aeons who “are to draw the elect up 
to Heaven.” [Rf. Doresse, The Secret Books of the 
Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Sammael [Samael] 

Sammangaloph [Samangaluf] 

Samoel (Samoy?)—a spirit invoked in prayer 
to the Master of the Art in Solomonic ritual 
operations. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Samohayl —a ministering archangel evoked in 
cabalistic conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Samoy —in the Grimorium Verum, an angel 
conjured up in black magic operations. He may 
be the same as Samoel. 

Samriel [Sakriel] 

Samsapeel (Samsaveel, Shamshiel)—an evil 
archangel listed among the apostates in Enoch I. 
He was one of 200 who descended from Heaven 
to cohabit with the daughters of men. 



...Samandiriel, keeper of prayers offertility [257] 


Samsaveel [Samsapeel] 

Samuil (Semil, “heard of God”)—in Jewish 
legendary lore, an angel of the earth—that is, one 
who exercises dominion over the earth. In Enoch 
II, 33, he is the angel who not only transported 
Enoch to Heaven (while Enoch was still in the 
flesh) but, as commanded by God, returned him 
to earth—although this mission and feat are also 
ascribed to other angels, among them Rasuil and 
Anafiel. 

Samyaza [Semyaza] 

Sanasiel —in Mandaean angelology, a spirit 
who stands at the gate of life and prays for souls. 
[Rf Drower, The Canonical Prayerbook of the 
Mandaeans.] 

Sanctities —a term for one of the celestial 
orders, as employed by Milton in Paradise Lost III, 
60. [Rf. West, Milton and his Angels, p. 135.] 

Sandalphon (Sandolphon, Sandolfon—Greek, 
“co-brother”)—originally the prophet Elias (Eli¬ 
jah). In rabbinic lore, Sandalphon is one of the 
great sarim (angelic princes), twin brother of 
Metatron, master ( hazzan) of heavenly song. 
Exceeding Hadraniel in height by a 500-year foot 
journey, he is regarded as one of the tallest 
hierarchs in the celestial realms—Moses, sighting 
him in the 3rd Heaven, called him “the tall angel.” 
Talmud Hagiga 13b says his head reaches Heaven 
(which was said also of Israfel and of the Greek 
giant Typhon). In Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, Sandalphon is designated “the left-hand 
feminine cherub of the ark.” In the liturgy for the 
Feast of Tabernacles, he is credited with gathering 
the prayers of the faithful, making a garland of 
such prayers, and then “adjuring them to ascend as 
an orb to the supreme King of Kings.” In 3 Enoch, 
Sandalphon is described as ruler of the 6th Heaven 
(makon) but, in The Zohar (Exodus 202b), he is 
“chief of the 7th Heaven.” According to Islamic 
lore, he dwells in the 4th Heaven. As is reported 
of Michael, he carries on ceaseless combat with 
the apparently indestructible Samael (Satan), 
prince of evil. In popular etymology, Sandalphon 


is a fancier of sandals (soft shoes) when he stands 
in the presence of his Maker, but leather shoegear 
when he appears before the Shekinah (see The 
Zohar). The ancient sages identified Sandalphon 
with Ophan (q.v.). He is said also, by cabalists, to 
be instrumental in bringing about the differentia¬ 
tion of sex in the embryo—a good thing to bring 
to the attention of expectant mothers. [Rf. Yalkut 
Reubeni .] In Longfellow’s “Sandalphon,” he is the 
“Angel of Glory, Angel of Prayer,” Longfellow’s 
inspiration for the poem deriving from J. P. 
Stehelin, Traditions of the Jews. 

Sandolfon [Sandolphon] 

Sangariah —angel of fasts, whose chief office is 
accusing those who fail to observe the Sabbath. 
[Rf. The Zohar [Exodus 207a).] 

Sangariel —an angel who guards the portals of 
Heaven. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon.] 

Sanigron Kunya —in M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses, one of the 14 great angels who may be 
invoked in special ceremonial rites. 

Sannul (Sanul)—an angel of the order of 
powers; in occultism, he is summoned up in 
ritual magic rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses.] 

Sansanui (Sansanvi, Sanvi, Sansennoi, Snvi, 
Sanzanuy)—one of the 3 angels credited with 
bringing Lilith back to Adam after their separation 
(in the pre-Eve days). The other 2 angels who 
assisted in the reconciliation were Sanuy (or 
Sennoi) and Samangaluf. Sansanui is now a potent 
prophylactic against the deprivations of Lilith and 
her minions. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] 

Santanael —a Friday angel, resident of the 3rd 
Heaven. Summoned up, Santanael will appear 
only when the invocant faces south. [Rf. de 
Abano, The Heptameron ; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Santriel —the sole reference to Santriel occurs 
in The Zohar (Exodus 151a), where his function is 



SAPHAR I SAR HA-OLAM 


[25 8] 

clearly described: “And a certain angel named 
Santriel goes away to fetch the body of such a 
sinner [i.e., such a one who kept not the Sabbath] 
from the grave and brings it to Gehenna, holding 
it up before the eyes of all the [other] sinners, that 
they may see how it bred worms.” 

Saphar— in the Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Founda¬ 
tion) it is said that Saphar is “one of the 3 seraphim 
through whom the world was made,” the other 2 
being Sepher and Sipur. 

Sapiel (Saphiel)—an angel of the 4th Heaven 
and ruler of the Lord’s Day. Sapiel is a guardian 
angel and is to be invoked from the north. 

Sar (pi., sarim )—a Hebrew term for an angel 
prince. There are 70 sarim , one for each nation. 
The sarim are also identified as the 70 Shepherds, 
as in the Shepherd of Hermas. 

Saraiel (Sariel)—governor of the sign of the 
Twins in the zodiac, at which post Saraiel is 
assisted by another genius (i.e., angel) named 
Sagras. [R/". The Prince of Darkness, p. 177.] 

Sarafiel —in Islamic mythology, an angel 
equated with Israfil or Israfel. [Rf. Jewish Encyclo¬ 
pedia, “Angelology.”] 

Sarafsion —in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Sarahiel —one of the 7 angelic guards of the 
2nd Heaven, according to Hechaloth Rabbati. [Rf 
Ozar Midrashim I, 116.] 

Sarakiel (Saraquael)—the prince of ministering 
angels, officiating when these angels convene at 
judgment councils. Sarakiel is “one of the 7 holy 
angels set over the children of men whose spirits 
have sinned.” [Rf. The Book of Enoch.] With 
another angel, Sataaran, Sarakiel governs the sign 
of the Ram. 

Sarakika’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Saraknyal (Sarakuyal)—one of the 200 angels 
under the leadership of Semyaza who descended 


to earth to cohabit with the daughters of men, an 
incident touched on in Genesis 6. The American 
poet Mark Van Doren mentions Saraknyal in 
his poem “The Prophet Enoch.” The variant form 
Sarakuyal is provided by Levi, The History of Magic, 
when listing the leaders of the 200 apostates. 

Saranana —in The Almadel of Solomon, an angel 
of the 3rd altitude. 

Saraquael [Sarakiel] 

Sarasael (Sarea, Sarga, Saraqael)—a seraph; one 
of the 5 “men” who wrote down the 204 books 
dictated by Ezra. He is one of the holy angels “set 
over the spirits of those who sin in the spirit.” As 
recorded in Baruch III, Sarasael is the angel God 
sent to Noah to advise the latter in the matter of 
replanting the Tree (in Eden) “which led Adam 
astray.” 

Saratan —in Arabic lore, an angel invoked in 
incantation rites. 

Sarea (Sarga)—in Duff, II Esdras, one of 5 
“men” referred to under Sarasael. Of the 204 books 
dictated by Ezra, 70 were to be delivered only to 
the wise; the others were to be published openly. 

Sarfiel —an ancient amulet angel whose name 
is recorded in a Palestinian mezuzah, along with 
the names of 6 other angels. In occultism, Sarfiel 
is an angel of the 8th hour of the day, serving 
under Osgaebial. In Ozar Midrashim II, 316, he is 
one of the numerous guards of the gates of the 
East Wind. 

Sarga (Sarasael)—one of the 5 heavenly 
scribes appointed by God to transcribe the 204 
books dictated by Ezra. The other 4 scribes are 
Dabria, Seleucia, Ethan (or Ecanus), and Asiel. 
Here, clearly, Sarga is considered another form 
for Sarea and Sarasael. 

Sargiel (Nasargiel)—an angel who fills Hell 
with the souls of the wicked. 

Sar ha-Kodesh —the angelic prince of the 
sanctuary, or of holiness. Sar ha-Kodesh has been 
identified with Metatron and Yefefiah ( q.q.v.). 

Sar ha-Olam —literally “prince of the world” 




Satan and Belzebuth (fallen angels) in consultation on battle strategy. An illustration for Paradise 
Lost I, after a sculpture by Darodes. Reproduced from Hayley, The Poetical Works of John Milton. 









[260] SAR HA-PANIM / SATAN 

and the equivalent of Sar ha-Panim, “prince of the 
face.” Identified as Michael, Jehoel, Metatron, 
and—by St. Paul—as Satan. Talmud calls Sar 
ha-Olam an angel who “bears God’s name within 
him,” referring to Exodus 23:21. [Rf. Talmud 
Yebamoth 16b; Hullin 60a; Sanhedrin 94a.] Sar 
ha-Olam, like Metatron, is credited with com¬ 
posing Psalms 37:25 and Isaiah 24:16. 

Sar ha-Panim—literally “prince of the face” 
and equated with the prince of the presence; also 
with Sar ha-Olam. 

Sar ha-Torah—literally “prince of the Torah” 
(Law), who is Yefefiah (q.v.). 

Sarhma’il—in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Sariel (Suriel, Zerachiel, Sarakiel, Uriel, etc.)— 
one of the 7 archangels originally listed in the 
Enoch books as Saraqel and differentiated from 
Uriel, although Sariel is identified as Uriel in T. 
Gaster, Dead Sea Scriptures. Sariel is cited both as 
a holy angel and a fallen one. In occultism he is 
one of the 9 angels of the summer equinox and is 
effective as an amulet against the evil eye. He 
governs the zodiacal sign of the Ram (Aries). In 
addition, he teaches the course of the moon (which 
was regarded at one time as forbidden knowledge). 

[Rf Glasson, Greek Influence in Jewish Eschatology.] 

In the recently discovered Dead Sea scrolls, one of 
the books, The War of the Sons of Light Against the 
Sons of Darkness, speaks of the angel Sariel as a 
name that appears on the shields of the “third 
Tower,” the term Tower having the meaning of 
a fighting unit. There were 4 Towers in all. 

Sarim (Hebrew plural for sar, “prince”)—an 
angelic order of the Song-Uttering Choirs under 
the leadership of Tagas (q.v.). [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Saritaiel (Saritiel)—with a brother genius called 
Vhnori, Saritaiel governs the zodiacal sign of 
Sagittarius. 

Saritiel [Saritaiel] 

Sarmiel—a subordinate of Jehoel, prince of 
fire (q.v.). [Rf. King, The Gnostics and Their 
Remains, p. 15.] 


Sarospa—“the angel who executes the com¬ 
mands of Ahura-Mazda.” [Rf. Forlong, Encyclo¬ 
pedia of Religions.] 

Sarphiel—an angel invoked in Syriac incanta¬ 
tion charms. In The Book of Protection, Sarphiel is 
grouped with Michael, Shamshiel, and Nuriel as 
“a spellbinding power.” 

Sarquamich—a ruling angel of the 3rd hour of 
the night. [See Haglow.] 

Sar Shel Yam (“prince of the sea”)—Rahab 
(q.v.). [Rf. Midrash Rabbah.] 

Sartael (“God’s side”)—also called Satarel. An 
evil archangel, in control of hidden things. 
Mentioned in Talmud Berakoth 57b. 

Sartamiel—one of the governing angels of the 
zodiac. [Rf Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of 
Occult Philosophy III.] 

Sartziel (Saissaiel)—according to Levi, Trans¬ 
cendental Magic, the genius governing the zodiacal 
sign of Scorpio. [Rf. Prince of Darkness.] 

Sarush [Sirushi, Sraosha] 

Sasa’il—in Muslim tradition, an angel of the 
4th Heaven in charge of a group of angels (all in 
the guise of horses) engaged in worshipping Allah. 
[Rf. Hastings, Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics 
IV, 619.] 

Sasgabiel—an angel invoked in rites of exor¬ 
cism. [Rf. Montgomery, Aramaic Incantation Texts 
from Nippur.] 

Sasniel [Sasnigiel] 

Sasnigiel (Sasniel, Sagansagel, Sasnesagiel)—in 
3 Enoch, the angelic prince of wisdom, prince of 
the world, and prince of the presence (or face); 
also one of the seraphim “appointed over peace.” 
Sasnigiel is one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Sastashiel Jhvhh—one of the angelic princes 
of the hosts of X. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses.] 

Sataaran—the genius in control of the zodiacal 
sign of the Ram (Aries). Sataaran shares this post 



...Satan, will be, in time, reinstated in “pristine splendor” 


with another genius, Sarahiel (Sariel). [Rf. Levi, 
Transcendental Magic, p. 413.] 

Satael— one of the Tuesday angels of the air 
invoked in magic rites. Satael serves also as a 
presiding spirit of the planet Mars. [Rf. de Abano, 
The Heptameron; Barrett, The Magus.] 

Satan —the Hebrew meaning of the word is 
“adversary.” In Numbers 22:22 the angel of the 
Lord stands against Balaam “for an adversary” 
(satan). In other Old Testament books (Job, I 
Chronicles, Psalms, Zechariah) the term likewise 
designates an office; and the angel investing that 
office is not apostate or fallen. He becomes such 
starting in early New Testament times and 
writings, when he emerges as Satan (capital S), the 
prince of evil and enemy of God, and is character¬ 
ized by such titles as “prince of this world” (John 
16:11) and “prince of the power of the air” 
(Ephesians 2:2). When Peter was rebuked by 
Jesus, he was called Satan (Luke 4:8). Reading 
back into Genesis, medieval writers like Peter 
Lombard (c. 1100-1160) saw Satan in the guise of 
the serpent tempting Eve, although other writers, 
like the 9th-century Bishop Agobard, held that 
Satan tempted Eve through the serpent. As 
Langton says in Satan, A Portrait: “In the later 
Jewish literature, Satan and the serpent are either 
identified, or one is made the vehicle of the other.” 
Originally, Satan (as ha-satan) was a great angel, 
chief of the seraphim, head of the order of virtues. 
While seraphim were usually pictured as 6-winged, 
Satan was shown as 12-winged. Gregory the 
Great in his Moralia, after listing the 9 hierarchic 
orders, pays this tribute to Satan: “he wore all of 
them [all the angels] as a garment, transcending 
all in glory and knowledge.” Talmud claims that 
Satan was created on the 6th day of Creation 
(Bereshith Rabba, 17). Through a misreading of 
Isaiah 14:12, he has been identified with Lucifer. 
To Aquinas, Satan, as “the first angel who sinned” 
is not a seraph but a cherub, the argument being 
that “cherubim is [sic] derived from knowledge, 
which is compatible with mortal sin; but seraphim 
is [sic] derived from the heat of charity, which is 
incompatible with mortal sin” ( Summa 1, 7th art., 
reply obj. 1). In time, according to Jerome, 


[261] 

Gregory of Nyssa, Origen, Ambrosiaster, and 
others, Satan will be reinstated in his “pristine 
splendor and original rank.” This is also cabalistic 
doctrine. In secular lore, Satan figures in many 
works, notably in Milton’s Paradise Lost, where 
he is chief of rebels and the “Arch Angel ruin’d” 
(I, 593) and in Paradise Regained, where he is the 
“Thief of Paradise” (IV, 604). Also in Vondel’s 
Lucifer; in Dryden’s The State of Innocence; and in 
Goethe’s Faust (where he is represented by 
Mephistopheles). Other names for Satan include 
Mastema, Beliar or Beliel, Duma, Gadreel, 
Azazel, Sammael, angel of Edom. In rabbinic lore 
he has a nickname “the ugly one” (Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews V, 123). In Midrash Tehillim 
Satan appears to David (when the latter was out 
hunting) in the form of a gazelle. Compare with 
figure of Mutabilitie (as conceived by Spenser in 
“Two Cantos of Mutabilitie” in The Fairie 

Satan bound for a thousand years by the 

angel of the abyss (Appollyon/Abaddon), a 17th- 
century illustration of I Revelation 20. Repro¬ 
duced from Langton, Satan, A Portrait. 



[2621 SATA N A IL / SEDEKIAH 


Queene), the Greek Titaness who challenges Jove’s 
sovereignty and who, like Satan, aspired to and 
attempted “the empire of the Heavens hight.” 

Satanail —“his name [Satan’s] was formerly 
Satanail.” [Rf. Enoch II (the Slavonic Enoch), 
chap. 31, Morfill edition.] 

Satarel [Sartael] 

Sathariel (“concealment of God”)—the 
“averse” sefira (q.v.) “who hides the face of 
mercy.” In The Zohar (supplement), Sathariel is 
called Sheiriel. [Rf. Waite, The Holy Kabbalah, p. 
257.] 

Satrapies —a term Milton uses in his “The 
Reason of Church-Government Urged against 
Prelacy” to denote an order in the angelic hier¬ 
archy not mentioned by pseudo-Dionysius or any 
other angelologist, as in “Their celestial prince¬ 
doms and satrapies.” 

Saturn —in Persian religious lore, an angel, 
lord of the 7th Heaven. In the cabala, Saturn is the 
angel of the wilderness. In Chaldean mythology, 
he was Adar, one of the ruling gods of the 5 
planets. Milton refers to Saturn as a fallen angel 
(Paradise Lost I, 512.) 

Saulasau —a power of the upper world. [Rf. 
Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Sauriel (Sauriil, Suriel, Sowrill)—an angel of 
death, so designated in Drower, The Canonical 
Prayerbook of the Mandaeans, where Sauriel is 
referred to as “Sauriel the Releaser.” 

Savaliel —angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven. 
Mentioned among numerous other guards in Ozar 
Midrashim I, 116. 

Savaniah —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
the 3rd pentacle of the planet Mercury. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Savatri (Savitri, Savitar)—one of the 7 or 12 
adityas or “infinite ones” (angels) in Vedic lore. 
He (or she) is a sun god or goddess, and is described 
as having “a golden hand, golden eyes” and 
“drawn by luminous brown steeds with white 
feet.” In Vedic hymns Savatri is identified with 


Prajapati, the Creator. “Upon that excellent 
glory /of the god Savitar may we meditate ;/May 
he stimulate our prayers.” [R/ - . Forlong, Encyclo¬ 
pedia of Religions; Gaynor, Dictionary of Mysticism ; 
Redfield, GodslA Dictionary of the Deities of All 
Lands.] 

Savitar [Savatri] 

Savitri [Savatri] 

Savliel —in Pirke Hechaloth, an angelic porter 
or guard of the 3rd Heaven. 

Savsa —in hechaloth lore (Ma’asseh Merkabah), 
an angelic-guard stationed at the 6th heavenly hall. 

Savuriel —an angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim I, 116.] 

Sawael —in the Book of Formation (a cabalistic 
work), the angel of the whirlwind. [Rf. Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, p. 375.] 

Sazquiel —angelic ruler of the 5th hour, with 
10 chiefs and 100 lesser officers serving under him, 
each with his own attendants. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Scamijm —an angel serving in the 1st Heaven, 
according to The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Schabtaiel [Schebtaiel] 

Schachlil —in transcendental magic, the genius 
governing the sun’s rays; also the governor of the 
9th hour, as cited in Apollonius of Tyana, The 
Nuctemeron. 

Schachniel —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. 

Schaddyl —a throne angel, one of 15, listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Schaltiel —a spirit who, with the help of 
Iadara (q.v.), governs the sign of the Virgin in the 
zodiac. [R/i The Prince of Darkness, p. 177.] 

Scharial —in occult lore, an angel who is said 
to have come out of Sodom for the purpose of 
curing painful boils. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.] 

Schaway t—one of 15 throne angels. [Rf. The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 


Schebtaiel (Sabbathi)—in the cabala, the lord 
of the planet Saturn. The term derives from 
schebtai, Hebrew for Saturn. In Notes to his trans¬ 
lation of Dante’s Paradiso, quoting Stehelin, 
Rabbinical Literature, Longfellow refers to Scheb¬ 
taiel as the intelligence of Saturn. In the earliest 
manuscript version of The Golden Legend, Long¬ 
fellow favored Anachiel, and then Schebtaiel, as 
lord of Saturn. Subsequently, however, he dis¬ 
carded both these angels in favor of Orifel. 

Schekinah [Shekinah] 

Scheliel —one of the 28 angels governing the 
28 mansions of the moon. 

Schiekron —in Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron, the genius of bestial love, and one of the 
genii of the 4th hour. [Cf. Pharzuph.] 

Schimuel —one of 15 throne angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Schioel —an angel whose name is found 
inscribed on the 1st pentacle' of the moon. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Schrewniel (“convert”)—in Mosaic incanta¬ 
tion rites, an angel to be invoked for obtaining a 
good memory and an open heart. 

Scigin —an angel invoked in goetic rites and 
mentioned in the grimoires. 

Scourging Angels (Hebrew, malache hab- 
bala) —angels “pitiless of mind” whom Abraham 
encountered during his visit to Paradise. [Rf The 
Testament of Abraham .] 

Scribe of the Knowledge of the Most High 

—any of the following 9 answer to the title: 
Vretil, Enoch, Dabriel, Ezra, Pravuil, Uriel, 
Radueriel, Soferiel Memith, and Soferiel Mehayye. 

Scribe of Righteousness —identified as Enoch 
in the Vision of Paul XX. In this Vision, Paul sees 
Enoch as an angel “at the interior of Paradise.” 

Scribes —in 3 Enoch, the scribes constitute a 
high order of angels; they register the deeds of 
all men and read aloud the books of judgment at 
the convening of the sessions of the celestial court. 


...Scribes, registrars of the deeds of all men [263] 

Sealiah (Seeliah)—in the cabala, an angel who 
governs or controls vegetation on earth. He is also 
one of the 72 angels bearing the mystical name of 
God Shemhamphorae. For Sealiah’s sigil see 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 281. 

Sealtiel (Hebrew, “request of God”)—an 
archangel cited in Jobes, Dictionary of Mythology 
Folklore and Symbols. 

Seats —an order of angels mentioned by 
Augustine in his City of God as sedes, and referred 
to by John Salkeld in the latter’s A Treatise of 
Angels (1613), p. 303. The term “seats” may be 
equated with thrones. Edmund Spenser indicates 
such use in his “An Hymne of Heavenly Beautie.” 

Seba’im —a class of angels spoken of in 3 
Enoch, chap. 19: “When the time draws nigh for 
the recital of the heavenly song, all the hosts (the 
seba’im) are afrighted.” 

Sebalim —an order of angels comprised in the 
Song-Uttering Choirs, operating under the 
leadership of Tagas ( q.v.). [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Sebhael (Sebhil)—a spirit in Arabic lore who is 
in charge of the books wherein are recorded the 
good and evil actions of man. [Rf. De Plancy, 
Dictionnaire Infernal, 1863 ed.] 

Second Angel —in Enoch II, 30:12, Adam is 
called “a second angel.” 

Second Heaven, The —in Islamic lore, the 
abode of Jesus and John the Baptist. Here (in 
Jewish lore) the fallen angels are imprisoned and 
the planets fastened. It was in this Heaven that 
Moses, during his visit to Paradise, encountered 
the angel Nuriel, “standing 300 parasangs high, 
with a retinue of 50 myriads of angels all fashioned 
out of water and fire.” [Rf. The Legends of the Jews 
I, 131, and II, 306.] 

Seconds (fictional)—the name of an angel in 
Charles Angoff’s short story “God Repents.” [See 
Time.] 

Sedekiah —a “treasure-finding angel” whose 
name figures on the pentacle of the planet Jupiter. 
Sedekiah may be invoked in Solomonic magical 
operations. 



[264] SEDIM / SENCINER 

Sedim (sing, sedu) —in Talmud Abot(h) the 
sedim are guardian spirits, invoked in the exorcism 
of evil spirits. 

Sedu [sing, for sedim] 

Seehiah (Seheiah)—in the cabala, one of the 72 
angels bearing the mystical name of God Shem- 
hamphorae. In Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, 
chart of L’Arbre de Vie (facing p. 88), Seehiah is 
listed as one of 9 angels of the order of domina¬ 
tions, led by Zadkiel. He is credited with the power 
of bestowing long life and improving the health of 
those who invoke him. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II, 
chart facing p. 62.] 

Seeliah (Saeliah)—in the cabala, a fallen angel 
once of the order of virtues. He has (or had) 
dominion over vegetables. When invoking him, 
and for the best results, it is advisable to recite a 
verse from Psalm 93. Seeliah is mentioned in 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 278. 

Sefira (sephira; pi. sefiroth or sephiroth)—a 
divine emanation through which God manifested 
His existence in the creation of the universe. In the 
cabala, there are 10 holy and 10 unholy successive 
sefiroth, the holy ones issuing from the right side 
of God, the unholy ones from His left. The 10 
holy ones are usually given as: 1. Kecher (crown), 
2. Chokmah (wisdom), 3. Binah (understanding), 
4. Chesed (mercy), 5. Geburah (strength), 
6. Tiphereth (beauty), 7. Netzach(victory), 8. Hod 
(splendor), 9. Jesod (foundation), 10. Malkuth 
(kingdom). The sefiroth may be compared with 
the Platonic powers or intelligences, or with the 
gnostic aeons. In the cabala, the great sefiroth in 
the form of personalized angels are: Metatron, 
archangel of the hayyoth hakodesh; Raziel, arch¬ 
angel of the arelim or erelim; Zadkiel, archangel 
of the hashmalim; Kamael, archangel of the 
seraphim; Michael, archangel of the shinanim; 
Haniel, archangel of the tarshishim; Raphael, 
archangel of the bene elohim; Gabriel, archangel 
of the kerubim. In the Book of Formation is this 
description of the 10 “ineffable” sefiroth: “They 
are without limits; the infinity of the Beginning 
and the infinity of the End; the infinity of the 
Good and the infinity of the Evil; the infinity of 


the Height and the infinity of the Depth . . . their 
appearance is like that of a flash of lightning, their 
goal is infinite. His [God’s] word is in them when 
they emanate and when they return . . . and before 
His throne they prostrate themselves.” In the 
opinion of the 16th-century commentator Isaac 
ha-Cohen of Soria, of the 10 evil emanations, only 
7 were permitted to endure, and of these 7 only 
5 have been “authenticated”—Ashmedai, Kafke- 
foni, Taninniver (blind dragon), Sammael, and 
Sammael’s mate Lilith. 

Sefoniel —in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, one of two princes ruling the universe, 
the other being Ioniel. Sefoniel may be invoked 
in magical operations. 

Sefriel —an angelic guard of the 5th Heaven, 
as listed in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Segef— an angel of destruction invoked at the 
close of the Sabbath. [Rf Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition .] It should be pointed out 
that the angels of destruction are not by nature 
evil; only so in a causative sense. They were among 
the 1st angels to be created. There is no mention 
of them as among the one-third of the hosts that 
defected at the time of the great rebellion in 
Heaven. 

Segsuhiel YHWH —one of the angel princes of 
the hosts of X (i.e., God), as listed in M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses. [R/ Levi, Transcendental 
Magic.] 

Sehaltiel —an angel to be invoked when one 
wishes to drive away the archfiend Moloch. [Rf. 
Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Seheiah —in the cabala, an angel who provides 
protection against fire, sickness, etc., and governs 
longevity. His corresponding angel is Sethacer. 
For Seheiah’s sigil, see Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique, p. 269. 

Sehibiel —an angelic guard of the 2nd Heaven, 
as listed in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Seimelkhe —a celestial being in gnostic lore, 
commonly referred to as a power or an aeon. [Rf. 
Doresse, The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 



...Semyaza, hangs between heaven and earth, head down [265] 


Seir —another name for Samael, according to 
Nahmanides. [Rf. Bamberger, Fallen Angels, p. 
154.] 

Seket —in the cabala, a female angel who dwells 
in Egypt; she is the angel of part of an hour and 
appears when properly invoked. The poet H.D. 
sings of Seket in her poem “Sagesse.” Seket is also 
mentioned in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique. 

Seldac (Sellao, Esaldaio, Sacla)—in gnosticism, 
one of the angels of the order of powers, in charge 
of heavenly baptism. [Rf. Doresse, The Secret 
Books of the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Selemia (Shelemiah, Seleucia)—one of the 5 
“men” (i.e., angels) who wrote down the 94 (or 
204) books cnuated by Ezra, according to popular 
legend. The other angelic scribes are usually listed 
as Asiel, Dabria, Ecanus, and Sarae (Sarga). [Rf 
the apocryphal work Esdras IT, Charles, Apocrypha 
and Pseudepigrapha of the Old Testament.] 

Selith —in Klopstock, The Messiah, a seraph, 
one of the 2 guardian angels of the Virgin Mary 
and St.John the Divine. 

Semakiel (Semaqiel)—with another genius 
called Sagdalon, Semakiel rules the zodiacal sign of 
Capricorn. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic.] 

Semalion —in Talmud Sotah 13b, the angel 
who announced the death of Moses with the 
words “The great scribe is dead!” [Rf. Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews V, 6.] Note: since Sammael 
was the one sent from heaven to fetch Moses’ soul, 
Semalion may be a variant spelling for Sammael. 
The name occurs also in Talmud Sanhedrin 38b 
and Hagiga 13b. 

Semanglaf (Samangaluf)—an angel who is to 
be invoked for help when a woman becomes 
pregnant; also one of 3 angels who brought 
Lilith back to Adam. 

Semaqiel [Samakiel] 

Semeliel (Semishial)—one of the 7 princes 
“who stand continually before God, and to whom 
are given the spirit-names of the planets,’’accord¬ 
ing to Cornelius Agrippa. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Book of Moses.] In Cornelius Agrippa’s 


view, as recorded in his Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III, Semeliel (Semeshiah) is the spirit 
of the Sun. 

Semeschiah [Semeliel] 

Semiaxas [Semyaza] 

Semiazaz [Semyaza] 

Semibel (Simiel)—one of the 7 angels repro¬ 
bated at the church council in Rome in 743 c.e. 
Uriel was one of the 7 reprobated. [Rf. Heywood, 
The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] 

Semil [Samuil] 

Setnishia [Semeliel] 

Semjaza [Semyaza] 

Semyaza (Semiaza, Shemhazai, Shamazya, 
Amezyarak, etc.)—probably a running together of 
Shem (meaning name) and Azza (the angel Azza, 
or Uzza). He was the leader of the evil angels who 
fell, or one of the leaders. In legend, he is the seraph 
tempted by the maiden Ishtahar to reveal to her 
the Explicit Name (of God.) It is said that he now 
hangs between heaven and earth, head down, and 
is the constellation Orion. [Rf. Graves, Hebrew 
Myths.] Levi, Transcendental Magic, suggests that 
Orion “would be identical with the angel Michael 
doing battle with the dragon, and the appearance 
of this sign in the sky would be, for the cabalist, 
a portent of victory and happiness.” According to 
The Zohar (Genesis) Semyaza’s sons, Hiwa and 
Hiya, by one of Eve’s daughters, were so mighty 
that they ate daily 1,000 camels, 1,000 horses, and 
1,000 oxen. In Byron’s version of the legend 
(“Heaven and Earth, a Mystery”), Semyaza is 
transformed into Azaziel, and the female Ishtahar 
into Aholibamah. A recently unearthed version of 
Enoch (Qumram collection) contains a letter from 
Enoch addressed to Semyaza (Shemazya) and his 
companions. [Rf. Allegro, The Dead Sea Scrolls, p. 
119.] Schwab, Vocabulaire de VAngelologie, identi¬ 
fies Semyaza with Azael. 

Senacher —the corresponding angel forElemiah 
{q.v.). 

Senciner —corresponding angel for Michael; 



[266] SENEGORIN / SERUF 



An 18th-century conception of Adam and 

Eve after the Fall, with Sin and Death in the 
background. Having failed to prevent the en¬ 
trance of Satan into the Garden of Eden, the 
guardian angels are shown returning to heaven. 
Reproduced from Langton, Satan, A Portrait. 

also an angel of the order of powers. Senciner 
watched over Aedipus Aegyptiacus, as noted in 
Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique. In H.D.’s poem 
“Sagesse,” Senciner is an angel of a quarter of an 
hour. 

Senegorin— advocate angels who form the 
suite of the chief advocate Metatron. They are 
1,800 in number. [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Setrnoi (Sinui, Senoi, Sanuy)—with Sansennoi 
and Sammangeloph, Sennoi was dispatched by 
God to bring Lilith back to Adam after a falling 


out between the pair in the pre-Eve days. Lilith 
was evil, but an amulet bearing the name Sennoi 
was sufficient, when Lilith beheld it, to deter her 
from harming anyone, particularly infants (in, 
that is, the post-Eden days). For the sigil of Sennoi 
see The Book of the Angel Raziel and Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, 225. [Rf. Ausable, A 
Treasury of Jewish Folklore; Hyde, Historia Reli- 
gionis Veterum Persarum .] 

Sensenoi [Sennoi] 

Sensenya —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. 

Sentacer [lelahiah] 

Seclam—an angel of the order of powers, 
summoned in ceremonial rites [Rf The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Sephar [Vepar] 

Sepharon —in Waite, The Lemegeton, a chief 
officer-angel of the 1st hour of the night, serving 
under Gamiel. 

Sepher —one of the 3 seraphim “through 
whom the world was created,” the other 2 being 
Saphar and Sipur. [Rf Sefer Yetzirah .] 

Sepheriel —a great luminary, on the pro¬ 
nouncement of whose name “God will come to 
Universal Judgment.” [Rf Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon .] 

Sephira [Sefira] 

Sephiroth (Sefiroth)—in The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses, a power angel of the 5th Seal. 
He is invoked in cabalistic conjuring rites. [See 
Sefira.] 

Sephuriron —the 10th of the 10 holy sefiroth. 
He has 3 deputy sarim (angelic princes) answerable 
to him. They are Malkiel, Ithuriel, and Nashriel. 
Note that, in Paradise Lost IV, 800, Ithuriel is the 
angel dispatched to locate Satan. [Rf Isaac ha- 
Cohen of Soria’s “Emanations of the Left.”] 

Serabilin [Jesubilin] 

Serael —an angel serving in the 5th Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 



...Seraphiel, chief of seraphim, spirit of mercury [ 267 ] 


Serakel —an angel who exercises dominion 
over fruit-bearing trees. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, 
“Angelology.”] 

Seralif— an anagram for Israfel. An angel 
who participates in a dialogue with Gabriel, 
Michael, Raphael, and a chorus of angels in the 
poem “ Virginalia” by Thomas Holley Olivers. For 
a while Chivers (American poet, 1809-1858) 
was associated with Poe, whose biography he 
wrote. 

Seraph (“fiery serpent,” sing, for seraphim)— 
an angel by that name of the order of seraphim. 
In Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews IV, 263, it is 
Seraph who touches Isaiah’s lips with a live coal, 
an incident related in Isaiah 6:6. Seraph is also 
named one of the angels with dominion over the 
element of fire, of which there are quite a number. 
See Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels. 

Seraphiel —eponymous chief of the order of 
seraphim, although Jehoel and others are also 
designated chief. Seraphiel ranks highest of the 
princes of the Merkabah as one of the judgment 
throne angels (of which there are commonly 8). 
In occult lore, Seraphiel is a presiding spirit of the 
planet Mercury, ruling on Tuesday and invoked 
from the north. [Rf Barrett, The Magus II, 119; 
The Secret Grimoire of Turiel, p. 35; The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Seraphim (pi. for seraph)—the highest order of 
angels in the pseudo-Dionysian hierarchic scheme 
and generally also in Jewish lore. The seraphim 
surround the throne of Glory and unceasingly 
intone the trisagion (“holy, holy, holy”). They 
are the angels of love, of light, and of fire. How 
many are there? The answer (in 3 Enoch) is 4, 
“corresponding to the 4 winds of the world.” In 
rabbinic writings they are equated with the 
hayyoth (q.v.). According to Enoch II, the sera¬ 
phim have 4 faces and 6 wings, as in Isaiah 6. It 
is to be noted that the Isaiah mention is the only 
one to seraphim in the Old Testament, unless the 
expression “fiery serpents” (Numbers 21:6) may 
be taken to denote them. There is no mention of 
seraphim in the New Testament, except by impli¬ 
cation (Revelation 4:8). The ruling prince of the 


order has been given variously as Seraphiel, 
Jehoel, Metatron, Michael, and originally as 
Satan (before he fell). Some of the order defected 
at the time of the great rebellion. In his “On the 
Morning of Christ’s Nativity,” Milton speaks of 
the “sworded seraphim.” The Revelation of Moses 
speaks of “one of the 6-winged seraphim hurrying 
Adam to the Acherusian lake and washing him in 
the presence of God.” In this book the seraphim 
are said to “roar like lions.” Mathias Gruenewald 
(1470-1529) painted seraphim playing on the 
viola d’amour. [Rf. reproductions in Regamey, 
Anges.] 

Serapiel —an angel of the 5th hour of the day, 
serving under Sazquiel, as cited in Solomonic 
magical lore. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton .] 

Seraquiel —a “strong and powerful angel” 
who is invoked on Saturday. [Rf. Barrett, The 
Magus II, p. 126.] 

Seratiel —with Sagham (another genius or 
angel), Seratiel is said to govern the sign of Leo. 
[Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 413; Prince of 
Darkness: A Witchcraft Anthology, p. 177.] 

Sereda (fictional)—in Cabell’s Jurgen, Mother 
Sereda has dominion over Wednesday. She is the 
one who “washes away all the colors in the world.” 
She is the sister of Pandelis. 

Seref —an angel who transported to Heaven 
the bodies of deceased Egyptian kings. [Rf. 
Langton, Essentials of Demonology, p. 39.] 

Seriel (Sariel)—a fallen angel who taught men 
the signs of the moon. However, as Sariel, he is 
one of the 7 archangels who stand around the 
throne of God. He is sometimes equated with 
Uriel. [Rf. Enoch I; Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews.] 

Serosh [Sraosha] 

Serpanim (“prince of the face”)—an angelic 
power in the world of Briah (one of the 4 worlds 
of Creation). [Rf. Ambelain, La Kabhale Pratique.] 

Seruf (or Seruph)—an angel prince set over the 
element of fire. He is a seraph, as his name denotes, 
and is another name for Nathaniel. [Rf. The Sixth 



[268] SERVANT OF GOD / ; 

and Seventh Books of Moses.] Seruf is also credited 
with being, in occult works, an angel of the order 
of force (i.e., virtues) and of the order of seraphim. 

Servant of God —the angel Abdiel {cj.vf “Ser¬ 
vant of God” is the literal meaning of Abdiel, who 
is so addressed in Paradise Lost VI, 29. 

Servants (’ ebed )—a term for God’s serving 
angels in hechaloth and Merkabah lore. [ Rf. 
3 Enoch.] 

Serviel —an angel of the 3rd hour of the day, 
serving under Vaguaniel. 

Sesenges(n)-Barpharanges — the term or 
name of a group of angels, according to the Cop¬ 
tic Christians. [Rf. Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, 
Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition, p. 
100.] Also the name of a powerful demonic spirit. 

Setchiel —an angel who is served by Turiel in 
magical conjurations. [Rf. Malchus, The Secret 
Grimoire of Turiel, p. 36.] 

Seth —one of the 7 archons in the gnostic sys¬ 
tem. [Rf. Catholic Encyclopedia, “Gnosticism.”] 

Setheus —one of the great celestial powers 
dwelling in the 6th Heaven. [Rf. Malinine, 
Revelations of Zostrian ; Doresse, The Secret Books of 
the Egyptian Gnostics.] 

Sethlans —one of the Novensiles (who are the 9 
great gods of the Etruscans). For a list of the 
Novensiles, see Appendix. 

Setphael —in hechaloth lore [Ma'asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard of the 1st of the 7 heavenly 
halls. 

Seven Archangels —known as the 7 holy ones 
who stand around the throne of God and attend 
Him (Revelation 8:2; Book of Tobit 12:15). In 
Ezra IV and Enoch I, the 7 are named: 1. Uriel, 
2. Raphael, 3. Raguel, 4. Michael, 5. Sariel or 
Seraqel, 6. Gabriel, 7. Remiel or Jeremiel. Other 
lists give Anael, Samael, Zadkiel, Orifiel (in addi¬ 
tion to the others already named). See also Ezekiel 
9:2 for the 6 “men” (i.e., angels) and a 7th, the 
“man clothed with linen” (Christ) carrying a 
writer’s inkhorn. In horoscopy and hermetics, the 


HAHRIVAR(I) 

7 great planetary genii (archangels) are: 1. Rampha, 
genius of Saturn; 2. Pi-Zeus, genius of Jupiter; 
3. Ertosi, genius of Mars; 4. Pi-Re, genius of the 
Sun; 5. Suroth, genius of Venus; 6. Pi-Hermes, 
genius of Mercury; 7. Pi-Joh, genius of the Moon. 
[Rf. Christian, The History and Practice of Magic II, 
475.] Camfteld, A Theological Discourse of Angels, 
gives the “7 spirits who always stand in the pre¬ 
sence of God” (i.e., the angels of the presence) as 
rulers of the 7 planets, to wit: 1. Zapkiel, over 
Saturn; 2. Zadkiel, over Jupiter; 3. Camuel, over 
Mars; 4. Raphael, over the Sun; 5. Haniel, 
over Venus; 6. Michael, over Mercury; 7. Gabriel, 
over the Moon. But see entry, Seven Olympic 
Spirits, for the names of others as rulers of these 
“planets.” The 7 Akkadian elemental spirits or 
deities, which may have been the prototype of the 
7 rulers or creators in the cosmology of later 
cultures, are given as: An (Heaven), Gula (earth), 
Ud (sun), Im (storm), Istar (moon), Ea or Dara 
(ocean), En-lil (Hell). In “Angelology and Demon¬ 
ology in Early Judaism” (Manson, A Companion to 
the Bible) W. O. E. Oesterley expresses the belief 
that “the prototype of the 7 archangels were the 
7 planets, all of them Babylonian Deities.” 

Seven Heavens— in Hebrew terms and lore, 
the 7 Heavens are designated as follows, along with 
their governing angels: 1. Shamayim, ruled over 
by Gabriel; 2. Raqia, ruled over by Zachariel and 
Raphael; 3. Shehaqim, ruled over by Anahel 
and three subordinate sarim: Jagniel, Rabacyel, and 
Dalquiel; 4. Machonon, ruled over by Michael; 
5. Mathey, ruled over by Sandalphon; 6. Zebul, 
ruled over by Zachiel, assisted by Zebul (by day) 
and Sabath (by night); 7. Araboth, ruled over by 
Cassiel. In Enoch II, 8, the Garden of Eden and the 
Tree of Life are both found in the 3rd Heaven (see 
in this connection II Corinthians 12:2-3, which 
speaks of Paul being caught up in the 3rd Heaven). 
The Zohar mentions 390 Heavens and 70,000 
worlds. The gnostic Basilides vouched for 365 
Heavens; Jellinek (in Beth Ha-Midrasch) recalls a 
legend which tells of 955 Heavens. In Enoch II the 
Heavens number 10. Here the 8th Heaven is called 
Muzaloth. This Heaven, according to Hagiga 12b, 
is really the 7th Heaven. The 9th Heaven, home 



...Seventh Heaven, 

of the 12 signs of the zodiac, is called Kukhavim. 
The 10th, where Enoch saw the “vision of the face 
of the Lord,” is called Aravoth (Hebrew term for 
the 12 signs of the zodiac). The confusion of the 
Heavens is clear here from the fact that the signs 
of the zodiac do not lodge in the Heavens named 
after them. [ Rf The Book of the Angel Raziel; 
de Abano, The Heptameron ; Agrippa, Three Books 
of Occult Philosophy .] The notion of 7 Heavens 
appears in The Testament of the Twelve Patriarchs 
and other Jewish apocrypha, and was familiar 
to the ancient Persians and Babylonians. The 
Persians pictured the Almighty in the highest of 
the 7 Heavens, “seated on a great white throne, 
surrounded by winged cherubim.” The Koran 
(sura 23) also speaks of7 Heavens. 

Seven Holy Ones [Seven Archangels] 

Seven Olympic Spirits —according to the 
grimoires, the 7 Olympic Spirits are: 1. Aratron, 
who governs the planet Saturn; 2. Bethor, who 
governs the planet Jupiter; 3. Hagith, who gov¬ 
erns the planet Venus; 4. Och, who governs the 
Sun; 5. Ophiel, who governs the planet Mercury; 
6. Phaleg, who governs the planet Mars; 7. Phul, 
who governs the Moon. [Rf. The Secret Grimoire 
of Turiel.] 

Seven Stewards of Heaven —another term 
for the seven Olympic Spirits ( q.v .). 

Seven Supreme Angels —in the cabala, rulers 
of the 196 provinces into which Heaven is divided. 
The sigils of these angels are shown in Cornelius 
Agrippa’s philosophical works and are reproduced 
in Budge, Amulets and Talismans. 

Seventh Heaven— the abode of human souls 
waiting to be born. It is also the seat of God; of 
Zagzagel, prince of the Torah; and the dwelling 
place of the seraphim, hayyoth, etc. [Rf Talmud 
Hagiga 12b; Enoch II; The Legends of the Jews II, 
309.] It is in the 7th Heaven, according to the 
apocalyptic The Ascension of Isaiah, that Isaiah has 
a glimpse of God and the Christ and “hears the 
Most High dictating the program of his [Christ’s] 
earthly manifestation and return.” 

Seventh Satan [Hakael] 


abode of human souls waiting to be bom [269] 

Seventy-two Names of God —cited in the 
Grimoire of Pope Honorius the Great. Many of these 
names are identifiable with the names of angels. 
[Rf Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts, 
p. 240; Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, p. 261.] 

Sgrdtsih —an angel (one of the nomina barbara) 
who “ministers to the son of man,” according to 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Shabni (or Shabti)—an angel invoked in cere¬ 
monial magic rites, as noted in Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon. 

Shachmiel —an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental Hebrew charm ( kamea ) for warding 
off evil. [Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Shadfiel —one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the North Wind. [Rf. Ozar Mid- 
rashim II, 316.] 

Shaftiel —an angel who rules in Hell. He is lord 
of the shadow of death and his special province is 
in the 3rd lodge of the 7 divisions in which the 
underworld is divided. He punishes 10 nations 
“for cause.” [Rf Baraita de Massechet Gehinnom; 
Midrash Konen ; Brewer’s Dictionary of Phrase and 
Fable, “Hell.”] 

Shaftiyah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Shahakiel (Shachaqiel)—an angelic prince resi¬ 
dent in the 4th Heaven. According to 3 Enoch, 
Shahakiel is one of the 7 archangels as well as 
eponymous head of the order of Shahakim. [Rf. 
Charles, Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha of the Old 
Testament.] 

Shahakim —in rabbinic lore, an order of angels 
in the celestial hierarchy. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia.] 

Shahariel —an angelic guard of the 2nd Heaven, 
as listed in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Shahiel —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm (kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Shahrivar(i) —the angel of August in ancient 
Persian lore. Shahrivar also governed the 4th day 


SHAITAN / SHEGATSIEL 


[270] 

of the month. [Rf. Hyde, Historia Religionis 
Veterum Persarum.] 

Shaitan (Satan)—one of the fallen angels in 
Arabic lore. Shaitan is a cognate term for Iblis 
(ft'.). In the Koran, sura 27, 24, Shaitan (Satan) 
induces the Queen of Sheba and her people to 
adore the sun instead of Allah. 

Shaitans (shedeem, sheytans, shedim, mazi- 
keen)—evil spirits in Hebrew and Arabic mythol¬ 
ogy; they have cock’s feet. In rabbinic lore, the 
shaitans are male demons, the female being known 
as lilin. [Rf. Talmud Berachoth ; Langton, Essentials 
of Demonology; Oesterley’s article in Manson, 
A Companion to the Bible.] 

Shakti —in Vedic lore the bride of Shiva. 
Shakti is the prototype of the Shekinah (ft'.). 

Shakziel —an angel with dominion over water 
insects. [Rf The Book of Enoch.] 

Shalgiel —an angel with dominion over snow. 
[Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews 1,140.] 

Shalhevita —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 7th 
heavenly hall. 

Shalkiel and Shalmiel —angels whose names 
are found inscribed on an oriental charm ( kamea) 
for warding off evil. [Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Shaltiel —an angel’s name inscribed (along with 
the names of Michael, Raphael, Uriel) on earthen 
bowls found in the Euphrates Valley and invoked 
as a charm. [Rf. Boswell, “The Evolution of 
Angels and Demons.”] 

Shamain (Shamayim)—a name for the 1st 
Heaven, of which the chief ruler is the angel 
Mikael (Michael) or Qemuel (Kemuel). 

Shamchazai, Shamhazai, Shamiazaz [Sem- 
yaza] 

Shamdan (Ashamdon)—the angel-demon who 
mated with Naamah, “lovely sister of Tubal-cain, 
who led the angels astray with her beauty.” The 
fruit of the union of Shamdan and Naamah was 
Asmodeus (f t\). [Rf. The Legends of the Jews I, 
150-151.] According to Bereshith Rabba, 36:3, 



A benevolent genie (in Assyro-Babylonian 
mythology) holding in his hand the pail of lustral 
water and the pine cone with which he sprinkles 
the water to keep off evil spirits. This genie was 
the guardian of the gate of Sargon’s palace. A 
work of the 8th century b.c.e., now in the 
Louvre. From Larousse Encyclopedia of Mythology. 

Shamdan was Noah’s partner in planting a vine¬ 
yard, which led to Noah’s drinking, and being 
“uncovered within his tent,” an incident related in 
Genesis 9:20-22. 

Sham(m)iel (Shamael)—master of heavenly 
song and divine herald. (In Jewish legend, Meta- 
tron and Radueriel are likewise denoted masters 
of heavenly song.) Shamiel is invoked in Syriac 
spellbinding charms, along with Michael, Harshiel, 
Nuriel, and other angels of similar rank. [Rf The 
Book of Protection.] In the Ozar Midrashim, Shamiel 


...Shamdati, Noah's partner in the planting of the vineyard [271] 


(as distinguished from Shamael) is listed among the 
angelic guards of the gates of the South Wind. 

Shamlon —a “prince over all the angels and the 
Caesars,” according to The Greater Key of Solomon. 

Shamriel —in occultism, designated a guardian 
angel who may be invoked as a charm against the 
evil eye. [Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets; Trachten- 
berg, Jewish Magic and Superstition .] 

Shams-ed-Din (“sun of the faith”)—one of 
the 7 Yezidic archangels invoked in prayer by the 
devil worshippers. For the names of the 6 other 
archangels, see Appendix. 

Shamsha —like Shamlon, a “prince over all the 
angels and the Caesars.” 

Shams(h)iel (“light of day,” “mighty sun of 
God”)—a ruler of the 4th Heaven and prince of 
Paradise; also guardian angel of Eden (Eden being 
the earthly paradise). It was Shamshiel who con¬ 
ducted Moses around the heavenly Paradise when 
the Lawgiver, according to legend, visited the 
upper regions while he was still in the flesh. It 
was to Shamshiel that the treasures of David and 
Solomon were turned over by the scribe Hilkiah. 
In The Zohar, Shamshiel is head of 365 legions of 
spirits (angels). He crowns prayers, just as other 
great angels do, and accompanies them to the 5th 
Heaven. In The Book of Protection, Shamshiel is 
grouped with Michael, Nuriel, and Sarphiel as a 
spellbinding power. In The Book of Jubilees he is 
one of the watchers or grigori (q.v.), and is equated 
with Samsapeel. In Enoch I he rates as a fallen angel 
who “taught the signs of the sun.” According to 
The Zohar (Numbers 154b) he served as one of the 
2 chief aides to Uriel (the other aide being Hasdiel) 
when Uriel bore his standard in battle. 

Shaphiel —a ruling prince of the 3rd Heaven 
sharing the post with Baradiel (q.v.). 

Shariel [Asderel] 

Sharka’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [R/. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Sharlaii —in the Talmud, an angel invoked for 


the curing of cutaneous disorders. [Rf. Talmud 
Shabbath, fol. 67.] 

Sharshiyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Shashmasrihiel Jflhvhh —an angel prince of the 
hosts of X (one of the nomina barbara) cited in 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Shastaniel —one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the South Wind. [Rf. 
Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Shateiel —angel of silence, to be compared 
with Duma (q.v.). Shateiel probably inspired the 
creation of the Greek God Sigalion (if, indeed, it 
was not the other way around). Cf. also Tacita, 
Roman goddess of silence, and Harpocratos, 
son of Isis, who was a god of silence. [Rf Wood¬ 
cock, Short Dictionary of Mythology.] 

Shathniel —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets .] 

Shatqiel —in 3 Enoch (Hebrew Book of Enoch) 
Shatqiel figures among the 7 great archangels, and 
as a guardian prince of the 5th Heaven. In Hecha- 
loth Rabbati, he is a guard of the 4th Heaven. [Rf 
Ozar Midrashim 1,116.] 

Shaviel —one of the 7 angelic guards of the 1st 
Heaven, as noted in Hechaloth Rabbati. 

Shavzriel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 2nd 
heavenly hall. 

Shebniel —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. [Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel .] 

Sheburiel —chief porter of the 3rd Heaven, as 
designated in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Shedu —a Babylonian protecting household 
spirit, invoked in conjuring rites. [Rf. Mackenzie, 
Myths of Babylonia and Assyria; Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 156.] 

Shegatsiel —an angelic prince of the hosts of X 
(i.e., God). [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 



SHEIKH BAKRA / SHOMROM 


[272] 

Sheikh Bakra and She ikh Ism—two of the 7 
archangels in Yezidic religion invoked in prayer 
by the devil worshippers. [See Appendix for the 
names of the other 5 Yezidic archangels.] 

Sheireil [Sathariel] 

Shekinah (Hebrew, shachan, meaning “to 
reside”—Schechinah, Matrona, etc.)—the female 
manifestation of God in man, the divine inwohnung 
(indwelling). Also, the “bride of the Lord,” 
compatible with the shakti of Shiva. The expres¬ 
sion “the Shekinah rests” is used as a paraphrase 
for “God dwells.” In Genesis 48:16 “the Angel 
which redeemed me from all evil,” uttered by 
Israel (Jacob), applies to the Shekinah, according 
to The Zohar (Balak 187a). In the New Testament 
sense, the Shekinah is the glory emanating from 
God, His effulgence. The passage in Matthew 
18:20 is translated by C. W. Emmet (in Hastings, 
Dictionary of the Bible) to read: “when two sit 
together and are occupied with the word of the 
Law, the Shekinah is with him.” As interpreted by 
Rabbi Johanan ( Midrash Rabba-, Exodus), Michael 
is the glory of the Shekinah. The Shekinah is the 
liberating Angel, manifesting in her male aspect 
as Metatron. In the cabala, she is the 10th sefira 
Malkuth, otherwise the Queen. The creation of the 
world was, according to The Zohar (suppl.), 
the work of the Shekinah. Here, too, the Shekinah 
is spoken of as “abiding in the 12 holy chariots 
and the 12 supernal hayyoth.” Elsewhere in The 
Zohar (Balak-Numbers 187a) she is mentioned as a 
messenger from on high who, when she first 
appeared to Moses, was called an angel, just as she 
was called by Jacob. In The Zohar (Exodus 51a) 
she is “the way of the Tree of Life” and the “angel 
of the Lord.” Maimonides in Moreh Nebuchim 
regarded the Shekinah as an intermediary between 
God and the world, or as a periphrasis for God. 
[Rf. Universal Jewish Encyclopaedia, vol. 9, p. 501.] 
The Shekinah has been identified with the Holy 
Ghost and the Epinoia of the gnostic Valentinus. 
Of her it has been said (Waite, The Holy Kabbalah) 
“Behold, I send an angel before thee, to keep thee 
in the way” (Exodus 23:20), which has also been 
applied to Metatron and John the Baptist, “the 
forerunner angel.” According to legend (Ginz- 


berg, The Legends of the Jews II, 148 and 200), 
Aaron died by a kiss from the Shekinah. In the 
same source (II, 260) it is related that Abraham 
caused the Shekinah to come down from the 2nd 
Heaven. And Talmud tells us that when God 
drove Adam out of the earthly paradise, the 
Shekinah remained behind “enthroned above a 
cherub under the Tree of Life, her splendor being 
65,000 times brighter than the sun,” and that this 
radiance “made all upon whom it fell exempt 
from disease”; and, further, that then “neither 
insects nor demons could come nigh unto such to 
do them harm.” An account somewhat at variance 
with the foregoing is given in Scholem’s two 
works: Major Trends in Jewish Mysticism and 
Jewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, and Tal¬ 
mudic Tradition, where it is reported that the 
Shekinah was sent into exile on Adam’s fall and 
that “to lead the Shekinah back to God and to 
unite her with Him is the true purpose of the Tor¬ 
ah.” A reference to the dwelling place of the 
Shekinah occurs in Canticles Rabba 6: “The ori¬ 
ginal abode of the Shekinah was among the 
tahtonim [that is, among the lower ones: human 
beings, earth]. When Adam sinned, it [the abode] 
ascended to the 1st Heaven. With Cain’s sin, it 
ascended to the 2nd Heaven. With Enoch’s, to 
the 3rd. With the generation of the Flood, to the 
4th. With the generation of the Tower of Babel, 
to the 5th. With the Sodomites, to the 6th. With 
the sin of the Egyptians in the days of Abraham, 
to the 7th.” Corresponding to these, there arose 
7 righteous men who brought the Shekinah back 
to earth again. They were Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, 
Levi, Kehath (Levi’s son and Moses’ grandfather), 
Amram, and Moses. A haggadah about the Shek¬ 
inah is that she hovers over all conjugal unions 
between Jewish husbands and wives and blesses 
such unions with her presence. [See Talmud 
Shabbath 55b; Bereshith Rabba 98, 4, etc. In this 
reference, cf the Roman goddess Pertunda, 
presider over the marriage couch.] 

Shekiniel—angelic guard of the 4th Heaven. 
[Rf Ozar Midrashim 1,116.] 

Shelemial—angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 



...Shekinah, the female manifestation of God in man [273] 


Shelviel —angel of the order of tarshishim. 
[Rf Ozar Midrashim I, 67.] 

Shem (“name”) (Melchizedec)—in Mani- 
chaean lore, “one of the great envoys of Heaven 
to whom the angels revealed the divine wisdom.” 
In Mandaean theology, Shem is Shum-Kushta. 
[Rf. Mandaean Book of fohn the Baptist ; Doresse, 
The Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, p. 155.] 

Shemael (Kemuel, Camael, Shemuiel—“name 
of God”)—the mighty angel who stands at the 
windows of Heaven listening for the songs of 
praise ascending from synagogues and houses of 
study of the Jews. He is the archon in Sholem, 
Major Trends in fewish Mysticism. The name de¬ 
rives from the 1st word of the Hebrew song of 
praise. 

Shemhazai [Semyaza] 

Shemmiel [Shemael] 

Shepherd —one of the 6 angels of repentance, 
equated with Phanuel (q.v.). It was Shepherd who 
dictated the vision to Hermas. [Rf The Shepherd of 
Hermas II and III.] In the work just referred to, 
however, another Shepherd is spoken of: “a cruel 
and implacable Shepherd” and “one of the holy 
angels appointed for the punishment of sinners.” 
He is not named. Moses was known in later Jewish 
literature as “the faithful shepherd” and Jesus 
applied the title “good shepherd” to himself in 
John 10:11. [Rf T. Gaster, The Dead Sea Scrip¬ 
tures, p. 321.] Note: The Shepherd of Hermas was at 
one time quoted as sacred Scripture by Origen, 
Irenaeus, pseudo-Cyprian, etc. 

Shepherd of Hermas [Phanuel] 

Shetel —one of 3 ministering angels (the other 
2 being Aebel and Anush), whom God appointed 
to serve Adam. According to Yalkut Reubeni and 
The Book of Adam and Eve, the 3 angels not only 
“roasted meat” for Adam, but also “cooled his 
wine.” 

Sheviel (Shaviel)—an angelic porter at the 1st 
Heaven, cited in Pirke Hechaloth. 

Sheziem —an angel invoked in cabalistic rites. 
[Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 


Shimshiel —an angelic guard of the gates of the 
East Wind. 

Shinanin (Shin’an)—a high class of angels, “the 
shinanin of the fire,” adduced from Psalms 68:18 
and referred to in 3 Enoch. Myriads of these shina¬ 
nin descended from Heaven to be present at the 
revelation on Sinai. [Rf Pesikta Rabba.] According 
to The Zohar (1:18b) “myriads of thousands of 
shin’an are on the chariot of God.” Chief of the 
order is Zadkiel or Sidquiel. Compare with the 
ofanim. [Rf Psalms 68:18; Scholem, Major Trends 
in fewish Mysticism-, Mathers, The Kabbalah Un¬ 
veiled, p. 26.] “The 6th sefira, tifereth (tiphereth) is 
represented among the angels of the shinanim,” 
says C. D. Ginsburg, in The Essenes and The 
Kabbalah. 

Shinial —one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Shitimichum (Shitinichus Kitagnifai)—in M. 
Gaster, The Sword of Moses, Shitimichum (one of 
the nomina barbara) is among the 13 angel chiefs 
appointed by God to the sword. 

Shlasiel A* (Shlotiel A’ and other variants)— 
an angel prince of the hosts of X (God), cited in 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. 

Shlomiel —an angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim 1,116.] 

Shmuiel (Samael)—“chief of all the angels and 
all the 10 classes who spoke to Solomon and gave 
him the key to the mysteries,” according to a 
citation in Gollancz, Clavicula Salomonis. 

Shoel —one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Shoftiel (“judge of God”)—one of the 7 angels 
of punishment. [Rf. Jellinek, Beth ha-Midrasch; 
Maseket Gan Edem and Gehinnom; fewish Encyclo¬ 
pedia, I, 593.] 

Shokad —one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Shomrom (Shunaron)—“a prince over all the 
angels and Caesars,” according to Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon. 



[274] SHOSORIYAH / SLATTERY 


Shosoriyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Shriniel —an angelic guard of the 4th Heaven. 
[Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Shtukial —one of the 64 angel wardens of the 7 
celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Shufiel —an angel invoked in Syriac conjuring 
rites. Grouped with Gabriel, Michael, Harshiel, 
and other spellbinding angels. [Rf. The Book of 
Protection ; Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] 

Shunaron —“a prince over all the angels and 
Caesars,” so Shunaron is ranked in Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon. 

Sialul— the genius of prosperity. In de Abano, 
The Heptameron, Sialul is included among the 
spirits of the 7th hour, and may be invoked 
during that hour. 

Sidqiel —in 3 Enoch, governor of the planet 
Venus and prince of the order of ofanim or shina- 
nim (the ofanim being the Hebrew equivalent 
of the order of thrones, and the shinanim of an 
order close to the seraphim in rank). 

Sidriel (Pazriel)—prince of the 1st Heaven and 
one of the 7 archangels in the Enoch listings. 

Sieme— in the cabala, an angel of part of an 
hour, specifically 3:20 p.m. He is of the order of 
virtues and is called “ange du Seigneur” in H.D.’s 
(Hilda Doolittle’s) poem “Sagesse.” Sieme’s cor¬ 
responding angel is Asaliah. 

Sigron —in hechaloth lore, a name for Meta¬ 
tron “when he shuts the doors of prayers (doors 
through which a man’s prayers are let into 
Heaven). When the doors are opened, Metatron is 
then called Pihon.” [Rf. 3 Enoch, 48.] 

Sihail —“and God sent 2 angels, Sihail and 
Anas, and 4 Evangelists to take hold of the 12 
fever demons [all female] and beat them with fiery 
rods.” The tale is told in a 12th-century Ms. in the 
British Museum and is retold by M. Gaster, 
Studies and Texts in Folklore II, 1030. Gaster be¬ 
lieves that Sihail is merely another form for 
Michail (Michael) and Anas is St. Anne, here 
turned into an angel. 


Sihon —grandson of the fallen angel Semyaza 
and brother of Og ( q.v .). [Rf. Jung, Fallen Angels 
in Jewish, Christian and Mohammedan Literature .] 

Sij-ed-Din (‘ ’power of mercy”)—one of the 7 
archangels in Yezidic religious lore, invoked in 
prayer. 

Sikiel—an angel of the sirocco. Sikiel is cited 
in the Sefer Yetzirah (Book of Formation). [Rf. 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] In Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316, Sikiel is a guardian angel of the gates of the 
West Wind. 

Sila—an angel of power; also the angel of an 
hour invoked in cabalistic rites. [Rf. H.D.’s 
(Hilda Doolittle’s) poem “Sagesse”; Ambelain, 
La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Silat (Tilath, Feluth)—in the Grimorium Verum, 
an angel invoked in goetic ritual. In Mohamme¬ 
dan lore, Silat is a female demon. [Rf Jewish 
Encyclopedia, p. 521.] 

Silmai (Shelmai)—in Mandaean religious lore, 
one of two guardian spirits (uthri) of the river 
Jordan; the other uthra is Nidbai. 

Simapesiel—one of the fallen angels in Enoch 
listings. 

Simiel (Chamuel, Semibel)—one of the 7 arch¬ 
angels. However, at a Church Council in Rome, 
745 c.E., Simiel was reprobated (along with Uriel, 
Raguel, and other high-ranking angels) as a false 
or evil spirit and not to be venerated. [R/i Hey- 
wood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] At 
the Council of Laodicia (343-381? c.e.), to name 
angels was expressly forbidden (canon 35). 
Josephus mentions, as among the religious rites 
of the Essenes, the taking of oaths not to reveal 
the names of angels. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish 
Magic and Superstition, p. 89.] 

Simkiel—chief of the angels of destruction 
appointed by God to deal with the wicked on 
earth. [See Za’arfiel.] According to 3 Enoch, 
Simkiel has the function not only of executing 
judgment on man but also of purifying him. 

Simulator —in Solomonic magic, an angel 
invoked in the conjuration of Ink and Colors. 



Sinai —an amulet angel invoked in Mosaic 
incantation rites when a woman is pregnant. [See 
Sennoi.] 

Siona —a seraph in Klopstock, The Messiah. 

Sipur —one of the 3 seraphim (the other 2 being 
Sepher and Saphar) through whom the world is 
said to have been created. [Rf. Waite, Book of 
Formation.] 

Sirbiel —one of the angelic princes of the Mer- 
kabah, as noted in 3 Enoch and Hechaloth Rabbati. 

Sirushi (Surush Ashu, Sarush, Sraosha, Ashu)— 
the angel of Paradise in ancient Persian lore; also 
the “master of announcements.” \Rf. The Dabistan, 
p. 144.] 

Sisera —genius of desire; one of the genii to be 
invoked during the 2nd hour, according to 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron. In the Old 
Testament (Judges 4), Sisera is a general slain by 
Jael “with the aid of the stars and the angels.” 

Sislau —genius of poisons and one of the genii 
of the 4th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, The 
Nuctemeron .] 

Sitael —a seraph invoked to overcome adver¬ 
sity. He rules the nobility and is one of the 72 an¬ 
gels of the zodiac; also one of the 72 angels that 
bear the name of God Shemhamphorae. See 
H.D.’s poem “Sagesse” and Ambelain, La Kabbale 
Pratique, p. 260, where Sitael’s sigil is shown. 

Sith —angel of an hour (6 to 7 o’clock); a 
regent ruling a planet. Sith’s corresponding angel 
is Nelchael. [Rf. H.D.’s poem “Sagesse”; Ambe¬ 
lain, La Kabbale Pratique .] 

Sithacer —corresponding angel for Seheiah 

(ft-.). 

Sithriel —a name by which Metatron is called 
“when he hides the children of the world under 
his wings to preserve them from the angels of 
destruction.” [Rf. 3 Enoch, 48.] 

Sitiel [Sitael] 

Sitra Kadisha —in the Tosefta ii, 69b, a holy 
spirit. He is contrasted with Sitra Ahara (unclean 
spirit). [Rf. The Talmudic Anthology, p. 115.] 


... Sieme, the angel of 3:20 p.m. [275 ] 

Sitriel —in the listing of Moses of Burgos, 
Sitriel is 3rd of the 10 unholy sefiroth. 

Sittacibor —an angel conjured up in Wax 
exorcisms. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Sittiah —like Sittacibor, an angel conjured up 
in Wax exorcism. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron; 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Six Highest Angelic (or Philonic) Powers 

—these 6 highest angelic powers correspond to, 
or are derived from, the 6 amesha spentas that 
surround the throne of God (in Zoroastrianism, 
God being Ahura-Mazda). In Baruch III the 6 
highest angelic powers are: 1. divine logos 
(identified by Philo as Michael); 2. creative power; 
3. sovereign power; 4. mercy; 5. legislation; 6. 
punitive power. 

Sixth Angel, The— in Revelation, the 6th 
angel (not named) is one of the 7 angels of wrath 
that “loosed the 4 angels which were bound in the 
great river Euphrates” and that were “prepared to 
slay the 3rd part of men.” 

Sixth Heaven, The —in Islamic lore, the abode 
of the guardian angel of Heaven and earth, “half 
snow, half fire.” The angel is not identified by 
name. 

Sizajasel —in ceremonial magic, an angel 
representing or governing the sign of Sagittarius 
in the zodiac. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Sizouze— in ancient Persian mythology, the 
angel who presided over prayers. [Cf. Akatriel; 
Metatron; Sandalphon.] 

Skd Huzi [Soqed Hozi] 

Sktm —one of 14 conjuring angels of the Sword 
as cited in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses. Sktm 
is also one of the ineffable names of God. 

Slattery (fictional)—an angel referred to in the 
Introduction by Dixon Wecter to Mark Twain’s 
Report from Paradise. It is in an unprinted fragment 
of Twain’s Stormfield cycle that Slattery appears. 
In that fragment, Slattery is reported to have wit¬ 
nessed the creation of Man. 


[ 276 ] SMAL / SOTHER AS(H)IEL 


Smal (Sammael)—angel of death and of poison, 
whose wife, Eisheth Zenunim, is the woman of 
whoredom. The 2 together, united, are known as 
the beast Chioa. [Rf. Mathers, The Kabbalah 
Unveiled .] 

Smandriel [Samandiriel] 

Smat —corresponding angel for Mebahiah 
(q.v.). In the cabala, Smat shares with Mebahiah 
in exercising dominion over morals and religion. 

Smeliel —in Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, the 
spirit of the sun. His corresponding intelligence is 
Nagiel. 

Smnglf [Samangaluf ] 

Smoel [Sammael] 

Sngotiqtel —an angel that ministers to the son 
of man [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses]. 

Sniel —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
[Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel ; Budge, Amulets 
and Talismans.] 

Sochiel —one of the ruling archangels of the 
earthly triplicities governing the 360 degrees of the 
zodiac, as reported in Waite, The Lemegeton. 

Sociable Spirit, The —the angel Raphael is so 
referred to by Milton in Paradise Lost V. 

Socodiah (Socohiah)—an angel’s name in¬ 
scribed on the 1st pentacle of the planet Venus. 
[Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Sodiel —in 3 Enoch, 17, a ruling prince of the 
3rd Heaven. 

Sodyah —in hechaloth lore, an angel who assists 
Metatron (q.v.) in reciting the Shema. [Rf. introd., 
3 Enoch.] 

Sofiel —an angel who ministers to garden fruit 
and vegetables. [Rf M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses.] 

Sofriel (Sopher, Sopheriel)—an angelic book¬ 
keeper appointed over the records of the living 
and the dead. There are two Sofriels: Sofriel 
Memith and Sofriel Mehayye. They are bearers of 
God’s name (YHWH). [Rf. The Zohar, 3 Enoch.] 



Hebrew amulet inscribed with the hexagon of 

Solomon and Shaddai (a name for God). From 

Budge, Amulets and Talismans. 

Sohemne —an angel of the Seal. [Rf. The Sixth 
and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Sokath —a spirit of the sun, of which “planet” 
the angel Nakhiel is the presiding intelligence, 
according to Paracelsus in his doctrine of Talis¬ 
mans. Sokath apparently shares the post with 
Nakhiel or alternates with him. [Rf. Christian, 
The History and Practice of Magic I.] 

Solmis —a great celestial luminary cited in the 
gnostic Revelations of Zostrian. 

Soluzen —the name of an angel inscribed (in 
green) on the pentagon of Solomon, Fig. 156, in 
Waite, The Lemegeton. 

Somcham —one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the West Wind. 

Soncas (Soneas)—an angel of the 5th Heaven, 
ruler of Tuesday. He is to be invoked from the 
west. [Rf. Abano, The Heptameron-, Barrett, The 
Magus.] 

Song-Uttering Choirs —a class of singing 
angels under the direction of Tagas. The Sallisim 
(q.v.) were a part of these choirs and inhabited 
the 5th Heaven (Maon). [Rf. Talmud Hagiga.] 
When the Song-Uttering Choirs failed to per¬ 
form the Qedussa (trisagion) at the right time, 
they were consumed by fire. 

Sonitas —an angel serving in the 5th Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Sonneillon (Sonnillon)—an angel, now fallen, 


...Sorush, examiner who hurls the unworthy into Hell 


once of the order of thrones. He is cited as one of 
3 “devils” that possessed the body of the notorious 
16th-century nun, Sister Louise Capeau (or 
Capelle). [Rf. Michaelis, Admirable History of the 
Possession and Conversion of a Penitent Woman.] 

Son of God —an angel so called in II Esdras 
(IFEsdras). The title is commonly applied to Jesus. 

Sons of God —a term in Genesis 6 commonly 
interpreted to mean angels. The Sons of God, 
having consorted with mortal women, became 
fallen angels. This was the view of Josephus, a 
view that has persisted for many centuries, even 
down to our own times, although other interpre¬ 
tations have not been wanting. Milton thought 
(Paradise Regained II) that these “false-titled sons 
of God were fallen angels.” C/!job 38:7, “When 
the morning stars sang together and the sons of 
God shouted for joy.” In the cabala, the term 
stands for “a distinctive order of celestial beings 
(the bene elohim ), answering to the 8th sephira 
[Hod],” says C. D. Ginsburg in The EssettesjThe 
Kabbalah, p. 92. Apropos of what has just been 
said of “other interpretations,” it should be noted 
that Simeon ben Yohai, alleged author of The 
Zohar, cursed anyone, particularly his disciples, 
who interpreted Genesis 6 as representing the 
sons of God “having sexual organs and com¬ 
mitting fornication with the daughters of men.” 
[Rf. The New Schajf-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religi¬ 
ous Knowledge, “Angels.”] 

Sons of Heaven —angels, according to The 
Manual of Discipline, who sit at the divine council 
deliberations. In Mansoor The Thanksgiving 
Hymns, the term connotes simply good angels. 

Sons of Princes —an order of angels, “one of 
10 classes in Talmud and Targum,” says Voltaire 
in his “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils.” Literally 
speaking, there can be no “sons of princes” (sons 
used here in the sense of offspring and princes in 
the sense of angels), since angels, unlike demons 
and earthly creatures, do not reproduce their kind. 

Sophar (fictional)—in Anatole France, Revolt 
of the Angels, a fallen angel who once kept the 
treasures in Heaven for the god Ialdabaoth. In his 


[27 7] 

earthly guise, Sophar is Max Everdingen, a 
banker. 

Sopher, Sopheriel [Sofriel] 

Sopheriel Yhwh Mehayye and Sopheriel 
Yhwh Memith [Sofriel] 

Sophia [Pistis Sophia] 

Sophiel —angel of the 4th pentacle of the moon. 
In Jewish cabala, Sophiel is the intelligence of 
Jupiter (the corresponding angel here being Zady- 
kiel). [Rf Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, p. 26.] 

Soqed Hozi (Shoqed Chozi, Skd Huzi, etc.)— 
an angel prince of the Merkabah, keeper of the 
divine balances, and one of the 4 angels appointed 
by God to the Sword. [Rf. 3 Enoch ; M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses.] 

Sorath —an evil power, bearer of the mysteri¬ 
ous number 666, which is also applied cabalistically 
to the Emperor Nero. [Rf. Apocalypse of John.] 
In talismanic magic, Sorath is the spirit of the sun. 
See The Magus II, 147. 

Sorush —to the ancient Persians, Gabriel, 
“giver of souls.” The Magi held that, on Judg¬ 
ment Day, 2 angels, Sorush and Mihr, will stand 
on the bridge called al Sirat (which is finer than a 
hair and sharper than the edge of a sword) and 
examine every person crossing. Mihr, representing 
divine mercy and holding a balance in his hand, 
will weigh the actions performed during the 
person’s lifetime. If found worthy, the person 
will be permitted to pass on to Paradise. Otherwise 
he will be handed over to Sorush, representing 
divine justice, who will hurl him into Hell. 
[Rf. Sale, The Koran, “Preliminary Discourse,” p. 
64.] 

Sosol —an angel invoked in ceremonial magic 
rites. He represents or governs the sign of Scorpio 
in the zodiac. [Rf Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Sother or Sother As(h)iel —prosecuting angel 
prince, serving the throne of divine judgment; a 
great hierarch of the Merkabah. Sother is 7,000 
parasangs tall. In the cabala he marries Sophia in a 
heavenly union. In gnostic lore he is another name 
for God. According to 3 Enoch, “Every angel- 


[278] SOTHIS I STRATEIA 

prince who goes out or enters before the Shekinah, 
does so only by Sother’s permission.” He has been 
equated with the luminary Armogen. The name 
has the meaning of “who stirs up the fire of 
God.” 

Sothis (Sotis)—angel of an hour. [Rf. H.D.’s 
poem “Sagesse”; Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Sovereignty —one of the angelic orders, 
according to an interpretation of I Corinthians 
15:24 where Paul speaks of Christ’s doing away 
with “all sovereignty, authority and power” 
(in the Confraternity edition of The New Testa¬ 
ment). The King James version gives “rule” in 
lieu of sovereignty. 

Sparks —referring to sparks, Voltaire in “Of 
Angels, Genii, and Devils” says they are “an 
order of angels in Talmud and Targum.” The 
sparks are sometimes included among the 9 (or 10 
or 12) orders when equated with the tarshishim 
(i.e., “brilliant^ones”) or with the splendors (q.v.). 

Spendarmoz [Ishpan Darmaz] 

Sphener —in occultism, the name of a celestial 
power invoked to combat Mardero, a demon of 
disease. [Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic, p. 223.] 

Spheres [Galgallim] 

Sphinxes —in Mathers, The Kabbalah Unveiled, 
where the reference is to the Apocalypse of John, the 
sphinxes are mentioned as an alternate term for the 
kerubim ofEzekiel’s vision (Ezekiel 1,10ff.). 

Spirit —any angel or demon is a spirit, and a 
pure one. Man is an impure spirit. God is divine 
spirit. [See Introduction.] 

Spirit of Discord —in Judges 9:23 we learn 
that “God sent a spirit of discord between Abime- 
lech and the men of Schecherrf.” Such a spirit 
(called “an evil spirit” in some versions of Judges 
9) is evil only in the causative sense. Since he serves 
God, the spirit of discord is without taint. 

Spirit of Fornication (Angel of Lust )—See 
Pharzuph. 

Spirit of Ill-Will —an angel and envoy of God, 
as in I Kings 18:10-11, where it is reported that 



The Grand Pentacle of Solomon used in 
evoking and dismissing spirits. From Waite, 
The Book of Ceremonial Magic. 


this spirit from God “came upon Saul and he 
prophesied in the midst of his house. And David 
played ... as at other times. And Saul held a spear 
in his hand. And threw it, thinking to nail David 
to the wall.” 

Spirit of Jealousy —an angel and envoy of 
God, as in Numbers 5:14: “If the spirit of jealousy 
stir up the husband against his wife,” etc. 

Spirit of Knowledge —a term used in Man- 
soor, The Thanksgiving Hymns, to denote an angel, 
presumably of the order of cherubim. 

Spirit of Lying —an angel and envoy of God, 
as in I Kings 22:22: “And I will be a lying spirit in 
the mouth of all his prophets.” 

Spirit of Perversion [Angel of Darkness] 

Spirit of Whoredom —mentioned in Hosea 4, 
12. [See Angel of Lust.] 

Spiritus Dei —“the breath of God,” an ex¬ 
pression used by Lanctantius to denote an angel. 
[Rf. Schneweis, Angels and Demons According to 
Lactantius.] 

Splenditenes —in Manicheanism, a “world¬ 
supporting angel.” He supports the heavens on 



...Spugliguel, the head of the sign of Spring [279] 


his back. [See Omophorus.] Augustine mentions 
Splenditenes in his Contra Faustum XV, and de¬ 
scribes him as bearing 6 faces and mouths “and 
glittering with light.” Bar-Khonai in the Book of 
Scholia calls Splenditenes the “ornament of Splen¬ 
dor.” He appears in Mithraic monuments and is 
believed to be the prototype of the Greek Atlas. 
[Rf Manichean Hymn of the Soul.} 

Splendors —another name for the tarshishim 
(q.v.). Equated with the virtues. Alfred de Vigny 
in his poem “Eloa” mentions splendors (along with 
ardors and guards) as an order in the celestial 
hierarchy. 

Spugliguel —an angel who serves as the head 
of the sign of Spring. [Rf. de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron ; Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Sraosha (Srosh, Sirush, Serosh, etc.)—a Persian 
angel who, it is claimed, set the world in motion. 
Sraosha is one of the amesha spentas (the 7th), 
otherwise one of the yazatas. In Zoroastrianism, 
he is the angel who bears the soul aloft on death. 
The red chrysanthemum is his emblem. [Rf 
Vendidad, 18, in The Sacred Books of the East.] 
In Manichean lore, Sraosha is the “angel of obedi¬ 
ence,” the “fiend-smiter,” who judges the dead. 
As Sirushi he is the angel of Paradise and “master 
of announcements.” [Rf Legge, Forerunners and 
Rivals of Christianity II, p. 327.] 

Sro —corresponding angel for Nemamiah ( q.v .). 

Ssakmakiel —with another spirit called Archer, 
Ssakmakiel governs the sign of the Water Bearer 
(Aquarius) in the zodiac. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental 
Magic.] 

Ssnialiah —in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, 
one of the 14 great conjuring angels. 

Sstiel YHWH —one of the 8 great angel princes 
of the Merkabah. In 3 Enoch, Sstiel outranks in 
eminence the angel Metatron, who must dis¬ 
mount whenever he encounters Sstiel on the crys¬ 
tal highways. In Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews I, where a herald proclaims Metatron as 
chief of princes, the exception is made of “eight 
august and exalted princes that bear My [i.e., 
His] name.” Sstiel is one of these 8. Others would 


be Anafiel (Aufiel, Anpiel), N’Zuriel, Akatriel, 
Gallisur, the two Sofriels, and Radueriel. 

Stalwarts —another term for one of the angelic 
orders. [Rf Book of Hymns III, referred to by 
T. Gaster in The Dead Sea Scriptures, p. 341.] 

Standards —a term for an angelic order em¬ 
ployed by Milton in Paradise Lost V, 590, where 
the angel Raphael speaks of “Standards, and 
Gonfalons [that] ... for distinction serve/Of Hier¬ 
archies, of Orders.” 

Stars —in Biblical lore, stars and planets were 
regarded as messengers, angels, in the service of 
God. [Rf Judges 5:20; Job 38:7: “when the morn¬ 
ing stars sang together, and all the sons of God 
shouted for joy.”] Caird, Principalities and Powers, 
observes that the stars “were included in Yah- 
weh’s angelic retinue.” 

Stimulator —an angel invoked in the exorcism 
of Ink. [Rf. Grimorium Verum.] 

Strateia —an angelic host, as mentioned in 

A talisman reputed to have the power of causing 

die stars to fall from heaven. From Waite, The 

Book of Ceremonial Magic. 



IP M 







STREMPSUCHOS / SYWARO 


[280] 

Pesikta Rabbati. [Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, “Angel- 
ology,” p. 585.] 

Strempsuchos [Astrompsuchos] 

Striel —an angelic guard stationed in one of 
the 7 great heavenly halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Strong, The —an order of angels, “one of the 
10 classes in Talmud and Targum,” according to 
Voltaire, “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils.” 

Strophaeos —in the gnostic Paraphrase of 
Shem, a mysterious entity to whom the secrets of 
Creation were revealed. 

Sturbiel —an angel of the 4th hour of the day, 
serving under Vachmiel. [Rf. Waite, The Book of 
Ceremonial Magic, p. 67.] 

Stnri(el) —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. 

Suceratos —an angel serving in the 4th Heaven; 
he rules on Lord’s Day and is invoked from the 
west. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron-, Shah, 
Occultism .] 

Sui’el (Raashiel)—an angel with dominion over 
earthquakes. [Rf. Waite, Book of Formation ; Ginz- 
berg, The Legends of the Jews I.] 

Sukalli (Sukallin)—angels in Sumerian-Baby- 
lonian theosophy. [Rf. Catholic Encyclopedia, 
“Angelology.”] 

Sumiel —in Voltaire, “Of Angels, Genii, and 
Devils,” one of the leaders of the fallen angels. 
Voltaire quotes Enoch as his source, but no close 
equivalent for Sumiel can be found in the Enoch 
books, unless Voltaire had in mind Sammael or 
Simapesiel ig-v). The name Sumiel is found in¬ 
scribed on an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Summanus —one of the 9 Novensiles, the 
supreme divinities in Etruscan religion. [Rf. Red- 
field, GodsjA Dictionary of the Deities of All 
Lands.] 

Sun —in the cabala, the sun is a “planet” and, 
also, an angel of light. [Rf Levi, Transcendental 
Magic.] 


Suna—a cherub or seraph used in conjuring 
rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Suphlatus—genius of dust. [Rf. Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron.] 

Suria (Suryah, Suriya)—in Pirke Hechaloth, 
one of the throne angels or one of the angels of 
the presence. He is also warden of the 1st hall 
(palace) of the 1st Heaven. According to The Zo- 
har, Suria is the “high angelic being who takes up 
all the holy words that are uttered at a table [at 
which, and when, words from the Torah are 
spoken] and sets the form of them before the 
Holy One; and all the words, and the table also, 
are crowned before the Holy King.” 

Suriel (Sariel, Sauriel, Suriyel, Surya—“God’s 
command”)—identified with Uriel, Metatron, 
Ariel, Saraqael, etc. Like Metatron, Suriel is a 
prince of the presence and like Raphael, an angel 
of healing. He is likewise the angel of death (one 
of a number), and as such Suriel was sent to Mt. 
Sinai or Mt. Nebo to fetch the soul of Moses. 
In Enoch I Suriel is one of the 4 great archangels. 
In the Falasha Anthology he is dubbed “Suriel the 
Trumpeter” and “Suriel, angel of Death.” It is 
said that Moses received all his knowledge from 
Suriel (although Zagzagel is likewise credited 
with being the source of Moses’ knowledge.) 
According to Talmud Berachoth 51a, it was Suriel 
who instructed Rabbi Ishmael ben Elisha in the 
laws of hygiene. On gnostic amulets, Suriel’s 
name appears beside those of Raguel, Peniel, 
Uriel, and Raphael. Origen, Contra Celsum VI, 
30, lists Suriel as one of the 7 angels in the Ophitic 
Hebdomad system of primordial powers. Here, 
when invoked, Suriel makes his appearance in the 
form of an ox. In the cabala he is one of the 7 an¬ 
gels that rule the earth. In King, The Gnostics 
and Their Remains, p. 88, Suriel, along with Erata- 
oth and Thautabaoth, is called “a Jewish angel of 
Magian origin” and as one whose name is found 
among those of genii presiding over the fixed 
stars.” [Rf Mead, Thrice-Greatest Hermes I; Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans, pp. 203,375.] 

Suriya [Suria] 

Suriyah (Suriel)—an angel who revealed to 



...Suriel, angel of death sent to fetch the soul of Moses [281] 


Rabbi Ishmael [see Suriel] the secrets of chiro¬ 
mancy and physiognomy. [Rf. Scholem, Major 
Trends in Jewish Mysticism.] 

Suriyel (Suriel)—an angel who, with Salathiel, 
brought Adam and Eve from the top of the high 
mountain (where Satan had lured them) to the 
cave of treasures—a Garden of Eden incident 
touched on in The Book of Adam and Eve ( q.v .). 

Suroth —in Paracelsus’ doctrine of Talismans, 
Suroth is a planetary genius of Egypt, replaced by 
the angel Anael. In Waite,“The Occult Sciences” 
(in his The Secret Doctrine in Israel), Suroth is the 
planetary genius of Venus. In hermetics he is 
head of the order of principalities. “He presides 
over the harmonies of vegetable nature.” [Rf. 
Christian, The History and Practice of Magic I, 
68 .] 

Surtaq —in hechaloth lore, an angel who assists 
Metatron (q.v.) in reciting the Shema. [Rf introd. 
3 Enoch.] 

Suruph (“strength of God”)—an angel cited in 
Hyde, Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum. 

Surush Ashu [Sirushi] 

Surya (pi. suryas)—one of the 7 (or 12) shining 
gods of Vedic religion. [See Adityas.J In 3 Enoch 
Surya is one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Suryan —a “corruption” of Raphael, according 
to Barton, Journal of Biblical Literature, vol. 31. 

Suryas (sing, surya)—in Vedic lore, the suryas 
(later the asuryas) are deities analogous to the 
Judaeo-Christian angels. The asuryas (q.v.) are the 
fallen ones, i.e., the demons or devils. 


Susabo —genius of voyages and one of the 
genii of the 6th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron.] 

Susniel —an angel invoked in Syriac invocation 
charms. As a “spellbinding power,” Susniel is 
grouped with Michael, Azriel, Shamshiel, and 
other angels. [Rf. The Book of Protection.] 

Sut —one of the 5 sons of the Moslem fallen 
archangel Iblis. Sut is the demon of lies. The other 
4 sons are: Awar, demon of lubricity; Dasim, 
demon of discord; Tir, demon of fatal accidents; 
Zalambur, demon of mercantile dishonesty. 

Sutuel (Suryal)—in Falasha lore, the angel who 
conveyed Baruch to the holy Jerusalem. [Rf. 
Charles, Apocalypse of Baruch VI, 3, where, how¬ 
ever, Sutuel is not specifically named.] 

Symnay —an angel of the order of powers used 
for conjuring in cabalistic rites. From the extant 
records, it is not clear whether Symnay joined 
Satan in the revolt or remained loyal. [Rf. The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Synesis (“understanding”)—in gnosticism, one 
of the 4 great luminaries emanated from the Divine 
Will. [Rf. Mead, Fragments of a Faith Forgotten.] 

Synoches —in Chaldean cosmology, one of the 
3 intelligences of the Empyrean. [Rf. Chaldean Ora¬ 
cles of Zoroaster.] 

Syth —angel of an hour, whose corresponding 
angel is Teiaiel. [Rf. H.D. (Hilda Doolittle), 
“Sagesse”; Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique.] 

Sywaro —a ministering archangel conjured up 
by cabalists in magical rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 









The Abraham-and-Isaac sacrifice episode 

with the angel (identified as Tadhiel) holding 
back the knife. From Strachan, Pictures from a 
Mediaeval Bible. 



Ta’aniel —in M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, an 
angel summoned up in magical rites. 

Tabkiel —one of the more than 100 names of 
the angel Metatron, as enumerated in 3 Enoch, 
chap. 48. 

Tablibik —a spirit of fascination and one of the 
genii of the 5th hour. [Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, 
The Nuctemeron.] 

Tabris —in occult lore, the angel or genius of 
free will, and one of the genii of the 6th hour. 
[Rf. Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron .] 

T’achnu —an angel whose name is found in 
The Book of the Angel Raziel. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition, where T’achnu is 
believed to be a name “concocted” through 
manipulation of the letters of the Hebrew 
alphabet.] 

Tacouin —in Islamic lore, a species of fay; 
“beautiful, winged, minor angels who secure man 
againstrthe wiles of demons, and reveal the future.” 
[Rf. De Plancy, Dktionnaire Infernal IV, 464.] 

Tadhiel (“righteousness of God”)—an angel 


credited with preventing the sacrifice of Isaac, 
according to Follansbee, Heavenly History. Other 
sources credit Metatron, Zadkiel, and the angel of 
the Lord (the last, in Genesis). 

Tafel X —an angel invoked in magical rites. 
[Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Tafsarim —a class of Merkabah angels grouped 
with the elim and erelim ( q.v.). In 3 Enoch, the 
tafsarim are ranked “greater than all the minister¬ 
ing angels who minister before the throne of 
glory.” 

Taftefiah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Taftian (Taphi)—in the cabala, a wonder¬ 
working angel, servant of Alimon (q.v.). He was 
invoked by the renowned Raf Anram. [Rf. The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Tagas —a great angelic prince, conductor of the 
Song-Uttering Choirs (q.v.). [Rf. 3 Enoch.] 

Tagriel (Tagried, Thigra)—chief of the angelic 
guards of the 2nd or 7th Heaven, and one of the 


283 



[284] TAHARIEL / TAURINE 

28 angels ruling the 28 mansions of the moon. 
[Rf. Pirkc Hechaloth-, Ozar Midrashim I, 111.] 

Tahariel —angel of purity and one of the 70 
childbed amulet angels. [R/i The Book of the Angel 
Raziel ; Budge, Amulets and Talismans.] 

Tahsasiyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Takifiel —an angel invoked in Syrian magical 
rites; grouped with Michael, Gabriel, Sahariel, and 
other “spellbinding angels” in The Book of 
Protection. 

Talia —in Mandaean lore, one of the 10 uthri 
(angels) that accompany the sun on its daily 
course. 

Taliahad (Talliud)—angel of water. The name 
Taliahad is found inscribed on the 7th pentacle of 
the sun. [Rf Papus, Traite Elemcntaire de Science 
Occulte, p. 222; Mathers, The Creator Key of 
Solomon, p. 72.] 

Tall Angel, The —in the 3rd Heaven, Moses, 
with Metatron acting as his guide, encounters a 
“tall angel” with 70,000 heads, assumed to be 
Sandalphon (although Sandalphon is said to reside 
in the 6th or 7th Heaven). In Wertheimer, Bate 
Midrashot IV, the angel is declared to have been 
Nuriel; but this identification, says Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews V, 416, is due to a scribal error— 
a reasonable deduction, since Nuriel is a resident 
of the 2nd Heaven, where Moses encounters him, 
and, as far as we know, has only one head. The 
tallest angel of all is either Metatron or Hadraniel, 
or Anafiel. 

Talrnai —an angel invoked in the conjuration 

of the Reed, according to Mathers. In The Zohar 

(Numbers 159a) Talrnai is an evil spirit, “a 

descendant of the giants whom God cast down to 

earth and who coupled with the daughters of 
** 

men. 

Tamael —in occult lore, a Friday angel of the 
3rd Heaven. He is invoked from the east. 

Tamaii —an angel invoked in the conjuration 
of Ink and Colors. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon.] 


ANGEL 

Tamarid —a chief officer angel of the 2nd hour 
of the night, serving under the rule of Farris. [Rf. 
Waite, The Lemegeton, p. 69.] 

Tamiel (Tamel, Temel, Tamuel—“perfection 
of God”)—angel of the deep. In Enoch I, Tamiel 
is listed among the fallen angels. [Rf. The New 
Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia, “Angels.”] 

Tamtemiyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Tandal —one of the 64 angel wardens of the 
7 celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Tandariel —an angel mentioned in Hyde, 
Historia Religionis Veterum Persarum-, mentioned 
also by Voltaire in “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils.” 

Taninivver —one of the 7 surviving evil 
emanations of God. The future extermination of 
this being is predicted in Isaiah 27:1, says Bam¬ 
berger in Fallen Angels, p. 175. [Rf. Isaac B’ne 
Rabbi Jacob ha-Cohen in Mada'e ha-Yahadut II.] 

Tankf’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Tap [Gaap] 

Taptharthareth [Tophtharthareth] 

Tar —in Mandaean lore, one of the 10 uthri 
(angels) that accompany the sun on its daily 
course. 

Tara —an angel with the attribute “Dieu, 
fontaine de Sagesse” mentioned in H.D.’s (Hilda 
Doolittle’s) poem “Sagesse” and listed among the 
angels in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique. 

Taranava —in The Almadel of Solomon (com¬ 
prised in The Lemegeton), Taranava is one of the 
chief angelic powers of the 3rd altitude. 

Tarfaniel —one of the many angelic guards of 
the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Tarfiel (“God nourishes”)—in the cabala, an 
angel invoked to cure stupidity. [Rf. Botarel, 
Mayan Hahochmah, and other works on the 
efficacy of amulets; as in Schwab, Vocabulaire de 



I’Atigelologie.] In Ozar Midrashim (II, 316), Tarfiel 
is one of the guards of the gates of the East Wind. 

Tariel —one of the 3 angels of summer. Tariel 
figures in Syriac incantation charms. He is invoked, 
along with other spellbinding angels, in the 
“Binding [of] the Tongue of the Ruler.” [Rf. The 
Book of Protection .] 

Tamiel —a Wednesday angel resident in the 
3rd Heaven and invoked from the east. Tamiel is 
one of the spirits of the planet Mercury. In Ozar 
Midrashim (II, 316), he is one of the guards of the 
gates of the East Wind. 

Tarpiel [Tarfiel] 

Tarquam —in occult lore, one of 2 angels 
governing autumn, the other angel being Gua- 
barel, according to de Abano, The Heptameron. 
[Rf. Shah, Occultism, pp. 43-44.] 

Tarshish (Hebrew, “pearl”)—in The Zohar, 
the eponymous chief of the order of tarshishim 
(i.e., virtues). Other chiefs of the order include 
Haniel and Sabriel. [See Tarshishim.] 

Tarshishim (“brilliant ones”)—an angelic 
order in Jewish lore, the term said to derive from 
Daniel 16:6 and, in the cabala, answering to the 
7th sefira (firmness). In de Vigny’s poem “Eloa,” 
the order is called splendors. 

Tarsisim [Tarshishim] 

Tartaruch —in the Vision of Paul, 16, “the angel 
Tartaruch is set over punishments.” 

Tartaruchi— uigels set over the torments of 
Hell. 

Tartaruchian Angels —“observed by the fiery 
river, the tartaruchian angels have in their hands 
iron rods with 3 hooks with which they pierce 
the bowels of sinners”— Vision of Paul, 34. 

Tartaruchus (“keeper of Hell”) [see Teme- 
luch]—chief of the angels set over the torments 
of Hell. Tartaruchus alternates with Uriel at this 
office, Uriel being “chief of the spirits who preside 
over Tartarus.” [Rf. Apocalypse of Paul ; James, 
The Apocryphal New Testament.] 


...Tarfiel, invoked to cure stupidity [ 28 5] 

Tartarus —the angel who presides over Hell 
(or a term for Hell itself). The angel, usually Uriel 
or Tartaruchus, is in charge of the torments of the 
nether regions, as already noted. For the names of 
other angels of these regions, see Angels of Hell. 
See particularly entry of Duma(h), who is “prince 
of Hell” and “angel of the stillness of death.” 

Tarwan —in Mandaean lore, one of the 10 
uthri (angels) that accompany the sun on its daily 
course. 

Tashriel —an angelic guard of one of the halls 
in the 1st Heaven. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Tata’il —in Arabic lore, a guardian angel 
invoked in rites of exorcism. [Rf. Hughes, A 
Dictionary of Islam, “Angels.”] 

Tatirokos [Tartaruchus] 

Tatonon —an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon .] 

Tatriel —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Tatrusia —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 
For a list of all 70, see Appendix. 

Tau —a luminary, by the pronouncing of whose 
name “God brought on the Deluge,” according 
to Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon. 

Tauriel —in Mandaean prayer books, a spirit 
(uthra) invoked through the fingering of phylac¬ 
teries. He is known as a “call-spirit.” Agrippa, 
Three Books of Occult Philosophy III, lists Tauriel 
as a governing angel of the zodiac. 

Taurine Angel —in Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews V, 39, there is mention of the “roaring of 
the taurine angel,” which is said to be a recast of 
the Babylonian belief about the god Ea. The full 
name of the angel is “the taurine angel of the 
abyss” and his roar is heard when he “causes the 
water from the lower abyss to be poured into 
the upper abyss.” [Rf. Talmud Ta’anit 25b; also 
Bereshith Rabha 10.] It will be recalled that Rahab, 
angel of the deep, was destroyed by God when 
he refused to separate the upper from the lower 
waters at Creation. 



[ 286 ] TAUSA / THAPHABAO TH 


Tausa ( see Taus-Melek)—according to Drower, 
The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, Tausa is the name 
given to a malka (angel) who bewails having sinned 
against the Great Life by allowing his pride to have 
led him into rebellion. 

Taus-Melek (Malek Tawfis, Melek-I-Taus)— 
the peacock angel worshipped by the Yezidis as 
the devil-god and benefactor of mankind. Taus- 
Melek is a Buddhist paraphrase for the devil 
(Satan). To the Yezidis, a Kurdish Moslem sect 
inhabiting the mountains of Upper Mesopotamia 
(Iraq), Taus-Melek “is a fallen archangel, now 
pardoned, to whom God has committed the 
government of the world and the management of 
the transmigration of souls.” [Rf. Louis Massignon, 
“The Yezidis of Mount Sindjar” in the sympo¬ 
sium, Satan.] See also Wall, Devils. 

Tavtavel —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Tazbun —in The Book of the Angel Raziel, an 
angel who exercises dominion over one of the 
months of the year. 

Teba’at —one of the 7 leaders of the apostate 
angels. [Rf. Schmidt, The Apocalypse of Noah and 
the Parables of Enoch.] 

Tebliel —one of the 7 angels with dominion 
over the earth. [See Angels of the Earth.] 

Techial —chief of the angelic guards of the 5th 
Heaven. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth .] 

Tehom —a throne angel, or an administering 
angel, invoked in ritual magic rites. He is one of 
15 listed in The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Tehoriel —one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind, [Rf Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Teiaiel (Isiaiel)—in the cabala, an angel that can 
foretell the future. He is a throne angel and 
controls maritime expeditions and commercial 
ventures. His sigil is reproduced in Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, p. 267. His corresponding angel 
is Syth. 

Teiazel (Ieiazel)—an angel of the order of 


powers. Teiazel influences men of letters, artists, 
and librarians. His corresponding angel is Ater- 
chinis. His sigil is reproduced in Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, p. 281. 

Telantes —an angel invoked in Solomonic Wax 
magical operations. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon, p. 117.] 

Teletarchae— in the Chaldean cosmological 
scheme, the teletarchae are celestial intelligences 
or luminaries. [Rf. Chaldean Oracles of Zoroaster .] 

Teletiel —a governing angel of the zodiac. [Rf 
Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philo¬ 
sophy III.] 

Temel [Tamiel] 

Temeluch (Temeluchus, Abtelmoluchos, Tar- 
taruchus, Temleyakos)—a caretaking angel, pro¬ 
tector of children at birth and in infancy; also an 
angel of Gehenna (Hell) and the “merciless angel, 
all fire” in charge of torments, to whom souls are 
delivered at the death of the body. [Rf. Revelation 
of Paul', Apocalypse of Peter, James, The Apocryphal 
New Testament.] 

Temlakos [Temeluch] 

Temleyakos [Temeluch] 

Tempast —an angel of the 1st hour of the 
night, serving under Gamiel. 

Temperance —in cabalistic lore, “an angel with 
the sign of the sun on his forehead, on his breast 
the square and triangle of the septenary, pouring 
from one chalice into another the two essences 
which compose the elixir of life.” [Rf. The Divine 
Pymander.] 

Tempha —a planetary genius of Saturn invoked 
in talismanic magic. [Rf. Waite, “The Occult 
Sciences” in The Secret Doctrine in Israel] 

Tenaciel —a Friday angel of the 3rd hour 
invoked from the east. [Rf. de Abano, The 
Heptameron\ Barrett, The Magus', Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Tendac —an_angel invoked in the exorcism of 
the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 



... Terly, procures, conditionally, a loved one's garter [287] 


Tephros (Tephras)—as revealed in The Testa¬ 
ment of Solomon, an evil spirit who brings on 
darkness and sets fires to fields; he is also a demon 
of ashes conjured up by Beelzeboul (Beelzebub) 
at the behest of Solomon. But Tephros is not 
wholly evil, since he cures fever through the 
power or aid of Azael. He can be invoked in the 
names of Bultala, Thallel, and Melchal. [Rf. 
Butler, Ritual Magic; Shah, The Secret Lore of 
Magic; Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews IV, 151.] 

Tepiseath —angel of part of an hour, as in 
H.D.’s (Hilda Doolittle’s) poem “Sagesse.” [Rf. 
Ambelain, La Kahhale Pratique.] 

Terafniel —an angel of prey, mentioned in 
Schwab, Vocabulaire de VAngelologie. 

Teraphim (“obscenity”)—according to Jewish 
cabalists of the Middle Ages, the teraphim were 
male and female idols, their power deriving from 
wizardry; they correspond to the serpent imagery, 
the seraphim, which, in turn, are said to derive 
from the Kabeiri, Assyrian divinities. [Rf Judges 
17-18; Ezekiel 21, 21; II Kings; The Zohar .] 

Terathel (Ierathel)—an angel of the order of 
dominations (dominions). He “propagates light, 
civilization, and liberty.” Terathel’s corresponding 
angel is Hepe, according to Ambelain, La Kabbale 

Teraphim. Small idols or superstitious figures 

used as talismans and sometimes worshipped. From 

A Dictionary of the Holy Bible, 1859. 



Pratique, where Terathel’s sigil is reproduced on 

p. 273. 

Teriapel —one of the intelligences of the planet 
Venus. [Rf. The Secret Grimoire of Tune!.] 

Terly (Erly, Irix)—in the Grimorium Verum, a 
congenial and obliging spirit who, in Solomonic 
conjurations, will procure for the invocant (when 
the conditions are right) the garter of a loved one. 
[Rf. Shah, The Secret Lore of Magic.] 

Tessub [Rimmon] 

Tetra —an angel invoked in ritual magic prayer 
for the fulfilment of an invocant’s desires. Tetra 
is cited, along with other “great and glorious 
spirits,” in The Secret Grimoire of Turiel. 

Tetrasiyah —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Teumiel —the 7th sefira of the 10 unholy 
sefiroth (q.v.). 

Tezalel (Icabel)—an angel who regulates 
marital fidelity. His corresponding angel is 
Theosolk. Tezalel’s sigil is reproduced in Ambe¬ 
lain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 267. 

Thagrinus —one of the genii of confusion; also 
one of the genii of the 4th hour in Apollonius of 
Tyana, The Nuctemeron. 

Thammuz —a fallen angel in Milton’s Paradise 
Lost I, 446. “Whose annual wound in Lebanon 
allur’d/The Syrian Damsels to lament his fate/In 
amorous ditties.” The reference is to Ezekiel 8:14. 
Thammuz is the Phoenician equivalent of the 
Greek Adonis. 

Thamy —an angel of the order of powers, 
summoned in cabalistic conjuring rites. [R/i The 
Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Thaphabaoth (Thartharoth, Thautabaoth, 
Onoel)—drawing on Ophitic sources, Origen, in 
his Contra Celsum, lists Thaphabaoth, along with 
Michael and Gabriel, as an angel (or demon) 
hostile to man. In gnostic lore, Thaphabaoth is an 
archontic demon, one of 7 rulers of the lower 
realms. When invoked, he manifests in the form 
of a bear Thaphabaoth is the Hebraized form of 



[28 8] THAQ / TIME 

the Greek Tartarus. [Rf. Thorndike, The History 
of Magic and Experimental Sciences', Grant, Gnosti¬ 
cism and Early Christianity, Mead, Thrice-Greatest 
Hermes I, 294.] 

Thaq— an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf. Pognon, 
Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de Khouabir.] 

Tharshishim [Tarshishim] 

Tharsis (Tharsus)—in rabbinical literature, an 
angel governing the element of water. [Rf. 
Heywood, The Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels.] 

Thaumiel —an “averse” (i.e., unholy) sefira, 
corresponding to, or opposite to, Kether 
(“crown”). Thaumiel’s cortex is Cathariel. [Rf. 
Waite, The Holy Kabbalah .] 

Thaur —an angel summoned in Arabic incanta¬ 
tion rites. [Rf. Shah, Occultism.] 

Thausael —one of the leaders of the fallen 
angels mentioned in the Enoch books. See also 
Voltaire, “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils.” 

Thauthabaoth [Thaphabaoth] 

Theg^-i (Thuriel, “bull-god”)—the angel who 
has dominion over beasts. [Rf. the Herrnas 
Visions.] 

Thelesis (Aisthesis, “free will”)—in gnostic 
lore, one of the 4 great luminaries or aeons 
emanated from the Divine Will. Raguel is some¬ 
times identified with Thelesis. [Rf. Mead, Frag¬ 
ments of a Faith Forgotten.] 

Theliel —in occultism, the angelic prince of 
love, invoked in ceremonial magic to procure the 
woman desired by the invocant. [R/ Waite, The 
Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.] 

Theodonias (Theodomai)—a holy name (of 
God or of an angel) called on in prayer at vesting 
ceremonies and in Solomonic conjuring rites. 
[Rf. Waite, The Book of Black Magic and of Pacts.] 

Theodoniel —probably the same as Theo¬ 
donias. 

Theophile (fictional)—in Anatole France, The 
Revolt of the Angels, Theophile is one of the 
heavenly apostates. 


Theoska —a ministering archangel invoked in 
ritual magic. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Thief of Paradise —Satan is so called by Milton 
in Paradise Regained IV, 604. 

Thiel —an angel serving in the 2nd Heaven, but 
said also to serve in the 3rd Heaven. Thiel is a 
ruling prince of Wednesday, invoked from the 
north. He is ranked as one of the intelligences of 
the planet Venus. [Rf de Abano, Heptameron; 
Malchus, The Secret Grimoire of Turiel.] 

Thigra [Tagriel] 

Third Angel, Th e —mentioned in Revelation 
8 as one of 7 angels that sound trumpets. When 
the 3rd angel sounds his, a great star Wormwood 
(regarded also as an angel) falls from Heaven. See 
Wormwood. 

Third Heaven, The (Angels of the 3rd 
Heaven)—seat of the upper Paradise where manna 
is stored or produced by angels “according to a 
widespread view” (The Legends of the Jews V, 374). 
The honey (manna) in the Asenath-Joseph 2nd- 
century romance was supposedly brought from 
this 3rd Heaven by “divine bees” at the behest of 
Michael, who figures in the tale. The 3rd Heaven 
is the dwelling place of John the Baptist, as cited 
in the apocryphal Apocalypse attributed to James 
(Jesus’ brother); however, in Islamic lore, the 
dwelling place of John the Baptist is the 2nd 
Heaven. The Mohammedans also place Azrael, 
angel of death, in the 3rd Heaven. It is in this 
Heaven, it will be recalled, that Paul was caught 
up and “heard unspeakable words which it is not 
lawful for a man to utter” (II Corinthians 12:2-4). 
[Rf. James, The Apocryphal New Testament, p. 37.] 
To the author of Enoch II, the 3rd Heaven accom¬ 
modates both Paradise and Hell, with Hell located 
simply “on the northern side.” 

Thirteen Angels, The —in his apocalyptic 
poem “America,” plate 12, Blake visions, in 
addition to the “Angels of Albion” and “Boston’s 
Angels,” 13 other angels who, Blake says, “Rent 
off their robes to the hungry wind, and threw 
their golden scepters/Down on the land of 



... Time, pours life’s essence from chalice to chalice 


America; indignant they descended/Headlong 
from out their heav’nly heights, descending swift 
as fires/Over the land.” 

Thomax —an angel of the 8th hour of the 
night, serving under Narcoriel. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Thopitus —in the cabala, an angel invoked in 
ritual incantation rites. His corresponding angel is 
Lehahiah. Thopitus figures in H.D.’s (Hilda 
Doolittle’s) poem “Sagesse” and in Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique. 

Thoth —in hermetics, the head of the order of 
archangels. Thoth (or Pi-Hermes) is characterized 
as the “aeon of the aeons” and identified as the 
Good Daimon. 

Three Angels of Abraham —the 3 “men” 
whom Abraham “entertained unawares” at 
Mamre (Genesis 18) have been identified variously 
as God, Michael, and Gabriel; as the Logos, 
Michael, and Raphael; and as the Holy Ghost, 
God, and Jesus. [See Mathers, The Kabbalah 
Unveiled and Conybeare, Origins of Christianity, 
p. 226.] The promise of one of the 3 angels to the 
90-year-old Sarah of a son was fulfilled in the 
birth of Isaac. It might not be out of place to 
recall here a Greek parallel preserved by Ovid: 3 
of the chief Olympians (Zeux, Poseidon, Hermes) 
were guests of Hyrieus, an old man of Tanagra; 
bidden by the gods to express a wish, the old man, 
being childless, asked for a son. The wish was 
granted; the son was Orion. 

Thrgar —an angel of the month, cited in The 
Book of the Angel Raziel. Thrgar is also mentioned 
in Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition. 

Throne Bearers —a class of angels in Islamic 
lore. It is said that there are now only 4 angels in 
this class, but that the number will be increased to 
8 on the day of resurrection. [Rf The Koran, 
suras 40 and 69; Thompson, Semitic Magic.] 

Thrones—in the pseudo-Dionysian scheme, the 
thrones rank 3rd in the 1st triad of the celestial 
hierarchy. They reside in the 4th Heaven. The 
ruling prince of this angelic order is variously 
given as Oriphiel, Zabkiel, Zaphkiel (see Angels 


[289] 

of the Thrones; Many-Eyed Ones). In Paradise 
Lost VI, 199, Milton speaks of “the Rebel Thrones.” 
It is through the thrones, says Dionysius, that 
“God brings his justice to bear upon us.” The 
Testament of Levi (in Testament of the Twelve 
Patriarchs) mentions thrones as an order in the 
celestial hierarchy. 

Thronus —one of the 15 throne angels listed in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Thummim [Urim] 

Tiel —one of the angelic guards of the gates of 
the North Wind. 

Tifereth [Tiphereth] 

Tif(th)eriel (Tiphtheriel)—a sefira of Tiphereth 
(Beauty) in the Briatic world of the cabala. [Rf. 
Waite, The Holy Kabbalah.] 

Tijmneik —an angel of the Seal (one of the 
nomina barbara) listed in The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses. 

Tikarathin (Thikarathin, Thikarthin)—lord of 
hosts, invoked in ritual magic 1 rites; also a secret 
name of God. [Rf. Scholem, Jewish Gnosticism, 
Merkabah Mysticism, and Talmudic Tradition, p. 53.] 

Tilath (Silat)—a spirit invoked in prayer by the 
Master of the Art in Solomonic conjuration rites. 
[Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Tileion —an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. 

Tilli —in occultism, a seraph or cherub addressed 
in conjurations. 

Tilonas —an angel invoked in the conjuration 
of Ink and Colors. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key 
of Solomon.] 

Time —an angel, so named, in the Tarot card 
No, 14. He is winged, the sign of the sun on his 
forehead, the square and triangle of the septenary 
on his breast. He pours the essence of life from one 
chalice to another. He is also called Temperance 
( q.v .). According to The Zohar (Miqez 195b), the 
’eth in Ecclesiastes 9, 12, which is a term for time, 
“refers to the ministering angel who presides over 



[290] TIME SPIRIT / TUBUAS 


Angel holding a star. A woodcut done in 

Nuremberg, 1505. From the Museum of Fine 

Arts, Boston. 

each act a man performs.” AngofF’s story “God 
Repents” (« Adventures in Heaven) relates that once, 
when the Creator contemplated destroying the 
world, He called in His angels for consultation, 
and that among the angels were 3 named Time, 
Minutes, and Seconds. 

Time Spirit, The —a designation above the 
rank of archangel for Michael, as in Steiner, The 
Mission of the Archangel Michael. In this book the 
Swiss occultist contends that Michael is now on 
earth helping human souls “fight counterstriving 
spirits” here, so as to “enable us to acquire 
spiritualized concepts.” The descent of Michael to 
earth is said to have occurred in the middle of the 
19th century. 

Tiphereth —the 6th sefira. 

Tiphtheriel [Tiftheriel] 

Tipperah (Zipporah)—the wife of the lawgiver 
Moses; she is now a virtue in the woman’s division 
of Paradise. 

Tir —the angel of June in ancient Persian lore; 
also the angel governing the 13th day of the 
month. Tir was regent of the planet Mercury and 
has been represented as having the body of a fish, 
with a boar’s face. His one arm is black, the other 


white; on his head rests a crown. In Muslim lore, 
Tir is the demon of fatal accidents and one of the 
5 sons of the fallen archangel Iblis. 

Tiriel —an archangel, the intelligence of the 
planet Mercury, with the cabalistic number 260. 
Tiriel’s name (joined with those of Raphael and 
Sadayel) was discovered on a ring amulet. [Rf. 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans ; Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Tiril—in his “Of Angels, Genii, and Devils,” 
Voltaire calls Tiril one of the leaders of the fallen 
angels. 

Tirtael —a guard, one of many, of the gates of 
the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Tishbash —one of the many names of Metatron. 

Tishgash —one of the many names of Metatron. 

Titmon —one of the more than 100 names of 
the angel Metatron as enumerated in 3 Enoch. 

Tixmion —an angel invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. 

Tmsmael —an evil angel used in conjuring 
rites for separating a husband from his wife. [Rf. 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Tobiel —a variant for Tubuel in Hugo, The 
Toilers of the Sea. 

Todatamael —one of the angelic guards of the 
gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 
316.] 

Tomimiel —a governing angel of the zodiac. 
[Rf Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III.] 

Tophiel—as noted in Hechaloth Rabbati, one of 
7 angelic guards of the 1st Heaven. 

Tophnar (Tophrag)—like Tophiel, one of the 
7 angelic guards of the 1st Heaven. He serves, or is 
identified with, Zevudiel and Kashriel. 

Tophrag [Tophnar] 

Tophtharthareth(Taptharthareth)—according 
to Paracelsus in his doctrine of Talismans, a spirit 




...Tmsmael, conjured up to separate a man and wife [291] 


of the planet Mercury of which the presiding 
intelligence is Tiriel. [Rf. Christian, The History 
and Practice of Magic I.] 

Torquaret —an angel who heads the sign of 
autumn. [Rf de Abano, The Heptameron ; Barrett, 
The Magus II.] 

Totraviel —in Hechaloth Rahhati, a seal holder 
and angelic guard of the 5th Heaven. He serves 
with Zahaftirii (q.v.). 

Totrisi —one of the 4 angels appointed by God 
to the Sword. [Rf M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Touriel [Turel] 

Traetatu —an angel who had a book named 
after him, according to Cornelius Agrippa. [Cf 
Raziel.] 

Transit! —in Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon, a name written in Heaven in the character 
(i.e., tongue) of angels and invoked to command 
demons. 

Trgiaob —one of the nomina barbara. Trgiaob 
is an angel who exercises dominion over wild fowl 
and creeping things. [Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of 
Moses.] 

Trotrosi X (Totrisi)—an invocation spirit who 
communicated to Moses the divine name. 

Trsiel —in Merkabah mysticism, an angel who 
exercises dominion over rivers. 

Tsadi’ael —in hechaloth lore ( Ma'asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Tsadkiel (Tzadkiel, Azza)—angel of justice, as 
is Azza (q.v.). In The Zohar, Tsadkiel is 4th of the 10 
archangels of the Briatic world. In Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316, he is called Tzadkiel, or Kaddisha “the holy 
one,” and is listed among the angelic guards of the 
gates of the East Wind. [See Zadkiel.] In the 
cabala, Tsadkiel is the intelligence or angel of the 
planet Jupiter; also the protecting angel of 
Abraham. In an early version of The Golden 
Legend, Longfellow cited Tsadkiel as the governor 
of Jupiter, but later substituted Zobiachel. 


Tsaftsefiah, Tsaftsefiel, Tsahtsehiyah, Tsalt- 
selim, Tsaltseliyah —variant names of Metatron. 

Tsaphiel —in occult science, an angel of the 
moon. [Rf. Papus, Traite flementaire de Science 
Occulte.] Angels governing the moon include 
Yahriel, Yachadiel, Zachariel, Gabriel. 

Tsaphkiel [Tzaphquiel] 

Tsavniyah, Tsavtsiyah —variant names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Tse’an —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk¬ 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 6th 
heavenly hall. 

Tsedeck —the Hebrew for Jupiter and root- 
source for the angel Tsadkiel or Zadkiel (q.q.v.). 

Tshndrnis —as recorded in The Book of the 
Angel Raziel, Tshndrnis (one of the nomina 
barbara) is an angel ruling over one of the months 
of the year. 

Tsirya —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Tsuria —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Tsuriel —a variant of Zuriel (q.v.) as the 
zodiacal angel governing Libra. [Rf. Jobes, 
Dictionary of Mythology, Folklore and Symbols.] 

Tual —in ceremonial magic, one of the angels 
of the 12 signs of the zodiac, representing Taurus 
(the Bull). In mystic lore, another angel represent¬ 
ing this sign is Asmodel. 

Tubatlu —in The Sjxth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, one of the 8 angels of omnipotence. [See 
Tulatu.] 

Tubiel —an angel invoked for the return of 
small birds to their owners. Tubiel is head of the 
sign of summer. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron ; 
Barrett, The Magus', Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
I’Angelologie.] 

Tubuas —one of the 6 or 7 angels reprobated 
at a Church Council in Rome, 745 c.E., the other 
reprobated angels including Uriel, Raguel, Tubuel, 
Inias, Sabaoc, Simiel. They were invoked by the 
bishops Adelbert and Clement. [Rf Heywood, The 
Hierarchy of the Blessed Angels, p. 261.] 



[ 292 ] 



Tobi (from The Book of Tohit) and three archangels—presumably Raphael (center), Michael, and 
Gabriel. The painter, Giovanni Botticini (1446-1497), was evidently unfamiliar with the details of 
the apocryphal tale, for nowhere in it is there mention of any angel other than Raphael. Repro¬ 
duced from R^gamey, Anges. 





...Tutnoriel, angel of the u th hour of the night [293] 


Tubuel [Tubuas] 

Tufiel —an angelic guard of the 1st Heaven. 
[Rf Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Tufriel —an angelic guard of the 6th Heaven. 

Tuiel—an angel mentioned in The Book of the 
Angel Raziel and incorrectly equated with Milton’s 
Ithuriel. [Rf West, “The Names of Milton’s 
Angels.”] 

Tulatu —in The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses, one of the 8 angels of omnipotence. May 
be a different form for Tublatu. 

Tumael (Tumiel, Tuniel, Tamiel)—one of 
the fallen angels in the Enoch listings. 

Tummim [Urim] 

Tutnoriel—an angel of the 11th hour of the 
night, serving under Dardariel. [Rf. Waite, The 
Lemegeton.] 

Turel (“rock of God”—Turiel, Turael)—one of 
200 angels listed in The Book of Enoch who followed 
Semyaza in the descent from Heaven to cohabit 
with the daughters of men, an incident touched 
on in Genesis 6. The sigil of the fallen Turel is 
pictured in The Secret Grimoire of Turiel, p. 39. 
As Turiel, 1 urel is a messenger of the spirits of the 
planet Jupiter; also, a messenger for the angel 
Sachiel or Setchiel (q.q.v.). 

Turlos—an angel invoked in the conjuration 
of the Reed. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Turmiel —one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 

Tusmas —an angel of the 7th hour of the day, 
serving under Barginiel. [Rf. Waite, The Leme¬ 
geton, p. 67.] 

Tutelary Angels [Guardian Angels] 

Tutiel —a “mysterious” spirit invoked in con¬ 
juring rites. [Rf. Schwab, Vocahulaire de I’Angil- 
ologie.] 

Tutrbebial —the last of the 64 angel wardens 
of the 7 celestial halls. [Rf. Pirke Hechaloth.] 


Tutresiel (Stutrayah—“piercing God”)—a 
great angel prince in 3 Enoch. Here it is related of 
the angel Hamon that when he sees Tutresiel, he 
removes the crown of glory from his head and 
falls on his face—in obeisance. In turn, Tutresiel 
does the same when he sees Atrugiel, and Atrugiel 
does the same when he sees Na’aririel. The 
baffling thing is that all these names of angels are 
actually variant names of Metatron! 

Tutrusa’i (Tutrachiel, Tuphgar, Tzurtag, etc.) 
—an angelic guard of the 1st Heaven. [Rf. Pirke 
Hechaloth.] 

Tuwahel —a ministering angel invoked in 
ritual magic. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Twelve Spirits of the Zodiacal Cycle —as 

given by Eliphas Levi, the list consists of Sarahiel 
for Aries; Saraiel for Gemini; Seratiel for Leo; 
Chadakiel for Libra; Araziel for Taurus; Phakiel 
for Cancer; Schaltiel for Virgo; Sartzeil for 
Scorpio; Saritiel for Sagittarius; Semaqiel for 
Capricorn; Tzakmaqiel for Aquarius; Vocatiel 
for Pisces. The list given by Camfield, A Theological 
Discourse of Angels (p. 67), differs considerably from 
that supplied by Levi, and runs as follows: 
Malchedael for Aries; Ambriel for Gemini; 
Verchiel for Leo; Zuriel for Libra; Asmodel for 
Taurus; Muriel for Cancer; Hamaliel for Virgo; 
Barchiel for Scorpio; Adnachiel for Sagittarius; 
Haniel for Capricorn; Gambiel for Aquarius; 
Barchiel for Pisces. 

Twenty-Four Elders [Elders] 

Tychagara —one of the 7 exalted throne angels 
“which execute the commands of potentates,” the 
other 6 angels including Ophaniel and Barael. 
[Rf. The Book of the Angel Raziel ; Cornelius 
Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philosophy III.] It 
should be pointed out that, in the usual schematic 
arrangement of the hierarchic orders, the thrones 
are of the 1st triad while the potentates (powers) 
are of the 2nd triad, so that commands ought 
properly to emanate from the thrones to the 
potentates, not the other way around. 

Typhon —the Hebrew Sephon, meaning 


[294] TZADIQEL / TZUREL 

“dark” or “northern”; in Aramaic he is Tuphon, 
identified by the Greeks with Set, god of darkness. 
In Cornelius Agrippa, Three Books of Occult Philo¬ 
sophy, Typhon of classic mythology is identified 
with the cabalistic angel Sammael [q.v). 

Tzadiqel —the archangel who rules the planet 
Jupiter on Thursday. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon, Table of Planetary Hours.] 

Tzadkiel [Tsadkiel] 

Tzadqiel [Tsadkiel] 

Tzakmaqiel (Ssakmakiel)—a spirit governing 
Aquarius. [Rf. Prince of Darkness, p. 178.] 

Tzaphniel —when an invocant wishes to 
procure a magic carpet, it is Tzaphniel, “holy 
minister of God,” who must be appealed to—as 
recommended in works like Barrett, The Magus; 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon. 

Tzaphq(u)iel (Tzaphkiel, “contemplation of 
God”)—in The Zohar, Tzaphqiel is 3rd of the 10 
holy sefiras, or 3rd of the 10 archangels. [Rf 


Mathers, The Kabbalah Unveiled.] In the tables 
provided in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 
Tzaphqiel rules the planet Saturn on Saturday. 

Tzarmiel —one of the numerous angelic 
guards of the gates of the North Wind. [Rf Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316.] 

Tzartak (Tzortaq)—one of the 70 childbed 
amulet angels. [Rf The Book of the Angel Raziel ; 
Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 225.] As Tzortaq, 
in Ozar Midrashim II, 316, he is one of numerous 
angelic guards of the gates of the West Wind. 

Tzedeqiah —an angel’s name inscribed in 
Hebrew characters on the 1st pentacle of the 
planet Jupiter. [Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Tzephon [Zephon] 

Tzortaq [Tzartak] 

Tzurel —one of the numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the South Wind. [Rf Ozar Midrashim 
II, 316.] 











Uriel, “gliding through the Ev’n/On a Sun 
beam,” illustrating Paradise Lost IV. From Hayley, 
The Poetical Works of John Milton. 



Ubaviel —an angel with dominion over the 
zodiacal sign of Capricorn. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition .] 

Ublisi —in occult lore, one of 8 angels of 
omnipotence invoked in magical conjuring rites. 

Ucimiel [Ucirmiel] 

Ucirmiel (Ucimuel)—a Wednesday angel 
residing in the 2nd or 3rd Heaven. When invoking 
Ucirmiel, the invocant must look north. [Rf. 
de Abano, The Heptameron\ Barrett, The Magus 
II.] 

Udrgazyia —one of the 70 childbed amulet 
angels. [Rf The Book of the Angel Raziel; Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans.] 

Udriel —a childbed amulet angel, found in the 
same sources as for Udrgazyia. 

Ugiel —2nd of the 10 unholy sefiroth in Moses 
of Burgos’ listing. 

Uini —a ministering angel invoked in conjuring 
rites. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 


Umabel —in the cabala, Umabel is said to have 
dominion over physics and astronomy. He is also 
one of the 72 angels bearing the name of God 
Shemhamphorae. [Rf. Barrett, The Magus II.] 
Umabel’s corresponding angel is Ptiau. His sigil 
is figured in La Kabbale Pratique, p. 294. 

Umabel —one of the archangels. Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, does not say what the mission of 
this archangel is. Umahel is listed as one of 9 of 
the order in a chart facing p. 88 of the Ambelain 
book. 

Umeroz —angel of the 2nd hour of the night, 
serving under Farris. [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton .] 

Umiel —an angel invoked in Syriac spellbind¬ 
ing charms. [Rf. The Book of Protection.] 

Umikol —in Jewish mysticism, one of the 
angels of the Seal. 

Unael —an angel serving in the 1st Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] The 
name Unael (Unhael) is found inscribed on an 
oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. [Rf 
Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 


297 



[298] UR / USIEL 

Ur (Hebrew, Aur, meaning “fire” or “light”)— 
in Mandaean lore, the king of the nether world. 
[Rf. Jewish Encyclopedia, “Angelology.”] 

Urakabarameel —a run-together of Arakib 
and Ramiel. Urakabarameel was one of the 
leaders of the fallen angels (see Enoch I). He is 
mentioned in Thomas Moore’s book-length poem 
The Loves of the Angels. 

Urfiel —chief of the angelic order of malachim 
or malakim (q.v.) [Rf. Berith Menucha.] 

Urian (Uryan)—a form of Uriel, as in Enoch 7, 
9:1. In low German folklore, Sir Urian is a 
sobriquet for Satan. 

Uriel (“fire of God”)—one of the leading angels 
in noncanonical lore, and ranked variously as a 
seraph, cherub, regent of the sun, flame of God, 
angel of the presence, presider over Tartarus 
(Hades), archangel of salvation (as in II Esdras), 
etc. In the latter work he acts as heavenly inter¬ 
preter of Ezra’s visions. In Enoch I, he is the angel 
who “watches over thunder and terror.” In The 
Book of Adam and Eve he presides over repentance. 
Uriel “is supposed to be,” says Abbot Anscar 
Vonier in The Teaching of the Catholic Church, “the 
spirit who stood at the gate of the lost Eden with 
the fiery sword.” The Book of Adam and Eve 
designates him as this spirit, i.e., one of the 
“cherubims” of Genesis 3. He is invoked in some 
of the ancient litanies. He has been identified as 
one of the angels who helped bury Adam and Abel 
in Paradise (Hastings, Dictionary of the Bible ); as 
the dark angel who wrestled with Jacob at Peniel; 
as the destroyer of the hosts of Sennacherib (II 
Kings 19:35; II Maccabees 15:22); as the messenger 
sent by God to Noah to warn him of the impend¬ 
ing deluge (Enoch 1, 10:1-3), all of which feats or 
missions have been credited to other angels, as 
elsewhere noted. In the view of Louis Ginzberg, 
the “prince of lights” in The Manual of Discipline 
refers to Uriel. In addition, Uriel is said to have 
disclosed the mysteries of the heavenly arcana to 
Ezra; interpreted prophecies, and led Abraham 
out of Ur. In later Judaism, says R. H. Charles 
(The Book of Enoch), “we find Uriel instead of 


Phanuel” as one of the 4 angels of the presence. 
Uriel is also the angel of the month of September 
and may be invoked ritually by those bom in that 
month. The Magus claims that alchemy “which is 
of divine origin” was brought down to earth by 
Uriel, and that it was Uriel who gave the cabala 
to man, although this “key to the mystical 
interpretation of Scripture” is also said to have 
been the gift of Metatron. Milton describes Uriel 
as “Regent of the Sun” and the “sharpest sighted 
spirit of all in Heaven” (Paradise Lost III). Dryden, 
The State of Innocence, pictures Uriel as descending 
from heaven in a chariot drawn by white horses. 
Despite his eminence, Uriel was reprobated at a 
Church Council in Rome, 745 c.e. Now, however, 
he is Saint Uriel, and his symbol is an open hand 
holding a flame. Burne-Jones’ painting of Uriel 
is reproduced as a frontispiece in Duff, First and 
Second Books of Esdras. The name Uriel derives, it 
is claimed, from Uriah the prophet. In apocryphal 
and occult works Uriel has been equated or 
identified with Nuriel, Uryan, Jeremiel, Vretil, 
Suriel, Puruel, Phanuel, Jehoel, Israfel, and the 
angel Jacob-Israel. See the pseudepigraphic Prayer 
of Joseph, quoted in part in Ginzberg, The Legends 
of the Jews V, 310. In this work Jacob says: “When 
I was coming from Mesopotamia of Syria [sic], 
Uriel, the angel of God, came forth and spoke: ‘I 
have come down to the earth to make my dwell¬ 
ing among men, and I am called Jacob by name.’ ” 
The meaning of the foregoing is puzzling, unless 
Uriel turned into Jacob after wrestling with the 
patriarch at Peniel; but the incident as related in 
Genesis 32 suggests a different interpretation. A 
commentary on Exodus 4:25 speaks of a “benign 
angel” attacking Moses for neglecting to observe 
the covenantal rite of circumcision with regard 
to the latter’s son Gershom, the benign angel being 
identified as Uriel in Midrash Aggada Exodus, and 
as Gabriel in The Zohar I, 93b. The latter source 
reports that Gabriel “came down in a flame of 
fire, having the appearance of a burning serpent,” 
with the express purpose of destroying Moses 
“because of bis sin.” In The Legends of the Jews II, 
328, the angel here is neither Uriel nor Gabriel 
but 2 angels, the wicked Hemah and Af. Uriel is 
said to be the angel of vengeance that Prud’hon 



... Urim, an oracle who ascertains the will of God 


pictured in his “Divine Vengeance and Justice,” a 
canvas to be found in the Louvre. Uriel, “gliding 
through the Ev’n/On a Sun beam” ( Paradise Lost 
IV, 555) is reproduced on p. 296 from Hayley, 
The Poetical Works of John Milton. The Uriel 
in Percy MacKaye’s Uriel and Other Poems is not 
our angel but William Vaughn Moody, American 
poet and playwright (1869-1910), to whom the 
title poem is addressed in memory. The most 
recent appraisal of Uriel is the one offered by 
Walter Clyde Curry in Milton’s Ontology Cos¬ 
mology and Physics, where, on p. 93, Professor 
Curry says of Uriel that he “seems to be largely a 
pious but not too perceptive physicist with 
inclinations towards atomistic philosophy.” To 
illustrate in what high esteem Uriel was held, we 
find him described in the 2nd book of the Sibylline 
Oracles as one of the “immortal angels of the 
undying God” who, on the day ofjudgment, will 
“break the monstrous bars framed of unyielding 
and unbroken adamant of the brazen gates of 
Hades, and cast them down straightway, and 
bring forth to judgment all the sorrowful forms, 
yea, of the ghosts of the ancient Titans and of the 
giants, and all whom the flood overtook . . . and 
all these shall he bring to the judgment seat... and 
set before God’s seat.” 

Urim (“illumination”)—a cherub in Klop- 
stock’s poetic drama Der Messias (The Messiah). 
The Bible meaning of the term is a “household 
idol” and it is almost always used in association 
with tummin (or thummim), meaning “perfec¬ 
tion” and signifying oracles for ascertaining the 
will of God. The urim and tummin derive from 
the Babylonian-Chaldean tablets of destiny 
(“owned” by Tiamat, female monster and reputed 
source of all evil), which were credited with 
possessing the virtue of casting the fate of men. 
Aaron, it will be recalled, bore the urim and 
tummin engraved on his breastplate as the insignia 
of his office of high priest ( see Asser Criel). In 
Talmud Yoma, the urim and tummin are listed 
among the 5 holy things found in the First Temple 
and absent from the Second Temple. The Zohar 
(Exodus 234b) thus defines and distinguishes the 2 
terms: “Urim signifies the luminous speculum, 


[299] 

which consisted of the engravure of the Divine 
Name composed of 42 letters by which the world 
was created; whereas the Thummim consisted of 
the nonluminous speculum made of the Divine 
Name as manifested in the 22 letters. The combin¬ 
ation of the 2 is thus called Urim and Thummim.” 
Milton, Paradise Regained III, 14, refers to the 
urim and thummim as “those oraculous gems/ 
On Aaron’s breast.” The seal of Yale University 
incorporates the 2 names in Hebrew characters. 
[Rf Exodus 28:30; Leviticus 8:8; Ezra 2:63; 
Nehemiah 7:65; Driver, Canaanite Myths and 
Legends, p. 103; Budge, Amulets and Talismans, p. 
407; and Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews II, 
329.] 

Urion [Orion] 

Uriron—an angel invoked as an amulet against 
sorcery and sudden death. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 140.] 

Urizen—in Blake’s Book of Urizen, the angel of 
England, alternating with Ore. He is one of the 
Four Zoas and the embodiment of the god of 
reason. Urizen’s son is the angel that Blake meets 
in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. 

Uijan (Uryan)—variant form of Uriel. 

Urpaniel—an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea) for warding off evil. 
[Rf Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Uryan [Urjan] 

Urzla—in the cabala, an angel of the east, 
summoned in conjuring rites; he is a “glorious 
and benevolent angel and is asked to share with 
the invocant the secret wisdom of the Creator.” 
[Rf. Gollancz, Clavicula Salomon is.] 

Usera—an angel serving in the 1st Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Usiel (Uziel, Uzziel, “strength of God”)—in 
the cabala generally, as in Targum Onkeles and 
Jonathan, Usiel is an angel that fell, and is therefore 
evil; he was among those who wedded human 
wives and begat giants. Of the 10 unholy sefiroth, 
Usiel is listed 5th. In The Book of the Angel Raziel, 
Usiel (Uzziel) is among the 7 angels before the 




The archangel Uriel shown with the falling Satan, illustrating Paradise Lost III. From Hayley, 
The Poetical Works of John Milton. 




... Us tad, messenger of the moon invoked from the west 


throne of God and among 9 set over the 4 winds. 

[ Rf Bischoff, Die Elemente der Kabbalah.] Usiel 
replaces Uriel in the reprint English translation of 
Verus Jesuitarum Libellus (“True Magical Work of 
the Jesuits”). [Rf. Waite, The Book of Ceremonial 
Magic, p. 110.] The Key to Faust's Threefold 
Harrowing of Hell (otherwise known as a Key to 
the Black Raven) contains a general conjuration to 
Usiel and a list of his adjutant princes. [Rf. Butler, 
Ritual Magic, p. 190.] Finally, according to Milton, 
Usiel is a good angel, of the order of virtues, a 
lieutenant of Gabriel’s in the fighting in Heaven 
at the time of Satan’s defection. 

Uslael —an angel serving in the 4th Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Ustael —in Barrett, The Magus, andin de Abano, 
The Heptameron, an angel of the 4th Heaven and 
a ruler on Lord’s Day. He is invoked from the 
west. He is also one of 3 angelic messengers of the 
moon. 

Ustur —in Chaldean lore, one of 4 chief classes 
of protecting genii, limned after the human like¬ 
ness. Cf the Ezekiel cherubim. [Rf. Lenormant, 
Chaldean Magic.] 

Uthra (pi. uthri) —in Mandaean mythology, an 
angel or spirit of life, one of 10, that accompany 
the sun on its daily course. The 10 are Zuhair, 
Zahrun, Buhair Bahrun, Sar, Sarwan, Tar, 
Tarwan, Rabia, Talia. A list of 20 uthri is given in 
Drower, The Mandaeans of Iraq and Iran, with the 
names Pthahil, Zaharill, Adam, Qin, Ram, Rud, 
Shurbai, Sharhabiil, Shumbar Nu, Nuraitha, 
Yahya Yuhana, Qinta, Anhar, Eve, Abathur, 
Bahrat, Yushamin, Dnuth Hiia, Habshaba, Kana 
d Zidqa. 

Uthri [Uthra] 

Uvabriel —an angel of the 3rd hour of the 
night, serving under Sarquamich. 

Uvael —an angel of Monday, resident of the 
1st Heaven, and invoked from the north. [Rf. 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 

Uvall (Vual, Voval)—before he fell, an angel of 
the order of powers. Now, in Hell, Uvall is a 
great duke with 37 legions of infernal spirits ready 


[301] 

to do his bidding. His office is to procure the love 
of women at the behest of invocants. He speaks 
Egyptian “but not perfectly,” according to 
Waite, The Lemegeton. Nowadays, it appears, 
Uvall converses in colloquial Coptic. His sigil is 
figured in Waite, The Book of Black Magic and 
of Pacts, p. 180. 

Uvayah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Uvmiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 2nd 
heavenly hall. 

Uwula —a ministering angel invoked at an 
eclipse of the sun or moon. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books cf Moses.] 

Uzah, Usiah (Uzza)—as Ozah or Uzah, one 
of the names of Metatron, as listed in Sefer 
ha-Heshek. 

Uzbazbiel —in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah), an angelic guard stationed at the 1st of the 
7 heavenly halls. 

Uziel —5th of the 10 unholy sefiroth. [Rf. 
Pirke Hechaloth.] 

Uziphiel — in hechaloth lore ( Ma’asseh Merk- 
abah ), an angelic guard stationed at the 1st of the 7 
heavenly halls. 

Uzoh [Uzza] 

Uzza (Uzzah, Ouza—“strength”)—a name 
changed to Semyaza (q.v.). Like Rahab, Uzza is 
the tutelary angel of the Egyptians. [Rf. Ginzberg, 
The Legends of the Jews III, 17.] 

Uzziel (Usiel, Azareel?—“strength of God”)— 
one of the principal angels in rabbinic angelo- 
logy; of the order of cherubim, also of the order 
of virtues (i.e., malachim), of which Uzziel is 
sometimes ranked as chief. According to The Book 
of the Angel Raziel, Uzziel (Usiel) is among the 7 
angels who stand before the throne of Glory, and 
among the 9 set over the 4 winds. In Milton, 
Paradise Lost IV, Uzziel is commanded by Gabriel 
to “coast the south with strictest watch.” In 
Merkabah lore, he is an angel of mercy under the 
rulership of Metatron. [Rf. introd. 3 Enoch.] 






Vessels of wrath (demons or fallen angels): 
Theutus, Asmodeus, and Incubus. From Barrett, 
The Magus. 



Vacabiel (Vacatiel)—in joint rule with Rasa- 
masa (another genius), Vacabiel controls the sign 
of Fishes (Pisces) in the zodiac. [Rf. Prince of 
Darkness, p. 178.] 

Vacatiel [Vacabiel] 

Vachmiel— an angel governing the 4th hour 
of the day. Vachmiel is served by 10 chief officers 
and 100 inferior spirits. [Rf. Waite, The Leme- 

vadriel —ruling angel of the 9th hour of the 
day. Vadriel, like Vachmiel, is served by 10 chief 
officers and 100 lesser spirits. The chief officers 
include Astroniel, Damiel, Madriel. [Rf. Waite, 
The #: 

Vahoel —one of the 72 angels in control of the 
12 signs of the zodiac. 

Vaij —in Jewish mysticism, one of the angels of 
the Seal. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Book of Mores.] 

Valiants (of the Heavens; see Warriors)—A 
term for angels, as in Isaiah 33:7, and Psalms of 
Thanksgiving of the New Covenant. [Rf. Dupont- 
Sommer, The Dead Sea Scrolls.] 


Valnum —in occult lore, a Monday angel 
resident of the 1st Heaven and invoked from the 
north. He is also one of the 3 intelligences of the 
planet Saturn. 

Vametel— in Runes, The Wisdom of the Kab¬ 
balah, one of the 72 angels of the zodiac. 

Vamona(h) —the “dwarf avatar” in Vedic 
lore. He is “lord of reason.” Of the 10 avatars, 
Vamona is 5th and Vishnu 1st. 

Vanand Yezad —the only angel allowed by the 
Magians to preside over all the 7 Hells. [Rf Sale, 
The Koran, “Preliminary Discourse,” p. 67.] 

Vaol —an angel whose name appears on the 1st 
pentacle of the moon. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater 
Key of Solomon.] 

Vaphoron —an angel invoked in the benedic¬ 
tion of the Salt. Vaphoron is mentioned in 
Solomonic (black magic) tracts. 

Varcan —according to Heywood, The Hier¬ 
archy of the Blessed Angels, an angel with dominion 
over the sun. (For others exercising such dominion, 


303 



[304] VARCHIEL / VIONATRABA 


see Angels of the Sun.) In de Abano, The Hepta- 
meron, Varcan is referred to as “king of angels of 
the air ruling on Lord’s Day.” 

Varchiel —an angel with dominion over one 
of the zodiacal signs, variously given as Leo, 
Pisces, Corona. [Rf. Heywood, The Hierachy of 
the Blessed Angels, p. 215.] 

Variel —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Varuna —chief of the 7 Vedic divinities (i.e., 
suryas), analogous to the Judaeo-Christian angels. 
[See Suryas.] 

Vasariah —in the cabala, an angel of the order 
of dominations. He is also one of the 72 angels 
bearing the name of God Shemhamphorae. 

Vashyash —“a prince over all the angels and 
Caesars.” [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon .] 

Vasiariah —in the cabala, an angel who rules 
over justice, nobility, magistrates, and lawyers. 
His sigil is reproduced in Ambelain, La Kabbale 
fratique, p. 271. 

Vassago —in the grimoires, a “good spirit” 
invoked to discover a woman’s deepest secret. 


[Rf Christian, The History and Practice of Magic II, 
402.] In Waite, The Lemegeton, Vassago is a 
prince of the nether realms where he busies him¬ 
self finding lost possessions and foretelling the 
future. His sigil is shown in Shah, The Secret Lore 
of Magic, p. 210. 

Vatale —like Vashyash, Vatale is described as 
“a prince over all the angels and Caesars.” 

Veguaniel —an angel ruler of the 3rd hour of 
the day. 

Vehiel —an angel whose name is inscribed on 
the 1st pentacle of the moon. 

Vehofnehu —one of the many names of the 
angel Metatron. 

Vehuel —an angel of the order of principalities; 
also a zodiac angel and one of the 72 bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae. His sigil is shown 
in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique, p. 289. 

Vehuiah —in the cabala, one of the 8 seraphim, 
invoked to fulfill prayers. He governs the first rays 
of the sun. His sigil is shown in Ambelain, La 
Kabbale Pratique, p. 260. 


Infant angels by Velazquez. Detail from the Coronation of the Virgin. From Regamey, Anges. 


...Vassago, discoverer of a woman s deepest secret [305] 


Veischax —in Mosaic magic lore, an angel of 
the Seal. 

Vel —a Wednesday angel, resident of the 3rd 
Heaven, invoked from the south. 

Vel Aquiel —an angel ruler on Lord’s Day 
(Sunday) and a resident of the 4th Heaven. For 
good results, he must be invoked from the north. 

Velel— in de Abano, The Heptameron, and in 
Barrett, The Magus, a Wednesday angel resident 
in the 2nd or 3rd Heaven. Since he is invoked from 
the north, he cannot be identified with Vel (with 
whom, however, he seems to have much in 
common). 

Veloas (Velous)—“a most pure angel of God” 
invoked in Solomonic black magic rites, specific¬ 
ally in the conjuration of the Sword. Veloas is a 
familiar figure in the grimoires. 

Venahel (Venoel)—a Wednesday angel resid¬ 
ing in the 2nd or 3rd Heaven, and invoked from 
the north. 

Venibbeth —an angel invoked in the conjura¬ 
tion of Invisibility, operating under Almiras, 
Master of Invisibility. [Rf. The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Verchiel (Zerachiel)—angel of the month of 
July and ruler of the sign of Leo in the zodiac. 
[Rf Camfield, A Theological Discourse of Angels, 
p. 67.] Verchiel is also one of the rulers of the 
order of powers. Budge, Amulets and Talismans, 
equates Verchiel with Nakiel. According to Papus 
in Traite Tlementaire de Science Occulte, Verchiel 
(here called Zerachiel) is governor of the sun. 

Vertues —Milton’s spelling (with lowercase 
“v”) for the order of virtues in Paradise Lost. 

Veruah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Vetuel —a Monday angel resident of the 1st 
Heaven and invoked from the south. [Rf. de 
Abano, The Heptameron; Barrett, The Magus.] 

Veualiah —one of the 9 virtues, according to a 
chart of “L’Arbre de Vie en Iesirah” facing p. 88 


in Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique. Veualiah 
presides over prosperity of empires and strengthens 
the power of kings. His corresponding angel (for 
purposes of invocation) is Stochene. For Veua- 
liah’s sigil, see p. 281 of Ambelain’s work. 

Vevalel —one of the 72 angels of the zodiac. 
[Rf. Runes, The Wisdom of the Kabbalah.] 

Vevaliah —one of the 72 angels bearing the 
name of God Shemhamphorae. [Rf Barrett, The 
Magus II.] 

Vevaphel —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
the 3rd pentacle of the moon. [Rf. Mathers, The 
Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Veyothiel —an angel’s name in a North Italy 
manuscript containing, among other cabalistic 
items, the Habdalah shel Rabbi Akiba (the Alphabet 
of Rabbi Akiba). 

Vhdrziolo —one of the nomina barbara given in 
M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, where Vhdrziolo 
is spoken of as among the 4 great angels appointed 
by God to the Sword. 

Vhnori —one of 2 governing spirits of the sign 
of Sagittarius. Vhnori shares the rulership with 
Saritaiel [Rf Levi, Transcendental Magic, p. 413.] 

Vianuel (Vianiel)—an angel of the 5th Heaven 
ruling on Tuesday, and invoked from the south. 
[Rf The Magus II; Agrippa, Three Books of Occult 
Philosophy III; The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Victor— an angel so called in Hyde, A Literary 
History of Ireland. Victor appears to St. Patrick and 
asks him to return to Ireland for the purpose of 
converting the pagans to Christianity. 

Victor Angels— a group of luminaries so 
designated in Paradise Lost VI, where Milton 
speaks of them as “in Arms they stood/of Golden 
Panoplie, refulgent host.” 

Vionatraba (Vianathraba)—in occultism, an 
angel of the 4th Heaven ruling on Lord’s Day. He 
is invoked from the east. He serves also as one of 
3 spirits of the sun. [Rf. de Abano, The Heptameron; 
Barrett, The Magus II.] 



[306] VIRGIN MARY / VOIZIA 



Annunciation group in glazed terracotta by Andrea Della Robbia, showing (top) God the Father 
symbolized also by a dove; (left) the Virgin Mary, and (right) the angel of annunciation, Gabriel. 
Now in the Oratorio della Anima del Putgatorio, a chapel near the church of San Nicolo, 
Florence. Reproduced from Italian Masters. New York: Museum of Modern Art, 1940. 


Virgin Mary —to Roman Catholics, the Virgin 
Mary is queen of the angels. 

Virgin of Light —in Manichaean lore, a great 
angel of the order of virtues, dwelling in the 


moon. In Pistis Sophia, the Virgin of Light re¬ 
places Sophia as judge of souls and a distributor 
of holy seals. She has, as her aides, 7 other Virgins 
of Light. [Rf. Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of 
Christianity II, 150.] In Coptic texts the Virgin 



...Vohu Manah, receives the faithful soul at death 


of Light is the one who “chooses the bodies into 
which the souls of men shall be put at conception,” 
in discharge of which duty “she sends the soul of 
Elijah into the body of John the Baptist.” 

Virgins —an order of angels mentioned in the 
Coptic Book of the Resurrection of Christ by Bartho¬ 
lomew the Apostle, [R/James, The Apocryphal New 
Testament, p. 183.] “Virgins” is very likely another 
term for virtues. 

Virtues —a high order of angels placed usually 
2nd or 3rd in the 2nd triad of the 9 choirs in the 
Dionysian scheme. In Hebrew lore the virtues are 
equated with the malakim or the tarshishim 
(q.q.v.). The principal duty of the virtues is to work 
miracles on earth. They are said to be the chief 
bestowers of grace and valor. Among the ruling 
princes of the order are Michael, Raphael, Barbiel, 
Uzziel, Peliel, and (originally) Satan. In the planet¬ 
ary scheme of the Egyptians, and in hermetics, the 
chief of virtues was Pi-Rhe (Pi-Re, q.v.). More 
than a score of virtues are cited by name in Gustav 
Davidson’s monograph “The Celestial Virtues.” 
In the pseudepigraphic Book of Adam and Eve, 2 
virtues, accompanied by 12 other angels, prepared 
Eve for the birth of Cain. In the just-mentioned 
work, its translator, L. S. A. Wells, believes that 
these 2 virtues “are the guardian angels of which 
our Lord speaks in Matthew 18:10.” The 2 angels 
of the ascension are traditionally regarded as 
belonging to the order of virtues. Cf. Eusebius: 
“The Virtues of heaven, seeing Him rise, sur¬ 
rounded Him to form His escort.” [Rf. Danielou, 
The Angels and Their Mission, p. 35.] When 
enumerating the 9 orders, Camfield, A Theo¬ 
logical Discourse of Angels, uses mights in lieu 
of virtues. In Larousse Illustrated Encyclopedia of 
Byzantine and Medieval Art, fig. 815, the virtues are 
pictorially represented in a group. 

Virtues of the Camps —in the Testament of the 
Twelve Patriarchs, Levi is carried to the 2nd Hea¬ 
ven; there he finds the “Virtues of the Camps, 
ready for the Day of Judgment.” 

V islina —in the Bhagavad Gita, a mighty angel 
who, with Brahma and Mahish, sprang into 


[307] 

existence from one of the primary properties. 
[Rf The Dabistan, p. 178.] 

Vishnu —the first avatar (incarnation), to 
whom, according to the Bhagavad Gita, was con¬ 
fided the preservation of all that Brahma created. 
The legend is that Vishnu, by assuming the form 
of a fish, recovered the Anant-Ved (source of the 
4 Vedas) from Rakshas, a demon also known as 
Samak Azur, who had fled with it into the deep 
waters. Vishnu performed other miraculous feats. 

Vngsursh —an angel of the summer equinox, 
invoked as an effective amulet against the evil eye. 
[Rf Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, 
P-139.] 

Vocasiel (Vocatiel)—one of two governing 
spirits of the zodiacal sign of Pisces (fish), the 
other spirit being Rasamasa. 

Vocatiel [Vocasiel] 

Voel (Voil)—one of the angels of the zodiac. 
Voel represents or governs the sign of Virgo 
(the Virgin). [Rf. Waite, The Lemegeton.] 

Vohal —an angel of power invoked in conjur¬ 
ing rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of 
Moses.] 

Vohu Manah (Vohu Mano, “good thought”) 
—one of the 6 amesha spentas (archangels) in 
Zoroastrianism. Vohu Manah is the personifica¬ 
tion of good thought. In the Avesta, Vohu is the 
1st of the amesha spentas. He receives the faithful 
soul at death. [Rf Apocalypse of Salathiel (embodied 
in Duff, IVEsdras).] 

Voices, The —is gnostic mysticism, the voices 
are angelic entities inhabiting the Treasury of 
Light. It appears that there are 7 voices. [Rf. 
Bruce Codex (British Museum).] In Fludd, Utriusque 
cosmi majoris et minoris historia, the hierarchies are 
divided into 3 primary choirs called (by Fludd) 
voices, acclamations, apparitions. 

Voil [Voel] 

Voizia —an angel of the 12th hour of the day, 
serving under Beratiel. [Rf. Waite, The Lemege¬ 
ton .] 



[308] VOVAL / VVAEL 

Voval [Uvall] 

Vraniel —an angel of the 10th hour of the 
night, serving under Jusguarin. [Rf Waite, The 
Lemegeton .] 

Vretil (Pravuil, Radueriel, etc.)—the arch- 
angelic keeper of the treasury of the Sacred Books, 
said to be “more wise than the other archangels.” 
Vretil is frequently referred to, in Enoch II and 
Ezra lore, as “the scribe of the knowledge of the 
Most High.” “The idea of a heavenly scribe,” 
says Charles, The Book of Enoch (p. 28), is “derived 
in the main from the Babylonian Nebu.” Vretil is 
equated with Dabriel, Uriel, Enoch, Radueriel, 
and Pravuil, and is associated or identified with 
“the man clothed in linen.” (Ezekiel 9:2 et seq.). 


In Enoch II, 23:3ff., Vretil dictates, while Enoch 
writes, “366 books in 30 days and 30 nights.” 

Vrihaspati —guardian of hymns and prayers 
in Vedic mythology; also “instructor of the gods” 
and “first-born in the highest Heaven of supreme 
light.” Otherwise known as Vachaspati and Bri- 
haspati. [Rf. Redfield, Gods/A Dictionary of the 
Deities of All Lands.] 

Vual [Uvall] 

Vulamahi —an angel invoked in the exorcism 
of the Bat. [Rf Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon .] 

Vvael —a Monday angel resident of the 1st 
Heaven, invoked from the north. 







































“The Four Angels of the Winds,” by Diirer. 
The four angels have been identified as Raphael 
(West Wind), Uriel (South), Michael (East), 
Gabriel (North). Reproduced from R6gamey, 
Anges. 



Wall —an angel formerly of the order of 
powers, now a grand duke in Hell. When invoked 
he manifests in the form of a dromedary, and he is 
so shown in De Plancy, Dictionnaire Infernal (1863 
edition). Under Wall’s command are 36 legions 
of infernal spirits. 

Wallim —an angel serving in the 1st Heaven. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Warrior Angel, The [Michael] 

Warriors —a term for one of the celestial orders 
of angels. So used in Milton, Paradise Lost I, 315, 
and by Zanchy, Opera Omnia Theologica. [Rf 
Valiants (of the Heavens).] 

Watchers —a high order of angels called also 
the grigori. They never sleep—which is said like¬ 
wise of the irin (q.v.). Originally, according to 
The Book of Jubilees, the watchers were sent by 
God to instruct the children of men, but they fell 
after they descended to earth and started cohabit¬ 
ing with mortal women [Cf the “sons of God” in 
Genesis 6.] In Enoch I there is mention of 7 watch¬ 
ers, and here the story is that they fell because they 


failed to appear on time for certain tasks appor¬ 
tioned to them. Some versions in rabbinic and 
cabalistic lore speak of good and evil watchers, 
with the good watchers still dwelling in the 5th 
Heaven, the evil ones in the 3rd Heaven (a kind of 
Hell-in-Heaven realm). Chief among the good 
watchers are Uriel, Raphael, Raguel, Michael, 
Zerachiel, Gabriel, Remiel ; the evil ones include 
Azazel, Semyaza, Shamshiel, Kokabel, Sariel, 
Satanil. In the recently discovered A Genesis 
Apocryphoti, Lamech suspects his wife, Bat-Enosh, 
of having had relations with one of the watchers 
(called “holy ones or fallen angels”) and that Noah 
is the seed of such a union. Bat-Enosh swears 
“by the King of the worlds” that the fruit is his 
(Lamech’s). The cause of Lamech’s suspicion is the 
fact that when Noah was born, he immediately 
started conversing with “the Lord of righteous¬ 
ness” and that his likeness was “in the likeness 
of the angels of Heaven.” Lamech hastens to his 
father Methuselah for enlightenment. Methuselah 
in turn appeals to Enoch for the truth. Since the 
Apocryphon breaks off here, we shall probably 
never know what Enoch told Methuselah. In 
Daniel 4:13,17, the Hebrew prophet speaks of a 


311 



3121 WE A T T A I WORMWOOD 



The Weigher of Souls, St. Michael. A 15th- 

century fresco in St. Agnes, Rome. From Wall, 

Devils. 

watcher whom he saw in a vision coming down 
from Heaven with “a decree of the watchers.” 
[Rf. Mullers, History of Jewish Mysticism, p. 52.] 

Weatta —an angel of the Seal. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Weighing Angel [Dokiel] 

Wezynna —a ministering angel summoned in 
cabalistic rites. [Rf The Sixth and Seventh Books 
of Moses.] 

Wheels —the “many-eyed ones” or the ofanim 
(i q.v.). The wheels are grouped with the cherubim 
and the seraphim by Talmudists as a high order of 
angels (thrones being the closest approximation). 
The angel Rikbiel is chief of the order. Cornelius 
Agrippa (as does Milton) identifies or associates 
the ofanim (wheels) with the cherubim. The Zohar 
(Exodus 233b) in a footnote ranks wheels as an 
angelic order “above that of seraphim.” 

Winds —Hebrews 1:7, in a passage often cited 
and here given, would indicate that “winds” (at 


least in this usage) denote angels: “He maketh the 
winds his angels, and flaming fires his ministers.” 

Wisdom (Pistis Sophia) —in Enoch II, 33, 
wisdom is hypostatized. God orders wisdom, on 
the 6th day of Creation, “to make man of 7 
substances.” In Reider, The Book of Wisdom, 
wisdom is the “assessor on God’s throne,” the 
instrument or divine agent (i.e., angel) “by which 
all things were created.” [Cf. the Logos of Philo.] 
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia, “Angel,” 
the term “angel of the Lord” fmds a “counterpart 
in the personification of wisdom in the Sapiential 
books, and in at least one passage (Zachariah 3:1) 
it seems to stand for that son of Man whom Daniel 
(Daniel 7:13) saw brought before the Ancient of 
Days.” 

Woman Clothed with the Sun —“And there 
appeared a great wonder in heaven; a woman 
clothed with the sun, and the moon under her 
feet, and upon her head a crown of 12 stars. 
And she being with child cried, travailing in birth, 
and pained to be delivered” (Revelation 12:1-2). 
This is perhaps the only instance in angelology 
where a heavenly creature is pregnant. From the 
text, she is the celestial prototype or counterpart 
of the Virgin Mary, mother of the son of God. 
According to Heckethorn, The Secret Societies of 
All Ages and Countries (1,108), the Woman Clothed 
with the Sun stems from the Egyptian Isis. 

World-Supporting Angels [Omophorus; 
Splenditenes] 

Wormwood —in Revelation 8:11, Worm¬ 
wood is the name of a star that fell from Heaven 
at the blast of the 3rd angel. According to A 
Dictionary of the Holy Bible (American Tract 
Society, 1859), Wormwood “denotes a mighty 
prince or power of the air, the instrument of sore 
judgments on large numbers of the wicked.” In 
St. Paul’s view, Wormwood would be the equi¬ 
valent of Satan, whom Paul refers to as the “prince 
of the power of the air.” Marie Corelli, the Eng¬ 
lish romantic novelist, is the author of a novel 
called Wormwood. In another piece of fiction— 
The Screwtape Letters by C. S. Lewis—Wormwood 
(to whom the Letters are addressed) is a “junior 




... Wormwood, a mighty prince or power of the air [313] 

devil on earth” and a nephew of Screwtape (the from Hamlet the aside “Wormwood, worm- 

latter being, according to Lewis, “an important wood.” It is unlikely, however, that Shakespeare 

official in His Satanic Majesty’s ‘Lowerarchy.’ ” had our Revelation angel in mind, rather that he 

The reader’s attention is called here to Hamlet III, used the word as an expression of distaste or bitter- 

ii, where the Player Queen’s “None wed the ness, a meaning that the word has, derived from 

second [husband] but who kill’d the first” draws the Latin absinthium. 






Xaphan (Zephon) and Ithuriel confront Satan, 
transformed into his proper shape, after discover¬ 
ing him “squat like a toad at the ear of Eve.” By 
J. Martin, illustrating Paradise Lost IV. From 
Hayley, The Poetical Works of John Milton. 



Xaphan (Zephon)—one of the apostate angels, 
now a demon of the 2nd rank. When Satan and 
his angels rebelled, Xaphan joined them. Warmly 
welcomed because of his inventive mind, he sug¬ 
gested to the rebels that they set fire to Heaven; 
but, before the idea could be carried out, Xaphan 
and his colleagues were hurled to the bottom of 
the abyss, where Xaphan is (and presumably will 
be) forever engaged in fanning the embers in the 
furnaces. His emblem is a pair of bellows. For a 
likeness of Xaphan see De Plancy, Dictionnaire 
Infernal 1863 ed. 


Xathanael (Nathanael)—According to the 
Jerusalem manuscript of the Gospel of Bartholomew, 
and according to the testimony of Beliar the devil 


(which, of course, is not always to be taken at 
face value), Xathanael was the 6th angel created 
by God—a notion that does not sit well with the 
tota simul doctrine of angels professed by Roman 
Catholics and others, which holds that all angels 
were created at one and the same time. 

Xexor —in occultism, a benevolent spirit in¬ 
voked in conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and Seventh 
Books of Moses.\ 

Xomoy —a benevolent spirit, like Xexor, 
invoked in conjuring rites. 

Xonor —a benevolent spirit, like Xexor and 
Xomoy, invoked in conjuring rites. 


315 






The angel Yahoel (Metatron) leading the 
patriarch Abraham to heaven on the wings of 
eagles. From The Apocalypse of Abraham, a 
Slavonic Church Ms. published in St. Petersburg 
in 1891, reproduced from a 14th-century text. 



Yaasriel —an angel in Jewish legend who is in 
charge of the “70 holy pencils.” With these pencils 
Yaasriel constantly engraves anew on shards the 
Ineffable Name. [Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the 
Jews 111,99.] 

Yabbashael —one of the 7 angels who exercise 
dominion over the earth. Derived from Yabba- 
shah, the meaning of which is “the mainland.” 
[Rf. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews I, 10.] 
Yabbashael is cited in Schwab, Vocabulaire de 
1’Angilologie. For the names of the other 6 angels 
with dominion over the earth, see Angels of the 
Earth. 

Yadiel (Yadael)—in The Sword of Moses, an 
angel who is called on to assist an invocant in 
ceremonial rites. In Ozar Midrashim II, 316, Yadiel 
is listed among the angelic guards of the gates of 
the North Wind. 

Yael (Yale, Yehel; in Hebrew “mountain 
goat”)—a throne angel invoked in magical rites 
at the close of the Sabbath. [Rf. Trachtenberg, 
Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 102.] 

Yahadriel —according to The Zohar (Numbers 


201b), one of the “mouths” created on the eve of 
the 1st Sabbath. Yahadriel is the “mouth of the 
well.” The other 2 are “the mouth of the ass” 
(Kadriel) and “the mouth of the Lord.” 

Yahala —one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the West Wind. [Rf. Ozar Mid¬ 
rashim II, 316.] 

Yahanaq Rabba —one of the numerous 
angelic guards of the gates of the East Wind. [Rf. 
Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Yahel (Yael)—an angel whose name is in¬ 
scribed on the 4th pentacle of the moon. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon .] Yahel is also 
one of the 15 throne angels listed in The Sixth 
and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Yahoel (Yaho, Jehoel, Jaoel)—an angel equated 
with Metatron (Yahoel is, in fact, the 1st of Meta- 
tron’s many names). He taught Abraham the 
Torah and was the patriarch’s guide on earth as 
well as in Paradise. [Rf. The Testament of Abraham .] 
In The Apocalypse of Abraham, another pseudepi- 
graphic work, Yahoel says to Abraham: “I am 
called Yahoel... a power by virtue of the ineffable 


317 



[318] YAHRAMEEL / YEKAHEL 


name dwelling in me.” As Jehoel, he is the 
heavenly choirmaster, or one of them. 

Yahrameel —in occult lore, a great angel. His 
name appears in Schwab, Vocabulaire de I'Angelo- 
logie as Iofi El (“beauty of God”), which would 
equate Yahrameel with Yahoel. Robert Fludd, 
17th-century alchemist, mentions Yahrameel in 
his Cosmology of the Microcosm. 

Yahriel (Yehra, Yarheil, Zachariel—Hebrew, 
yerah, moon)—an angel with dominion over 
the moon. [Rf. Levi, The History of Magic, p. 147; 
Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, p. 
261.] 

Yahsiyah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Yakriel —angelic guard of the 7th Heaven. 
[Rf. Ozar Midrashim 1,119.] 

Yalda Bahut (Ialdabaoth, “child of chaos”)— 
in the Ophitic (gnostic) system, one of the 7 
archons; named also Ariel. As the demiourgos, he 
occupies a position immediately below the “un¬ 
known Father.” See Iadalbaoth. [Rf. Jewish 
Encyclopedia I, 595.] 

Yamenton —in the cabala, an angel invoked 
in the benediction of the Salt. [Rf. Grimorium 
Verum.] 

Yaqroun —an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf. 
Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouahir.] 

Yarashiel —one of numerous angelic guards of 
the gates of the East Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II 
316.] 

Yarhiel [Yahriel] 

Yaron —in Mathers, The Greater Key of Solo¬ 
mon, a cherub or seraph invoked in the benediction 
of the Salt. 

Yashiel —an angel whose name is found in¬ 
scribed on the 1st pentacle of the moon. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon .] 

Yazatas (yezids, “worshipful ones”)—in Zoro¬ 
astrianism, the Yazatas are celestial beings, genii 
of the elements, angels in the Persian hierarchy. 


They guard the interests of mankind under the 
aegis of the amesha spentas (archangels). Chief 
of the order is Mithra (q.v.), the personification of 
light and truth. 

Yazroun —an angel in Mandaean lore. [Rf. 
Pognon, Inscriptions Mandaites des Coupes de 
Khouahir.] 

Yebemel —one of the 72 angels in control of 
the signs of the zodiac. [Rf Runes, The Wisdom 
of the Kabbalah.] 

Yechoel —an angel of the zodiac, an associate of 
Yebemel. 

Yedideron —the 6th of the personalized angels 
of the 10 holy sefiroth. In Isaac ha-Cohen of 
Soria’s text, the less “authoritative” personalized 
angel is Raphael or Michael or Pehel or Tzephon. 

Yefe(h)fiah (Jefefiyah, Iofiel, Yofiel—“divine 
beauty”)—the angelic prince of the Torah. 
Yefefiah taught Moses the mystery of the cabala. 
In Aramaic incantation texts, Yefefiah figures as 
one of the 6 (or 7) great archangels. In Mandaean 
lore, he is known as Yfm-Yufafin. He may be 
compared or identified with Metatron. See also 
Dina, which is another name for Yefefiah, accord¬ 
ing to the Revelation of Moses. Yefefiah is a variant 
spelling. [Rf. Drower, Canonical Prayerbook of 
the Mandaeans (p. 84); Ginzberg, The Legends of 
the Jews III, 114; VI, 47.] 

Yehadriel [Akathriel] 

Yehemiel —an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebreiv Amulets.] 

Yehoel —a name for the angel Metatron. [Rf. 
3 Enoch, p. 23.] 

Yehovah Vehayah —one of the many names 
ofMetatron. 

Yehudiah (Yehudiam)—in The Zohar, one of 
the chief angelic envoys. He descends with myri¬ 
ads of attending angels for the purpose of bearing 
aloft the souls of persons about to die, or who 
have just died. He is a beneficent angel of death. 
[Cf. Yahriel; Michael.] 

Yekahel —in the cabala, one of the spirits of the 




In Yetsirah (world of formation), the tree of life, showing the nine celestial orders and the chief 
angels governing each. From Ambelain, La Kabbale Pratique. 



[320] YELIEL / YUS(H)AMIN 

planet Mercury. His name is inscribed on the 1st 
pentacle of the planet. 

Yeliel —an angelic guard of the gates of the 
South Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Yephiel —an angel’s name found inscribed on 
an oriental charm ( kamea ) for warding off evil. 
[Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Yeqon [Jeqon] 

Yerachmiel—in the cabala, one of 7 angels that 
rule the earth. These 7, says Budge in Amulets and 
Talismans, “appear to be identified with the 7 
planets of the Babylonians.” The 7 are Uriel, 
Raphael, Raguel, Michael, Suriel, Gabriel, and 
Yerachmiel. 

Yerathel [Terathel] 

Yeruel— one of 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Yeruiel —according to Isaac ha-Cohen’s text, 
Yeruiel is 3rd of the 10 holy sefiroth. 

Yeshamiel —in Jewish legendary lore, an angel 
with dominion over the sign of Libra in the zodiac. 

Yeshayah —one of the many names of the angel 
Metatron. 

Yesod (or Yesodiel—“foundation”)—ranked 
in the cabala as 9th of the 10 holy sefiroth. Moses 
invoked this name (Yesod) to bring death to the 
first-born of men and animals in Egypt at the time 
of the plagues. 

Yetsirah (“formation”)—the world of forma¬ 
tion (i.e., the world of angels formed from the 
emanations of God). In Jewish mysticism, yetsirah 
(or yetzirah) is the chief domain of the angels. 

Yetzer Hara (Yetzer Ra)—the evil inclination 
in man. In Jewish tradition, and in the view of 
some rabbis, the Yetzer Hara is the evil spirit itself, 
i.e., Satan. This is how Rabbi Simeon ben Lakish, 
3rd-century scholar, expressed it: “The Yetzer Ra, 
Satan, and the angel of death are one and the 
same.” [Rf. Universal fewish Encyclopedia I, 303.] 

Yezriel —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Ygal —one of the 70 childbed amulet angels. 

Yikon [ Jeqon] 

Yisrael (“princehood and strength”)—in The 


Zohar (Vayishlah 171a), Yisrael is a variant for 
Israel. 

YIzriel X (“princehood”)—in M. Gaster, 
The Sword of Moses, one of the 14 invocation 
angels; also an ineffable name for God. 

Ylmg —an angel (one of the nomina barbara) 
mentioned in The Book of the Angel Raziel. 

Yofiel (Iofiel, Youfiel, Jofiel, Yefefiah)—the 
angel preceptor of Shem; prince of the Torah, 
according to an aggada of an early century. [Rf. 
Scholem, fewish Gnosticism, Merkabah Mysticism, 
and Talmudic Tradition.] In The Zohar, Yofiel is a 
great angelic chief with 53 legions of lesser hier¬ 
archs serving him; the latter superintend the read¬ 
ing of the Torah in congregations at the Sabbath. 
In the cabala, Yofiel is the spirit of the planet 
Jupiter (whenjupiter enters the signs of Pisces and 
Sagittarius). He is also invoked as an amulet angel. 
“To Yofiel, the king of the mazzikin, Kafzefoni, 
must submit,” quotes Bamberger in Fallen Angels. 

Yofiel Mittron X —an angel cited in M. Gas¬ 
ter, The Sword of Moses. 

Yofim (Yofafin)—an angel in Mandaean lore. 
[Rf Brandt, Die Mandaische Religion, pp. 26, 198; 
Jewish Encyclopedia, “ Angelology.”] 

Yomael (Yomiel)—in 3 Enoch, an angelic 
prince of the 7th Heaven; also, an angel invoked in 
Syriac conjuring rites. [Rf. The Book of Protection .] 

Yomiel [Yomael] 

Yomyael [ Jomjael] 

Yonel —one of the angelic guards of the gates 
of the North Wind. [Rf. Ozar Midrashim II, 316.] 

Yourba [Yurba] 

Yrouel —angel of fear. The name Yrouel is 
found inscribed on amulets worn by women dur¬ 
ing pregnancy. [Rf Schwab, Vocabulaire de I’Au- 
gelologie.] 

Yura —in Mandaean lore, a spirit of light and of 
rain. He is called “the great mystic Yura.” [Rf. 
Drower, The Canonical Prayerbook of the Manda- 
eans, p. 304.] 

Yurba (Yourba)—in Mandaean lore, chief of 



From the “Triumph of Death,” ascribed to Francesco Traini, in the Campo Santo, Pisa. Angels 
and devils are shown withdrawing the souls of the dead or dying (left) while in the air seraphim 
and devils are bearing away the souls of the blessed and/or damned, or fighting for possession of 
one or the other. Right, a group of happy persons whom Death, with a scythe, is about to cut 
down. From de Bles, Saints in Art. New York: Art Culture Publications. 1925. 


the evil genii, or chief of the powers of darkness, 
but acting as the servant of the, powers of light. 
It is said that the great Buhram (q.v.) derived his 
power from Yurba. [Rf Drawer, The Mandaeans 
of Iraq and Iran.] 

Yurkemi —(Yorkami, Baradiel)—angel of hail. 
In Jewish legend Yurkemi offered to extinguish 
the fire consuming the 3 men in the fiery furnace, 


but Gabriel would not have it, contending that 
Yurkemi’s help would not suffice. [Rf. Sefer 
Yetzirah; Midrash Tehillim on Psalm 117; Talmud 
Pesahim 118a.] 

Yus(h)amm —in Mandaean lore, Yusamin or 
Yushamin is a spirit of fertility dwelling in the 
wellsprings of light; he is one of the 3 supreme 
uthri (angels). [See Samandiriel.] 











“Zophiel, of Cherubim the swiftest wind,/ 
Came flying, and in mid-air aloud thus cried.” 
By Singleton, illustrating Paradise Lost VI. From 
Hayley, The Poetical Works of John Milton. 



Za’afiel (Za’aphiel, “wrath of God”)—a holy 
angel with dominion over storm-winds, i.e., 
hurricanes; an angel of destruction appointed by 
God to deal with the wicked on earth. Za’afiel is 
5th of the unholy sefiroth, as listed in Isaac 
ha-Cohen’s text. He is mentioned also in 3 Enoch. 
As in other instances, Za’afiel, because of his 
missions, is regarded in some sources as a good 
angel, in others as evil. 

Zaamael (Za’amiel)—an angel with dominion 
over storms, as listed in 3 Enoch. In Isaac ha- 
Cohen’s text, “Emanations of the Left Side,” 
Zaamael is 6th of the unholy sefiroth. 

Zabaniyah —in Arabic lore, the name of sub¬ 
ordinate angels (guards) serving Malik ( q.v .). 

Zabdiel —an angel with the surname Kunya. 
According to M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses, 
Zabdiel Kunya is one of the 14 ineffable names of 
God. 

Zabesael —an angel of the seasons associated 
with Milkiel (q. v.). [Rf Grant, Gnosticism and 
Early Christianity .] 


Zabkiel —one of the angelic rulers of the order 
of thrones, an order equated with the arelim. 
[R/ Fludd, Mosaicall Philosophy.] 

Zacharael (Yahriel, “remembrance of God”) 
—in geonic lore, one of the 7 archangels; also, 
prince of the order of dominations and ruler of 
the 2nd Heaven. In the cabala [Rf. Levi, Trans¬ 
cendental Magic, p. 100] he is an angel of the order 
of powers, as is the planet Jupiter. In Paracelsus’ 
doctrine of Talismans, Zacharael replaces Pi-Zeus, 
one of the planetary genii of Egypt, and is the an¬ 
gel of Thursday. [R/ Christian, The History and 
Practice of Magic 1,317.] 

Zacharel —an angel of the 7th hour of the 
night, serving under Mendrion. [ Rf. Waite, The 

Lemegeton.] 

Zachariel [Zacharael] 

Zachiel (Zadkiel)—overall ruler of the 6th 
Heaven. [Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and 
Superstition.] 

Zachriel —an angel who rules over memory. 
[Rf. Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 


323 



[ 324 ] ZACIEL PARMAR j ZAPHIEL 


Zaciel Parmar —one of the leaders of the fallen 
angels in the Enoch listings, according to Voltaire, 
“Of Angels, Genii and Devils.” 

Zacrath —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Zada —a ministering angel used for conjuring. 
[Rf. The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Zadakiel (Zadkiel)—spirit of the planet 
Jupiter. [Rf. Lenormant, Chaldean Magic, p. 26.] 

Zaday —one of the angels of the 7 planets. [Rf. 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Zades —in occult lore ( Clavicula Salomonis), 
an angel invoked in the exorcism of Wax. [Rf. 
Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon.] 

Zadikiel —an angel invoked in Syriac conjura¬ 
tion rites. [Rf. The Book of Protection; Budge, 
Amulets and Talismans.] 

Zadkiel (Tzadkiel, Zidekiel, Zadakiel, Zede- 
kiel—“righteousness of God”)—in rabbinic writ¬ 
ings, the angel of benevolence, mercy, memory, 
and chief of the order of dominations (equated 
with hashmallim). In Maseket Azilut, with its 10 
hierarchic orders, Zadkiel (or Zedekiel) is listed as 
co-chief with Gabriel of the order of shinanim. 
He is also one of the 9 rulers of Heaven and one 
of the 7 archangels that stand in the presence of 
God. In The Zohar (Numbers 154a) Zadkiel is 
represented as one of 2 chieftains, the other being 
Zophiel, who assists Michael when the great 
archangel bears his standard in battle. In the 
magical book Hollenzwang of Dr. Faust, Zadkiel 
(called “an enthroned angel of the holy Jehovah”) 
is the regent of Mephistopheles. [Rf Christian, 
The History and Practice of Magic, II.] According 
to Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition, 
Zadkiel is another form of Sachiel. Camfield, in 
A Theological Discourse of Angels, titles Zadkiel 
ruler of the zodiacal sign of the planet Jupiter— 
although the angel of Jupiter has been identified 
as Zachariel, Abadiel, Zobiachel, Barchiel, and 
others. To Zadkiel (as also to Michael, Tadhiel, 
and others) is ascribed, by some writers, the act of 
holding back Abraham’s arm when the patriarch 


was about to sacrifice his son Isaac. [Rf. de Bles, 
How to Distinguish the Saints in Art, p. 52.] 

Zadykiel (Zadkiel)—in Lenormant, Chaldean 
Magic, Zadykiel (so spelt) is the angel of the planet 
Jupiter. 

Zafiel —in Jewish legendary lore, the angel in 
control of rain showers. [Rf. Ginzberg, The 
Legends of the Jews 1,140.] 

Zafniel —the angel who in geonic lore exercises 
rulership over one of the months of the year. 
[Rf Trachtenberg, Jewish Magic and Superstition.] 

Zafrire —morning spirits. [Rf. Jewish Encyclo¬ 
pedia, 516.] 

Zagiel —an evil archangel, mentioned in Enoch I. 

Zagin —a ministering angel, mentioned in 
The Sixth and Seventh Books of Moses. 

Zagnzaqiel [Zagzagel] 

Zagveron —an angel invoked in the benedic¬ 
tion of the Salt. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of 
Solomon.] 

Zagzagel (Zagzagael, Zagnzagiel, Zamzagiel— 
“divine splendor”)—prince of the Torah and of 
Wisdom (but see Yefefiah, lofiel, Metatron). 
Zagzagel instructed Moses in the knowledge of 
the Ineffable Name. He is the angel of the burning 
bush (but see Michael) and chief guard of the 4th 
Heaven, although he is said to reside in the 7th 
Heaven, the abode of God. A prince of the pre¬ 
sence, Zagzagel is a teacher of angels and speaks 
70 languages ( cf. Metatron). [Rf. 3 Enoch; Ginz¬ 
berg, The Legends of the Jews.] In the latter source, 
Zagzagel is described as the “angel with the 
horns of glory.” In Midrash Petirat Mosheh, 
Zagzagel joined 2 other ministering angels, 
Michael and Gabriel, in accompanying God 
when the Holy One descended from Heaven to 
take the soul of Moses (and to assist in burying 
him). [Rf. Post-Biblical Hebrew Literature, p. 42.] 

Zahabriel —in the Pirke Hechaloth, an angelic 
guard of the 1st Heaven. 

Zahaftirii — in Hechaloth Rabbati, a prince of 



the face (presence) and, with Totraviel, a seal 
holder at the 5th gate in Heaven. 

Zahariel (“brightness”)—a great angel men¬ 
tioned in the works of Jewish mystic writers, 
specifically The Apocalypse of Abraham. In Levi, 
Transcendental Magic, Zahariel is an angel invoked 
to resist the temptations or the person of the arch¬ 
fiend Moloch. 

Zahari’il —in Mandaean lore, a genius of 
generation and childbirth, a kindly spirit of light, 
also a “beneficent Lilith” (which would make 
Zahari’il female). 

Zahbuk —an evil angel supplicated in conjura¬ 
tions for the separation of a husband from his wife. 
[Rf. M. Gaster, The Sword of Moses.] 

Zahrun —a mallei (angel) in Mandaean lore 
whom Milka d Anhura, the Giver of Life, sent 
down from Heaven to help in baptismal rites. 
For the legend, see Drower, The Mandaeans of 
Iraq and Iran, p. 328. There were 2 mallei sent on 
this mission, the other being Zuheyr (q.v.). 

Zahun—angel of scandal and one of the genii 
of the 1st hour. [Rf. Levi, Transcendental Magic\ 
Apollonius of Tyana, The Nuctemeron.] 

Zahzahiel (Zagzagel)—an angel of the order 
of shinanim. [Rf. Hazaz, “The Seraph.”] 

Zainon —in occult lore, an angel invoked in 
the conjuration of the Reed. 

Zakiel —an angel invoked in Syriac charms, 
along with Michael, Gabriel, Sarphiel, and other 
spellbinding angels. Zakiel figures in the “binding 
[of] the tongue of the ruler.” [Rf. The Book of 
Protection.] 

Zakkiel —the angel governing storms; one of 
the great hierarchs present when God exalted 
Enoch in Heaven, transforming the O.T. patri¬ 
arch from a mortal into Metatron. [Rf. Ginzberg 
The Legends of the Jews 1,140.] 

Zakun —a great angel who, with Lahash, led 
184 myriad angels to snatch away Moses’ prayer 
(against dying) before it could reach God. 
(Lahash had a change of heart; brought before 


...Zagzagel, the angel of the burning bush [325] 

God, he received 60 blows of fire and was ex¬ 
pelled from the inner chamber.) What Zakun’s 
punishment was, the legend (in Midrash Petirat 
Mosheh) does not say. 

Zakzakiel.(“merit-God”) the prince appointed 
to write down the merits of Israel on the throne of 
Glory. (Cf. Talmud Hagiga 15a on Metatron.) In 
3 Enoch, when the great angel Gallisur sees 
Zakzakiel, he (Gallisur) removes the crown of 
glory from his head and falls on his face, in obeis¬ 
ance. 

Zalbesael (“heart of God”)—an angel who has 
dominion over the rainy season. Variant spellings: 
Zehlebhsheel, Zalebsel, etc. 

Zalburis —in Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte¬ 
meron, the genius of therapeutics, and one of the 
genii of the 8th hour. 

Zaliel —a Tuesday angel, resident of the 5th 
Heaven. He is invoked from the south. 

Zamael [Sammael] 

Zamarchad —an angel’s name found inscribed 
on an oriental Hebrew charm (Jeamea) for warding 
off evil. [Rf. Schrire, Hebrew Amulets.] 

Zamiyad —to the care of this angel the Persian 
Magi assign the black-eyed houri or nymphs of 
Paradise. [Rf. Sale, The Koran, “Preliminary Dis¬ 
course,” p. 72.] 

Zaniel—an angel with dominion over the sign 
of Libra in the zodiac. Zaniel is a Monday angel 
serving in the 1st Heaven and invoked from the 
west. 

Zanzagiel [Zagzagel] 

Zanziel—one of the numerous angelic guards 
of the gates of the West Wind, as listed in Ozar 
Midrashim II, 316. 

Zaphiel (Zophiel, Iofiel, etc.)—a ruler of the 
order of cherubim, and prince of the planet 
Saturn. Zaphiel is also the preceptor angel of 
Noah. Milton ( Paradise Lost VI, 535) calls Zaphiel 
(Zophiel) “of cherubim the swiftest wing.” A 
“likeness” of Zophiel appears in Hayley, The 



[326] ZAPHKIEL / ZELEBSEL 

Poetical Works of John Milton. According to Ambe- 
lain, La Kabbale Pratique, Zaphiel is also “chief of 
(the order of) thrones.” 

Zaphkiel (Zaphchial, Zaphiel, Zophiel, etc.— 
“knowledge of God”)—chief of the order of 
thrones and one of the 9 angels that rule Heaven; 
also one of the 7 archangels. Zaphkiel is a govern¬ 
or of the planet Saturn (sharing this post, it 
should be noted, with such other luminaries 
as Iophiel and Orifiel). According to Fludd, 
Zaphkiel, as Zophiel, is the ruler of the order of 
cherubim (the rabbinic ophanim). [See references 
in the works of Agrippa, Camfield, Heywood, and 
Milton.] In Klopstock, The Messiah, Zophiel is the 
“herald of Hell.” But there is still some question 
as to whether Zophiel can properly be equated 
with Zaphkiel. 

Zaqen —one of the angel Metatron’s many 
names. 

Zarall —one of the twin cherubim that occu¬ 
pied the Mercy Seat of the Ark of the Covenant; 
the other cherub was Jael. 

Zaraph (fictional)—the 3rd angel, a seraph, in 
Moore’s The Loves of the Angels. 

Zarazaz (Maskelli)—in Pistis Sophia (p. 370), 
the name of an angel “called by the demons after 
a strong demon of their own place Maskelli.” 
[Rf. Legge, Forerunners and Rivals of Christianity II, 
pp. 75, 148.] Zarazaz is the guard of the veil of 
the celestial treasure house. 

Zaren —in Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
meron, an avenging genius. 

Zarobi —in occultism, the spirit (genius) of 
precipices. In Apollonius of Tyana, The Nucte- 
tneron, he is one of the rulers of the 3rd hour. 

Zaron —in Solomonic magic, an angel invoked 
in the conjuration of the Reed. [Rf. Mathers, 
The Greater Key of Solomon, p. 115.] 

Zaroteij —an angel of the Seal. [Rf. The Sixth 
and Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Zarzakiel (Zagzagel?)—the angelic prince 
“appointed by God to write down the merits of 


Israel on the throne of glory.” Zarzakiel is com¬ 
pared or identified with Sopheriel the Lifegiver. 
[Rf. 3 Enoch ; Muller, History of Jewish Mysticism .] 

Zathael —one of the 12 angels of vengeance, the 
1st angels formed by God at Creation (see Na¬ 
thanael). The names of only 6 of these angels of 
vengeance are known: apart from Zathael, 
Satanael, Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, Raphael, Na¬ 
thanael. In some sources (Jewish legend) the angels 
of vengeance are equated with the angels of the 
presence, who were also 12 in number. 

Zatriel —an angel invoked in Syriac ritual 
magic. Zatriel is grouped with Michael, Gabriel, 
Shamshiel, and other “spellbinding angels” in 
The Book of Protection. [Rf. Budge, Amulets and 
Talismans, p. 278.] 

Zauir Aphin or Zauir Aupin —identified with 
Microprosopus, the “Lesser Countenance” (of 
God), a cabalistic concept. 

Zaurva(n) —a daeva in Zoroastrian lore. 
Zaurva is referred to as the demon of decrepitude. 
[Rf Geiger and Kuhn, Grundriss der iranischen 
Philologie III; Seligmann, History of Magic.] 

Zavael (Rashiel)—an angel who controls and 
has dominion over whirlwinds, as noted in 3 
Enoch. Another angel credited with having such 
dominion and control is Rashiel. 

Zavebe —one of the 200 angels who, under the 
leadership of Semyaza, descended to earth and co¬ 
habited with the daughters of men, an incident 
touched on in Genesis 6. While Enoch speaks of 
only 200 angels that fell, John in Revelation speaks 
of one third of the heavenly host that defected; and 
they defected, it seems, from each of the 9 orders. 
[See Fallen Angels.] There is a reference to Zavebe 
in Mark Van Doren’s poem “The Prophet 
Enoch.” 

Zawar —a throne angel, one of 15, used 
in cabalistic conjuring rites. [Rf. The Sixth and 
Seventh Books of Moses.] 

Zazahiel —angelic guard of the 3rd Heaven. 
Mentioned, with numerous others, in Ozar 
■ Midrashiml, 116. 



...Zavebe, cohabiter with the daughters of men 


Taraii (or Zazay)—in the grimoires, a “high 
holy angel of God” who can be invoked in ritual 
rites for the exorcism of evil spirits through the 
application of incense and fumigations [Rf. 
Grimorium Verum.] 

Zazay [Zazaii] 

Zazean —an angel invoked in the exorcism of 
the Bat. [Rf. Mathers, The Greater Key of Solomon, 

P-113-] 

Zazel —a great angel invoked in Solomonic 
magic, particularly effective in love conjurations. 
He is the spirit of Saturn, with the cabalistic 
number 45. [Rf Grimorium Verum; Barrett, The 
Magus II, 146.] Zazel figures, along with Asiel, in a 
talisman against sudden death, reproduced in 
Grillot, A Pictorial Anthology of Witchcraft, Magic 
and Alchemy, p. 342. 

Zazriel (“strength of God”)—in 3 Enoch, an 
angelic prince representing the “divine strength, 
might, and power.” When, in Heaven, Zazriel 
sees Geburatiel the prince, “he [Zazriel] removes 
the crown of glory from his head and falls on his 
face,” in obeisance. Note: the angels of the Merka- 
bah are all, it seems, on horseback and must dis¬ 
mount every time one of them runs into a brother 
angel of higher rank. 

Zeasar —regarded by the Naassenes (a gnostic 
sect) as “one of the great powers of the higher 
world, and related to [the rulership of] the river 
Jordan flowing upstream.” [II/] Doresse, The 
Secret Books of the Egyptian Gnostics, p. 49.] 

Zeba’marom —a term for angels used in 
Isaiah 24:21, where it denotes “hosts of the 
heights.” 

Zeba’shamaim —a term for angels used in 
Deuteronomy 17:3, where it denotes “hosts of 
Heaven.” 

Zebul (“habitation,” “temple”)—an angel who 
shares the rule of the 6th Heaven with Sabath— 
Zebul ruling by night, Sabath by day. However, 
Zebul is also a designation for the 3rd Heaven (as 
in Visions of Ezekiel) and a designation for the 4th 
Heaven (as in 3 Enoch and Talmud Hagiga 12b.) 


[327] 

Zebuleon —one of the 9 angels who will rule 
or judge “at the end of the world,” according 
to Revelation of Esdras. For the names of the 8 
other angels, see Angels at the End of the World. 

Zebuliel —in The Zohar (Exodus 201b) the 
chief angel of the west in the 1st Heaven, ruling 
only when the moon appears. He presides also 
over numerous chieftains who stand sentry over 
9 doors. It is said that Zebuliel, in addition, ac¬ 
companies prayers to the 2nd Heaven. 

Zeburial —in Pirke Hechaloth, an angelic guard 
of one of the halls of the 7th Heaven. 

Zechariel (“Jehovah remembers”)—one of the 
7 regents of the world; according to Cornelius 
Agrippa, Zechariel governs the planet Jupiter— 
which is governed, as noted elsewhere, by other 
angels as well. 

Zechriel —one of 70 childbed am